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glare, care. am, at.

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66 arm, father.

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ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. In rapid speech this vowel readily becomes more or less obscured and like the neutral vowel or a short u (ŭ).

D

as in the Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where it is nearly like th in English then, this.

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g

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G

H final, regal, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.

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all, fall.

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eve.

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elate, evade.

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end, pet. The characters ě, ā, and ȧ are used for ä in German, as in Gärtner, Gräfe, Hähnel, to the values of which they are the nearest English vowel sounds. The sound of Swedish ä is also indicated by ě.

oe,

fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for ö, in German, as in Göthe, Goethe, Ortel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in French, as in Neufchâtel, Crèvecœur ; to which it is the nearest English vowel sound.

agency, judgment, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.

ice, quiet.

quiescent.

ill, fit.

old, sober.

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66 orb, nor.

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atom, carol, where it has a neutral or obscure quality.

oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in

Feuerbach.

food, fool, and as u in rude, rule.

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house, mouse.

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use, mule.

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unite.

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cut, but.

full, put, or as oo in foot, book. Also for in German, as in München, Müller, and u in French, as in Buchez, Budé; to which it is the nearest English vowel sound.

urn, burn.

yet, yield.

"" the Spanish Habana, Cordoba, where it is like a v made with the lips alone, instead of with the teeth and lips. chair, cheese.

ch"

hw

K

n

ng

go, get. "the German Landtag, and ch in Feuerbach, buch; where it is a guttural sound made with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate, as in the sound made in clearing the throat.

as j in the Spanish Jijona, g in the Spanish gila; where it is a fricative somewhat resembling the sound of h in English hue or y in yet, but stronger.

66 wh in which. "ch in the German ich, Albrecht, and g in the German Arensberg, Mecklenburg; where it is a fricative sound made between the tongue and the hard palate toward which the tongue is raised. It resembles the sound of h in hue, or y in yet; or the sound made by beginning to pronounce a k, but not completing the stoppage of the breath. The character K is also used to indicate the rough aspirates or fricatives of some of the Oriental languages, as of kh in the word Khan. as in sinker, longer. sing, long.

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sh

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then, this.

zh as z in azure, and s in pleasure.

An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used to denote a glide or neutral connecting vowel, as in tā'b'l (table), kăzʼm (chasm).

Otherwise than as noted above, the letters used in the respellings for pronunciation are to receive their ordinary English sounds.

When the pronunciation is sufficiently shown by indicating the accented syllables, this is done without respelling: as in the case of very common English words, and words which are so spelled as to insure their correct pronunciation if they are correctly accented. See the article on PRONUN

CIATION.

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THE NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA

R

EIFFERSCHEID, ri'fĕr-shit, AuGUST (1835-87). A German archæologist and classical philologist, born and educated in Bonn. He received a traveling fellowship in archæology from the University of Bonn; spent 1861-66 mostly in Italy, being part of the time charged by the Vienna Academy to make archival research for the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum; and was professor at Breslau (1868-85), and from 1885 at Strassburg. His works include Suetoni præter Cæsarum Libros Reliquiæ (1860), the standard edition of these fragments; Bibliotheca Patrum Latinorum Italica (1865-72); Arnobius (1875); an edition of Anna Comnena's Alexias (1878); and a partial edition of Tertullian (edited by Wissowa, 1890).

REIGATE, ri'get. A municipal borough and market town in Surrey, England, at the base of the North Downs, 23 miles south of London (Map: England, F 5). The town was incorporated in 1863; it owns a sewage farm, provides isolation for infectious diseases, and contributes to technical instruction. From early times it was considered a place of strength; and after the Conquest it was granted to the earls of Warrenne. The parish church is in various styles of architecture, the oldest portions dating from the twelfth century. Trade is chiefly agricultural. Nearby are quarries of freestone and hearthstone and supplies of fuller's earth, and of silver sand for manufacturing glass. Population, in 1891, 22,646; in 1901, 25,993.

REIG HARD, JACOB ELLSWORTH (1861—). An American zoologist, born at Laporte, Ind. He graduated at the University of Michigan in 1882, studied at Harvard and Freiburg, and after six years as instructor and assistant in zoology became in 1892 professor in the University of Michigan. He was in charge of the Michigan Fish Commission in 1890-94, and in 1898 was appointed director of the biological survey of the Great Lakes under the United States Fish Commission. He contributed to many technical journals, and in 1901 published in collaboration with Jennings The Anatomy of the Cat.

REIGN OF TERROR. That period of the French Revolution beginning with the fall of the Girondists (q.v.) in June, 1793, and terminating with the overthrow of Robespierre (q.v.), July 27, 1794. See FRENCH REVOLUTION.

REIMARUS, ri-mä'rus, HERMANN SAMUEL (1694-1768). A German naturalistic philosopher. He was born in Hamburg, December 22, 1694, studied at the universities of Jena and Wittenberg, traveled afterwards in Holland and England, and on his return was elected rector at Wismar (1723) and in 1728 professor of Hebrew and mathematics at the Gymnasium of Hamburg. He died there March 1, 1768. He is the author of the so-called Wolfenbüttelsche Fragmente eines Unbekannten, first published by Lessing in his Beiträge zur Geschichte und Litteratur aus den Schätzen der Wolfenbüttelschen Bibliothek (1774, 1777-78). These Fragmente, up to that time known only in manuscript by a few of Reimarus's most intimate friends, produced a sensation throughout Germany, since the author, in the boldest and most trenchant manner, denied the supernatural origin of Christianity. They were partially translated, as Fragments from Reimarus (London, 1879). A cognate work is his Vornehmste Wahrheiten der natürlichen Religion (1754). His edition of Dio Cassius is one of the most valuable contributions to classical philology (1750). Consult his biography by Strauss (Bonn, 1862; 2d ed. 1877).

REIMS, rēms, Fr. pron. răns. A city of France. See RHEIMS.

REIN, rin, JOHANNES JUSTUS (1835-). A German geographer, born at Raunheim-on-theMain, and educated in mathematics and science at the University of Giessen. He made various scientific journeys in Europe, Asia, and America, and was appointed professor of geography at the University of Marburg in 1876, and subsequently at Bonn. His publications include Japan, nach Reisen und Studien (1881-86), which was translated into English, under the title, Japan, Travels and Researches (1884), as was also his book on Japanese industries (1889); and Columbus und seine vier Reisen nach Westen (1892).

REIN, WILHELM (1847-). A German educator and author, born at Eisenach. He studied at Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Jena, for several years was teacher at Weimar, and from 1876 to 1886 was principal of a school in Eisenach. In 1886 he was appointed professor of pedagogy at the University of Jena. Rein's system of education resembles Herbart's. He ranks among the foremost of educational theorists, and has exerted great influence on the educational institutions of his country. His principal works are Theorie und Praxis des Volksschulunterrichts (1879-93) and Pädagogik im Grundriss (1892). He edited Niemeyer's Grundsätze der Erziehung (1878-79), and founded the educational journal Pädagogische Studien in 1880.

In

REINACH, ri'näK, JOSEPH (1856-). A French publicist, born in Paris. He studied at the Lycée Condorcet and in the faculty of law of the University of Paris, was admitted to the bar in 1877, wrote for the Dix-neuvième Siècle and Gambetta's République Française, and in 1881-82 was private secretary to Gambetta, then president of the Cabinet council. Having reëntered journalism, in 1886 he became proprietor with Deynarouse of the République Française, in which he supported the Union-Republican group. 1889 he was elected as Liberal-Republican Deputy for Digne (Basses-Alpes), in 1893 was reelected, but in 1898 failed of reëlection because of opposition to his attitude in the Dreyfus case. In the Chamber of Deputies he was a member of the committees on the budget and on the army, and took a prominent part in the legislative debates. He became departmental councilor of Basses-Alpes for the Canton of Moustiers in 1896. He appeared prominently in connection with the Dreyfus case, denounced the introduction of secret documents into the trial of 1894, the forgeries of Paty du Clam and Henry, and the complicity of the latter with Esterházy, and was associated with Scheurer-Kestner in the movement for revision. He published on the case several pamphlets, including La voix de l'île (1898), Les enseignements de l'histoire (1898), A l'île du diable (1898), Vers la justice par la vérité (1898), Le crépuscule des traîtres (1899), and Les faits nouveaux (1899), and the volumes Les blés d'hiver (1901), Histoire de l'affaire Dreyfus. Le procès de 1894 (1901), and Histoire de l'affaire Dreyfus. Esterházy (1903). The brochure Les enseignements de l'histoire originally appeared in the Siècle, and caused Reinach to be expelled from his captaincy in the territorial army for "a gross offense against discipline" and to be deprived of the decoration of the Legion of Honor. Among his further publications are: La Servie et le Monténégro (1876); Voyage en Orient (1879); Le ministère Gambetta (1884); Etudes de littérature et d'histoire (1888-89); and Les petites Catilinaires (1888-89), collected articles against Boulanger. He also edited the Discours et plaidoyers politiques de Gambetta (11 vols., 1881-85), and Dépêches, circulaires, décrets, proclamations et discours de Gambetta (1886).

REINACH, SALOMON (1858-). A French archæologist, brother of the preceding, born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Seine-et-Oise). He studied at the Lycée Fontanes and the Ecole Normale Supérieure, was appointed to the French Classical School of Athens (Ecole Française d'Athènes), and made interesting excavation and discoveries

at Myrina, near Smyrna, and elsewhere (188082). In 1886 he became attaché in the Museum of National Antiquities at St. Germain-en-Laye, in 1890-92 held the chair of assistant professor of national archæology at the Ecole du Louvre, and in 1893 was appointed associate curator of the National Museums. He was elected to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1896. He reviewed works on archæology for the Revue Critique, edited a careful text (1877) of Saint Augustine's De Civitate Dei, and published among his original volumes a Chronique d'Orient (1885-91), cataloguing all discoveries made in Greece to that date; La nécropole de Myrina (with Pottier, 1887); Description raisonnée du musée de Saint-Germain (1890); Les Celtes dans les vallées du Pô et du Danube (1894); Répertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine (189798); and Guide illustré du musée national de Saint-Germain (1899).

REINAUD, râ'no', JOSEPH TOUSSAINT (17951867). A French Orientalist, born at Lambesc (Bouches-du-Rhône). He was a pupil of Sylvestre de Sacy, became connected with the Royal Library, and was appointed conservator of that institution in 1834. He was also president and (1838 et seq.) De Sacy's successor as professor of Arabic at the Ecole des Langues Orientales Vivantes (1838-67). He published: Monuments arabes, persans, et turcs du cabinet de M. le duc de Blacas et d'autres cabinets (1828), a work of great value, especially in the province of epigraphy; a version of Raymond Lully's Livre de la loi au Sarrazin (1831, with Michel); Extraits des historiens arabes relatifs aux guerres des croisades (1829); Invasions des Sarrazins en France (1836); the text and a French version of Abulfeda's geography (with Slane, 1840-48); Fragments arabes et persans relatifs à l'Inde (1834); Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l'Inde et Chine (1845); and Relations politiques et commerciales de l'empire romain avec l'Asie orientale (1863). From 1847 to his death he was president of the Société Asiatique.

REINDEER (Icel. hreinn, AS. hrān, reindeer, from Lapp reino, pasturage + deer, AS. deor, Goth. dius, wild beast, animal, Ger. Thier, animal). An Arctic deer (Rangifer tarandus) which has long been domesticated and used as a draught

animal and a beast of burden in Northern Eu

rope. The wild race still exists in varying abundance almost everywhere from Northern Scandinavia to Eastern Siberia, wandering to the Arctic coast and throughout Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and the Phipps and Parry islands. They are not known much south of Lapland in the west, nor below the northern margin of the great forest region in Siberia, but in the Ural region they wander southward to the borders of Perm. Whether the caribou (q.v.) of Greenland and Canada are to be regarded as merely geographical races of the European form, thus considered as a circumpolar species, is a matter of opinion. European zoologists generally do so regard it, and assert that the differences between European and American examples are not sufficient to be deemed specific. Merriam and other recent American zoologists think otherwise and set apart no less than six 'species' in the New World. Within historic times reindeer lived in the islands north of Scotland, but became extinct there before the

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