Puslapio vaizdai

readings in that city enjoyed much popularity in their time. His publications, such as the Fliegendes Album für Ernst, Scherz, Humor und lebensfrohe Laune (1846), and Konversationslexikon für Geist, Witz und Humor (2d ed. 1860), are now little read. They display chiefly a faculty for clever plays upon words.

SAPHIRE D'EAU, så'fêr' dō (Fr., watersapphire), or DICHROITE. A gem variety of iolite. When cut it shows a very fine play of colors, presenting different shades of blue, bluish white, and yellowish gray, according to the di

rections in which the mineral is viewed.

SAP'INDA'CEE (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Sapindus, from Lat. sapo, soap), THE SOAPBERRY FAMILY. A natural order of dicotyledonous trees, twining tendril-bearing shrubs, and a few herbaceous climbers, about 1000 known species, natives of warm climates, especially of South America and India, about 300 species of lianas occurring in the tropics. None are natives of Europe, and Sapindus and Serjania are the only indigenous genera in the United States. The timber of some species is valuable; Guarana bread is made from the seeds of a species of this order; the leaves of another (Cardiospermum Halicacabum) are used as a boiled vegetable in the Moluccas; and the fruits of some species, as Nephelium and Litchi, are excellent. The chief genera of the order Sapindaceæ are Serjania, Paullinia, Sapindus, Litchi, Nephelium, Cupania, Blighia, Dodonæa, and Koelreuteria.

SAPI-UTAN. The Malay name of the anoa (q.v.). For illustration, see Plate of BUFFALOES.

SAPO (Sp., large toad). A South American name for various toad-fishes (q.v.) especially one of the genus Porichthys, or 'midshipmen,' a species (Porichthys notatus) very abundant along the California coast. It lives under stones near the shore, and is locally known as the 'singing-fish,' on account of a peculiar humming noise made with its air-bladder. It is about 15 inches long, olive brown with coppery reflections, the sides marked with broad bars, and the pores of the lateral line bead-like and shining.

SAP'ODIL'LA (Sp. sapotilla, diminutive of sapota, zapote, from Aztec zapotl, sapota tree). A tree of the natural order Sapotaceæ (q.v.). The fruit has a sub-acid pulp which is highly esteemed for dessert in the West Indies, where the tree is native and whence it has been introduced into many other tropical countries.

regard to religious taboos. The men were described as having something great and venerable in their countenances, beyond what was common among savages. See also OCCANEECHI; TUTELO. SAPON'IFICATION. See ESTERS; FATS; OILS; SOAP.

SAP'ONIN (from Lat. sapo, soap), CH018 A glucoside contained in various plants, including the Saponaria officinalis, or soapwort, the Polygala senega, the fruit of the horse-chestnut, etc. by means of boiling alcohol, which, as it cools, It is readily extracted from the root of soapwort

deposits the saponin as an amorphous sediment. It derives it name from its behavior with water, with which it forms an opalescent fluid that froths when shaken, like a solution of soap, if even part of saponin be present. By the action of dilute acids saponin breaks up into sapogenin, C1HO2, and sugar.

SAPODILLA (Achras Sapota).

SAPORTA, så'pôr'tà', GASTON, Marquis de (1823-95). A French botanist and paleontologist, born at Saint Zacharie (Var). He served in the army, then devoted himself to vegetable paleon

be-tology, and in 1876 became a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences. Besides many contributions to periodicals, of which part were on the climate of geological periods, he l'homme (1878); L'évolution du règne végétal wrote: Le monde des plantes avant l'apparition de (with Marion, 1881-85); Origine paléontologique des arbres cultivés (1888); and a genealogical study, La famille de Mme. de Sévigné en Provence (1889).

SAPONI, så-põ′nê. A Virginia tribe of Siouan stock (q. v.) known in history as the confederates of the kindred Tutelo, both tribes ing now extinct. The Saponi are first mentioned in 1670 by the German traveler John Lederer (q.v.), who visited their town on what appears to have been Otter Creek, southwest of Lynchburg. Besides Lederer's early notes we have some valuable ethnologic information concerning the Saponi from William Byrd (q.v.), in charge of the Virginia boundary survey of 1728, who visited

their town and had one of their men in his service as guide and hunter. They still made fire by rubbing two dry sticks together, and new fire was always made for each ceremonial occasion. They made spoons from buffalo horn, and their women wove baskets and dress fabrics from the fibre of 'silk grass' (yucca). They had horses, but were awkward riders. They had strict

SAP'OTA/CEE (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Sapota, from Sp. sapota, zapote, sapota tree), THE SAPODILLA FAMILY. A natural order of dicotyledonous trees and shrubs, often abounding in milky juice, which in many species yields gutta-percha. There are nearly 400 known species, chiefly natives of the tropics, and the

remainder of subtropical countries. The fruits of some are pleasant, as the sapodilla and other species of the genus Achras, the star apple (q.v.) and other species of Chrysophyllum, various species of Mimusops, Lucuma, etc. The genus Bassia contains species valuable for the oils which they yield. The seeds of Mimusops Elengi also yield oil abundantly. The following genera embrace species which yield gutta-percha, some of them at one time being almost the only sources of that product: Payena, Palaquium, Bassia, Isonandra or Dichopsis, and Mimusops.

SAPPHIRE (OF., Fr. saphir, from Lat. sap phirus, from Gk. σáτpeipos, sappheiros, sapphire, or perhaps lapis lazuli, from Heb. sappir, sap phire). A blue variety of corundum (q.v.), highly prized as a gem. It is similar in composition to the ruby, but it is somewhat harder and of slightly higher specific gravity. It crystallizes in the hexagonal system, usually in the form of double pyramids. The sapphire has a beautiful blue color, although spotted varieties are not rare, the yellow, white, and blue spots being sometimes sharply separated or again grading into each other. Heating the stone drives the blue color away permanently. The value of the gem increases with the depth of the color up to the limit of translucency, the most prized specimens having a corn-flower blue tint. Asteria is the name applied to an imperfectly transparent variety which, when cut in the form of a dome, shows six star-like rays. Sapphires of good color and size are more common than rubies and much cheaper. A specimen of good color, weighing two or three carats, has about the same value as a diamond of equal size. Some very large sapphires have been found; one of 951 carats was recorded in 1827 as being in the possession of the King of Ava. Other large stones are in the museum of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. Sapphires occur in very much the same regions as the ruby, and indeed the two are often found together. The best sapphires come from Siam, where they are mined in the loose surface deposits which yield the ruby. They are also found in Burma, Ceylon, and Kashmir, and at many localities in Australia. The Australian sapphires are not regarded with much favor, owing to their dark color. In the United States the most valuable stones are obtained in North Carolina and Montana. In the former State they are found in gravel deposits, from which they are separated by a washing process. The Montana deposits, the most important discovered in recent years, occur as bars on the upper Missouri River, and also in an igneous dike, which can be traced for several miles. The stones are obtained chiefly from the decomposed portion of the dike and are separated from the matrix by washing. They range in weight from less than one carat up to four or five carats. The production of sapphires in the United States in 1901 was valued at $90,000, almost the entire output coming from Montana.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bauer, Edelsteinkunde (Leipzig, 1896); Kunz, Gems and Precious Stones (New York); Pratt, "The Occurrence and Distribution of Corundum in the United States," United States Geological Survey Bulletin No. 180 (Washington, 1901).

SAPPHO (Lat., from Gk. Zanow). A Lesbian poetess of good family, a contemporary of

Alcæus (c.600 B.C.) and with him the chief creator of the Eolian personal lyric. Sappho is for us chiefly a name-a theme for the fervent rhetoric evoked by impassioned contemplation of the few exquisite fragments of her poems that time has spared, a type of the highest achievement of woman in literature, a symbol and synonym of the intoxication of absolute lyric, 'all fire and dew.' She was born possibly at Eresos, more probably at Mitylene, where she lived until she was exiled by an uprising of the democratic party against the oligarchs. From taught her art in a coterie, club, or school her poems we infer that she practiced and of maidens, to whom she was devotedly attached, whom she addressed in the language of passionate adoration, and whose bridal odes she composed when they left her to marry. Familiar to all. poets and lovers is the legend of her unrequited love for Phaon and of her casting herself down from the promontory of Lover's Leap to that "Leucadian grave which hides too deep the supreme head of song" (Swinburne). Alcæus is said to have been her lover and to have addressed her in the words, "Violet-tressed, sweetly smiling, pure Sappho, fain would I speak, but shame forbids." To this she replied, "If thy desire was of aught fair and good, shame had not beset thine eyes, but thou hadst spoken thereof frank and


The ancients read her poems in nine books. The extant fragments include (1) the ode to Aphrodite, twenty-seven lines in Sapphic strophes quoted by the critic Dionysius of Halicarnassus as an example of the 'smooth style;' (2) the "Blest as the immortal gods is he," to name it by Ambrose Philips's hopelessly inadequate translation, four Sapphic strophes cited by Longinus as a specimen of the sublime; and (3) in a great variety of lyric metres. They may be some hundred or more single lines and stanzas found in Bergk's Poeta Lyrici, in the Teubner Anthologia Lyrica, and, with English translations added, in Wharton's Sappho. Some additional fragments have recently been recovered from Egyptian papyri. The chief motives of Sappho's poems are love and the beauty of nature. They contain no profound thoughts and few striking images, and the exquisite beauty of their diction and the liquid lapse of the rhythm can no more be rendered into English than Keats's odes could be translated into French or German. Swinburne, in "On the Cliffs," thus strives to reproduce the impression of one wistful waif of verse:

"I loved thee,-hark, one tenderer note than all-
Atthis, of old time, once-one low, long fall,
Sighing-one long, low, lovely, loveless call,
Dying-one pause in song so flamelike fast-
Atthis, long since in old time overpast-
One soft first pause and last.

One, then the old rage of rapture's fileriest rain
Storms all the music-maddened night again."

SAPPHO'S LEAP. The high cliff anciently called Leucadia or Leucas, now Cape Ducato, on Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands. From it Sappho the poetess is said to have thrown herself into the sea on account of her hopeless love for Phaon.

SAPPORO, sppo-rô. The capital of the island of Yezo, Japan, situated on the Ishigari River, a short distance from the western coast (Map: Japan, G 2). It has an agricultural college, a museum with specimens of the work of

aborigines, and a botanical garden. The manufacturing establishments include saw, flour, and sugar mills and a flax factory. Sapporo owes its importance to its connection with the colonization of Yezo, since 1870. Population, in 1898, 37,482.

SAP'ROPHYTE (from Gk. σampós, sapros, rotten+purov, phyton, plant). A plant which contains no chlorophyll and which derives its nourishment from dead organic matter. Saprophytes are among the active agents which rid the earth of the remains of animals and plants, which would otherwise accumulate. Among flowering plants there are some symbiotic saprophytes such as Indian pipe (Monotropa), and certain orchids (as Corallorhiza). These grow in rich humus, the underground portions generally associated with a fungous mycelium. (See MYCORHIZA.) Among the ferns and their allies the saprophytic habit has also been developed to some extent; but saprophytism is best illustrated among the fungi, where entire groups exhibit this mode of life. See SYMBIOSIS.

SAPSUCKER. Any of various American woodpeckers alleged to suck the sap of trees; properly the yellow-bellied woodpecker' (Sphyrapicus varius), which breeds in Canada and migrates through the United States in spring and autumn. It is of medium size, black above, with white markings and a white rump; forehead, crown, chin, and throat crimson in the male, less so in the female; breast with a broad black patch; belly pale sulphur-yellow. These colors are highly variable. It has the habit of pecking squarish holes in great number in the spring, in the bark of sweet-sapped trees, eating to some extent the new wood beneath, and the sap, and catching the insects attracted by the sweet exudation. Its breeding habits are similar to those of woodpeckers generally. Several other species of the genus are known in the West, that common on the Pacific coast (Spyrapicus ruber) having the whole head, neck, and chest of the adults of both sexes red. See WOODPECKER; and consult authorities there cited.

SAPTARSHI, såp-tär'shê (Skt., the seven sages, seven bright stars of Ursa Major). A system of reckoning time in India, especially in Kashmir, although formerly current also in Multan and elsewhere. It is based on the theory that the seven Rishis (the seven bright stars of Ursa Major) move through the zodiac in 2700 years, at the rate of one nakshatra, or twentyseventh of the ecliptic, each century. In ordinary reckoning the hundreds are omitted. In calculation 47 must be added to the Saptarshi year to find the corresponding Saka (q.v.) year, and 2425 to determine the Christian equivalent. Consult Sewell and Dikshit, The Indian Calendar (London, 1896).


SAPUCAIA NUT (Brazilian name). seed of Lecythis Ollaria, a lofty Brazilian tree, of the natural order Lecythidaces. The urnshaped fruit as large as a child's head, which opens by a deciduous lid, contains several oval, somewhat pointed, slightly bent seeds or nuts, as in the case of the allied Brazil nut (q.v.), which is inferior in flavor but is far more extensively exported.

SAQQARA, såk-kä'rå, or SAKKARA. An Egyptian village on the left bank of the Nile, in latitude 29° 52′ N., situated on the edge of the

Libyan desert, about three miles from the river. It stands in the midst of the ancient necropolis of Memphis (q.v.), and around it are some of the most interesting monuments in Egypt. Saqqara means, in Arabic, 'hawk's nest,' but the word is probably a corruption of the old Egyptian name containing the name of Sokar, the Memphitic god of the dead. In the immediate vicinity of the village, and to the west of it, are the pyramids of Pepi I. and his son Mer-en-Rê, of the Sixth Dynasty; that of Pepi II., another son of Pepi I., lies a little farther south. To the north are the pyramids of Teti, the founder of the Sixth Dynasty, and of Unas, the last King of the Fifth Dynasty. All these pyramids were opened in 1881, and the walls of their sepulchral chambers were found to be covered with long inscriptions of a religious character. Between the pyramids of Unas and Teti lies the great step-pyramid of Saqqara, which has been attributed to King Zoser, and, if this be true, it is undoubtedly the oldest pyramid in existence. It consists of six stages, is about 190 feet in height, and contains numerous corridors and chambers. Near it are the subterranean tombs of the Apis bulls and the remains of the Serapeum (q.v.). In this vicinity are the tombs of a number of nobles of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties. They are of great

architectural interest and their inner walls are covered with reliefs and paintings giving vivid illustrations of Egyptian life and customs under the Old Empire. Consult: Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin, 1849-58); Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (London, 1878). SARA, sä'rå. A town of Panay, Philippine Islands, in the Province of Iloilo, situated 2 miles northwest of Concepción (Map: Philippine Islands, H 8). Population, estimated, in 1899, 10,950.

SARABANDE (Fr. sarabande, from Sp. zarabanda, probably from Pers. sarband, fillet, from sar, headband, bond). Originally, a slow dance said to be of Saracenic origin; and hence a short piece of music, of deliberate character, and with a peculiar rhythm, in three-quarter time, the accent being placed on the second crotchet of each measure. The sarabande forms an essential part of the suites written by Handel, Sebastian Bach, and others of the old masters, for the harpischord or clavichord. All extra movements were inserted after the sarabande. The dance became popular in Europe in the sixteenth century, but it was bitterly attacked by Cervantes and other Spanish writers for its indecency, and Philip II. suppressed it for a time. A modified form of it, however, was introduced in France, and in England it became a popular country dance.

SARACENS (OF. sarracen, sarracin, sarrazen, Fr. sarrasin, from Lat. Saraceni, from Gk. Zapakηvós, Sarakēnos, Saracen, from Ar. šarqin, pl. of sarqiy, from šarq, rising sun, from šaraqa, to rise). A name variously employed by mediaval writers to designate the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine, the Arabs generally, or the Arab-Berber races of Northern Africa, who conquered Spain and Sicily and invaded France. At a later date it was employed as a synonym for infidel nations against whom crusades were preached, and was thus applied to the Seljuks of Iconium, the Turks, and others. The name appeared as early as the first century of the

Christian Era, when it was applied by Greek writers to some Arab tribes of the Syrian Desert, of Northwestern Arabia, and of the Desert of Tih. In the hundred years following the Hejira (A.D. 622) a Saracen empire was established which extended from Turkestan to the shores of the Atlantic. Mohammed made himself master of Mecca in 629, and the first caliphs, Abu-Bekr and Omar, between 632 and 641, conquered Syria, Palestine, Persia, and Egypt. By 709 the Saracens had extended their sway over Northern Africa to beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. They then crossed over to Spain (711), nearly the whole of which they subjugated. From Spain they poured into Gaul, where their progress was arrested by Charles Martel, near Poitiers, in 732. Sicily was conquered by them between 827 and 878, and early in the tenth century they extended their incursions far into the Burgundian territories. The disruption of the great Saracen realm began about the middle of the eighth century, when the western portion tore itself away from the rest, becoming a separate State, with Cordova as its capital. For a general sketch of the history of the Saracens, consult: Freeman, The Saracens (London, 1876); Ockley, The Saracens (London, 1847). See ARABIA; CALIPH; OMMIADS; ABBASSIDES; CRUSADE.

SARAGOSSA, sä'rå-gôs'så (Sp. Zaragoza). The capital of the Province of Saragossa, Spain, and formerly of the Kingdom of Aragon, situated on the right bank of the Ebro, 115 miles in a straight line from its mouth, and 165 miles northeast of Madrid (Map: Spain, E 2). It stands in the midst of a desert plain, but is immediately surrounded by a well-irrigated and fertile huerta. Two bridges cross the Ebro to the northern suburb, one a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, the other a railroad bridge. The central nucleus of the town still retains its old aspect, with narrow, winding lanes, lined with old houses of solid construction and often richly decorated, many of them being the former palaces of nobles, but now generally in a dilapidated condition. The surrounding portions of the town are modern and regularly built, with broad streets and shaded boulevards. The most prominent buildings of the city are its two cathedrals, the old Gothic Cathedral of La Seo, built between 1119 and 1520, and that of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, begun in 1681. The latter contains the sacred pillar on which the Holy Virgin is believed to have appeared to Saint James. Other notable buildings are the Church of San Pablo, in the Transition style of the thirteenth century; the Gothic Church of Engracia, partly destroyed during the siege of 1808; the Castillo de la Aljafería, built by the Moors and later used as the royal residence of Aragon; the Audiencia, formerly the palace of the counts Luna; and the Lonja, or Exchange, a handsome and richly decorated Renaissance building. Saragossa has a university founded in 1474, with 800 students, a veterinary school, a superior normal school, schools of music and fine arts, as well as of commerce and trade, and a botanical garden. The city is an important railroad centre, and its commerce and manufactures are thriving. It has iron foundries, machine shops, flour and paper mills, breweries, and manufactures of chocolate, preserves, glass, chemicals, soap, and candles. Population, in 1887, 92,407; in 1900, 98,125.

VOL. XVII.—37.

Saragossa is on the site of the ancient Iberian Salduba. Its strategic importance was recognized by the Romans, who made it a military colony under the name of Cæsarea Augusta, from which its Spanish name is a corruption. It was in the possession of the Moors from 712 to 1118, when it was taken by Alfonso I. after a long siege. Saragossa is especially famous for the heroism with which the citizens, led by Palafox (q.v.), defended it against a large French army in 1808-09. The French finally captured the city after a hardfought contest in which they suffered great losses. SARAGOSSA, MAID OF. See AGUSTINA. SARAJEVO, säʼrå-yå-vô. See SERAJEVO. SAR'ANAC LAKE. A village in Franklin County, N. Y., 130 miles northeast of Utica, in one of the most picturesque portions of the Adirondack Mountains; near the head of the Lower Saranac Lake, and on the New York Central and the Delaware and Hudson railroads (Map: New York, F 1). It is a noted pleasure and health resort and the business centre of the Adirondack region. Near by are the Adirondack Cottage Sanatorium for Consumptives and the State Hospital for Incipient Tuberculosis. Population, in 1890, 768; in 1900, 2594.

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SARANSK, så-ränsk'. The capital of a district in the Government of Penza, Russia, on the Saranka, 87 miles north of the city of Penza (Map: Russia, G 4). It is of some commercial importance on account of its fair. Population, in 1897, 13,743.

SARAPUL, sä'rå-pool'. A town in the Government of Vyatka, Russia, situated on the Kama, about 225 miles southeast of Vyatka (Map: Russia, H 3). It has extensive tanneries and boot factories and a considerable trade in grain. Population, in 1897, 21,395.

SARA SAMPSON, MISS. A play by Lessing produced in 1755. Its sentimentality made it very popular in its day, but it is interesting now only as the first introduction of middle-class life in German tragedy.

SARASATE, sä'rå-sä'tâ, PABLO DE (1844-). A Spanish violinist, born in Pamplona. He studied the violin at the Paris Conservatory under Alard, and harmony under Reber, winning prizes in 1857 and 1859. In 1889 he visited America with Eugène d'Albert, and played in New York and other cities, with great success. His playing is characterized by a wonderful technique and a delicate and refined tone. Max Bruch wrote for him his Scotch fantasy and second concerto, and Lalo his concertos and symphonie espagnole. Sarasate's compositions are for his own instrument, and are light and Spanish in character.

SARASIN, sä'rå'zăn', PAUL (1856-). A Swiss naturalist and traveler, born in Basel, and educated there and in Würzburg. Together with his cousin, Fritz Sarasin, he explored Ceylon (1883-86) and they published on their return Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher Forschungen auf Ceylon (1887-93), containing valuable zoölogical and ethnological data. After a second trip to Ceylon in 1890, they turned their attention to the island of Celebes, which they explored in 1893-96, and which they described in Materialien zur Naturgeschichte der Insel Celebes (1898).

SARASVATI, så-räsh'vå-të. A Hindu god- and Baron Riedesel's Memoirs and Letters and dess. See VAC. Journals (trans. by Stone, Albany, 1868).

SAR'ATO'GA, BATTLES OF. Two important battles of the American Revolution, fought on September 19 and October 7, 1777. Early in May, 1777, Burgoyne, with an English army of about 10,000, started from Canada toward Albany. His army was weakened by Baum's defeat at Bennington (q.v.), and by the frequent guerrilla attacks of the American militia. Crossing the Hudson on September 13th, he approached Bemis Heights, where the American army, under General Gates (q.v.), had taken up a strong position. On the 19th he advanced with 4000 men to attack the American left, but was met by General Benedict Arnold with a force of 3000 at Freeman's Farm. Here a battle raged for two hours, until darkness intervened, neither side gaining a decisive advantage and each side losing from 600 to 1000 of its number. This has been variously called the battle of Freeman's Farm, the first battle of Bemis Heights, the first battle of Stillwater, and the first battle of Saratoga. Burgoyne, finding that his supplies were cut off, and despairing of any immediate aid from New York, resolved, as a last resort, to hazard another attack. Accordingly on October 7th he advanced, with 1500 picked men, to turn the American left. Immediately his right was at tacked by General Poore and his left by General Morgan; while Arnold, though then without technical authority, dashed to the front and took general command of the American forces. For some time the result remained in doubt, but the English gradually gave way after the gallant commander of their right, General Frazer, had been mortally wounded; and by a final attack, in which Arnold was severely wounded, they finally were forced behind their intrenchments. This engagement has also been called by some the battle of Bemis Heights, or of Stillwater. During the night the English retreated and took up a strong position about 12 miles from Saratoga (q.v.), on the site of the present Schuylerville. Meanwhile American recruits were swarming in from all sides, and soon Burgoyne was entirely surrounded, his supplies cut off, and his forces strictly confined, by a continual bombardment, within narrow lines. Not daring to risk another battle and fearing an immediate attack from vastly superior numbers, he opened negotiations with Gates, who at first demanded an

unconditional surrender, but subsequently, on the 16th, agreed to what was called the 'Convention of Saratoga.' The English were to march out with the honors of war, and were to be allowed to embark at Boston for England on condition that they would not serve again in America during the war. Accordingly on the 17th Burgoyne formally surrendered his army of between 5000 and 6000 men to Gates. Congress subsequently refused to ratify the 'convention,' and the British troops, excepting a few officers, were detained as prisoners first in the vicinity of Boston and later at Charlottesville, Va., and elsewhere, until the close of the war. The victory aroused the greatest enthusiasm throughout the country, and was the determining event that led France to form an alliance with the United States. Consult: Carrington, The Battles of the American Revolution (New York, 1876); Stone, The Campaign of Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne (Albany, 1877); Walworth, Battles of Saratoga (Albany, 1891);

SARATOGA SPRINGS. A village in Saratoga County, N. Y., 39 miles north of Albany, on the Delaware and Hudson, the Adirondack, and the Fitchburg railroads (Map: New York, G 2). It is one of the leading summer resorts in the United States, with mineral springs having a wide reputation for their medicinal properties. Races are held here during August, and the floral fête in September also contributes largely to the popularity of the resort. Saratoga Lake, 4 miles distant, is much frequented for sailing and fishing. Saratoga Springs is noted for its large, well-equipped hotels. In the Convention Hall, which has a seating capacity of 6000, a number of political and other conventions have been held. The village has an Athenæum, the library of the Fourth Judicial District, and a public library; an art gallery, Saint Faith School, Saint Christina Home for Orphans, and a hospital. One of the State armories is located in Saratoga Springs. The most important industries are the bottling of mineral waters, the preparation of carbonic acid gas for market, and the manufacture of druggists' and doctors' supplies and foundry products. The government, under the revised charter of 1895, is vested in a president and board of trustees who hold office for two years. Population, in 1890, 11,975; in 1900, 12,409.

The Indians early gave to this locality the name Sarachtague. In 1693 Major Peter Schuy ler defeated a large force of French and Indians about three miles from the present village. In 1767 Sir William Johnson, when very ill, was brought to the site of the present Ballston Spa by his Indian friends, and quickly recovered. About 1773 a log cabin was built near here, and in 1777 General Philip Schuyler erected the first frame house in the vicinity. The village really dates from about 1792, and was incorporated in 1826. (See SARATOGA, BATTLES OF.) Consult: Stone, Reminiscences of Saratoga (New York, 1875); Brandow, The Story of Saratoga and History of Schuylerville (Albany, 1900); and a sketch in Powell's Historic Towns of the Middle States (New York, 1899).

SARATOV, sä'rå-tôf'. A government of Russia, bounded by the governments of Simbirsk and Penza on the north, the Volga on the east, Astrakhan on the south, the Province of the Don

Cossacks on the southwest, and Tambov on the west (Map: Russia, F 4). Area, 32,624 square miles. The surface is elevated and well wooded have the character of a steppe. The region along in the north, while the central and southern parts the Volga is hilly. Besides the Volga the principal rivers of the government are the Medvieditza, the Khoper, and the Ilovlya—all tributaries of the Don. Saratov belongs to the black soil belt. Agriculture is carried on extensively, and large quantities of grain are exported by the Volga. The principal cereals are rye, wheat, and oats. Tobacco is cultivated on a large scale and gardening for export forms an important occupation in the region along the Volga. The annual value of the manufactures, principally flour, is over $12,000,000. The export trade in grain is heavy. Population, in 1897, 2,419,884, mostly Great Russians.

SARATOV. The capital of the government of the same name in Russia, situated on the right

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