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smile. "German lessons, forsooth! If little Maria Chamberlain and Allan Balfour don't become adepts in some other lore than guttural German, then I'm much mistaken, that's all, uncle John. Comedies sometimes have uplooked-for tragic endings; and what should you say, uncle John, if the acquaintance, commenced once upon a time in your dwelling, should some time terminate in a very serious and responsible engagement calling for a clergyman and a ring, in which Maria Chamberlain should sustain the part of wife to the Country Cousin ?"
NEW NOTES ON NURSING.
It is our good fortune to have many lady readers ; and to women the nursery is an always new, always delightful subject of discussion. This consideration has moved us to put together some of the curiosities of baby nursing-to depict, ere they go out of use and memory, as the once familiar hornbook has gone, some of the many machines invented for baby's benefit and nurse's ease. Of course, it is not a very important subject, but it is an interesting one ; all old domestic customs are interesting, especially when they are dying out.
And it cannot be denied that our nurseries have been entirely revolutionized of late, among other things. What has become of its literature, for instance? The strategic Giant-killer, the elegant Valentine, the rude Orson, Cinderella most charming, are all falling back into the limbo of worn-out mythologies ; while, as for the nursery rhymes we used to hear, who repeats them now? Not many nurses, not many mammas. Long before the famous New Zealander of the future arrives at London Bridge they will be extinct ; il and if that savant happens to recover them amongst the ruins of the British Museum, Bloomsbury, he will be even more puzzled over them than with the nursery rhyme written for his savage progenitors by Mr. Punch:
Catch a little white boy,
Catch him by the leg ;
Bring the crumbs and egg-
Put him on the table with the missionary pie!
of sale, or mortgage, but I want you to give me-Carrie Lindsay."
“Aba! so you would take an old man's darling ?” said John Balfour with a sad smile. “Well, nephew, I don't wonder you want to gather that sweet flower to your heart. Take her, Ralph, for I can spare her to you now better than I could one year ago, thanks to the lesson which you and Allan gave my wife and daughters at that memorable party last year. Take her, and with her old uncle John's blessing."
“ You have made me a happy maa this day, uncle John ?" exclaimed the young man, grasping his hand enthusiastically.
"There, not a word !” said the old man, hastily drawing his hand across his eyes. “ Haven't I seen it all along? Ah, that I have, Ralph. But a word about Allan. You know that I gave him the chief clerkship last month ; and next spring I intend to take him into the firm-Balfour, Ray & Co. eh, Ralph ? There's the stuff for a true business man in him. The Chamberlains make a great deal of him ; he and Frank are inseparable. But do you know he goes over there to study German with Maria, under her teacher ? I used to think you liked Maria yourself, Ralph, eh ?”'
“Hum, hum, the plot thickens !" replied Ralph, with a
MO:QUITO SCREEN-USED BY EUROPEANS IN INDIA,
-from papa to the baby--was delightfully dozing in a "go-cart'' --while in vigorous little hands (or with vigorous “ jumper." However, the machine was not destined for any little hands in it) that apparatus was constantly coming into great success-spite of several improvements, the last of which collision with you and your furniture in a way surprising and appears to be giving a “highty-tighty" motion to the chair disastrous to all parties--you always knew where to have a by means of springs beneath.
baby in a roundabout. There were practical limits to the dear Swings are probably as old an institution as infancy; and as child's enterprise of which he was ignorant, and with which you it is the fashion pow to account for the origin of everything, we had many reasons to be satisfied. have no difficulty in making the suggestion that the art of The sketch from which our drawing was made was taken at swinging was originally invented by a monkey. It is a favorite Caistor, in Lincolnshire, seventeen or eighteen years ago. We diversion of that ingenious animal, and nature has provided have since seen in other parts of England-in old country cothim with a double means of indulging it-in the lithe parasi- tages-a hole in the beam above, and another in the floor tical plants of monkey countries, and in the possession of a below, which evidently once accommodated a revolving pole prehensile tai). According to Lord Monboddo's theory, the like that shown in our picture. In almost every case, however, human race in its infancy may also have enjoyed both these the then occupants of the cottage were totally ignorant of what advantages ; though the probability is that it did not. How these bles were designed for. ever, it is just as likely that the monkey taught the human We have also included in our series some ruder schemes. To race to swing as that pigs invented the plough ; and it is the cage children in a chair turned on its side is a common exopinion of no less a scholar than Mr. Gladstone that the pig's pedient with the working classes. In the west of Yorkshire, snout, turning up the earth for roots, did suggest to some bril- in Lincolnshire, and in Cheshire, the “peggy-tub” is turned to liant savage the construction and use of that important instru- the same account. The “peggy-tub" is so called, we believe, ment of agriculture. The construction of the swing is naturally because it is used in connection with a three-legged, or three. very simple; though that which we have engraved is the pro- pegged instrument, churn-wise. There is an obvious danger duct of years of civilization. The cross pieces slide up the to baby's chin in all these contrivances; the "go-cart” itself ropes, baby is placed on the seat, the cross pieces are then was open to this grave objection, the force of which was found hauled down again, and he is as secure as a Chinese thief in his when the pretty prattler lost his footing. cangue. Swings are recommended by the “ faculty" in prefer- To pad the ead is a Devonshire expedient, designed to ence to rocking-horses--on mathematical principles. We forget mitigate the effects of a fall. It is known elsewhere, no doubt; how the difference is made out, but the one determines blood we think we have heard that it is used in Spain. In some cases to the head, they say, and the other does not. Both frequently the pad is placed only at the front and at the back of the head ; determine the head to the turf-a matter of less importance in in others it is continued all round. A band passed over the ancient times than now, since the skull grows thinner, genera- top of the head keeps it in position. tion after generation, as civilization advances.
Lacing the body to a pillow is a German custom. No doubt Our other contrivances for the pacification of the infant mind, it is a practice congenial to infants of a lymphatic disposition, for controlling the exercise of infant restlessness, or for teaching with no turn for self-government. Children of British constiunlearned babies the art of locomotion, have been very nume- tution would probably kick at the restraint. It is thirty years rous. Most of them are now antiquated, or altogether out of since they were emancipated from the intolerable tyranny of date. "Leading-strings" were at one time almost universally swaddling bands—the relics of an effete barbarism extending used in the nursery, and to be “still in leading-strings" lives back to the feudal period-and the nurse who now attempted as a byword and a reproach now that they themselves have to fetter an English infant with them again would find herself been long forgotten. Children are often assisted to walk in our grievously mistaken. Still we cannot but applaud the pillow own day by a handkerchief or shawl passed round their waists ; contrivance--for little Dutchmen. but the leading-strings of old-such as we have depicted-were The mothers of Southern Italy sometimes bind up their contrivances expressly fashioned for the purpose. A band met infants, too, like mummies ; but their children are livelier and round the child's chest (where it was fastened by buttons), and less plump than those of Germany, and so, with a certain proto the band the "strings'' were attached.
priety, they are lashed, not to a pillow, but to a board. A hole The “go-cart” was a much more complicated apparatus. Its is drilled at the head of the board, and by this means the little construction-familiar, no doubt, in the memory of many of dear can be suspended to the wall, or hung out on a branch like our readers-is shown in the third picture on page 312. peaches or canary birds. We often hear of the ripe South; this Some of these elaborate engines were made with the top a is how they ripen children through the sour period of teething. “permanent circle,” so that the child had to be dropped Provided with a rattle, they are themselves able to scare away within it; otbers were divided and hinged off, so that could the birds, and it is not till a later period that they are henopen and close upon the ambitious infant whose first attempts pecked. That the musical capacity of southern Italians had at pedestrianism it was intended to facilitate. There was an originally anything to do with the practice of suspending them other sort of “go-cart," not unlike a small double towel-horse ; among the branches, we have no authority for supposing. and some were made of wicker-work.
Indian squaws, and squaws of several other countries, in "Go-carts” are shown in many Italian and French pictures ; fact, follow a similar custom. The Sioux Indians, at any rate, and the machine, slightly varied, seems to have been commonly do so, though the practice is not known among other North used throughout Europe for several centuries. In the picture American tribes. The little Sioux is lashed to a straight board of “Infancy''--the first of a set of four in the National Gal- | by bandages which laced tight behind with thongs. Its lery, the produetions of Lancret, who died in 1745—the “ go- feet rest on a broad hoop passed round the bottom of the board. cart" figures. It is of much the same shape as that shown in The Sioux mother is passionately fond, and many an hour she our engraving: the chief difference being that Lancret's “go- spends in decorating baby's cradle with porcupine quills, the cart” does not run on castors, but on fixed wheels.
teeth of various animals in quaint devices, and the figures of A greater painter than Lancret, and one who lived long be- men and horses, &c., either embroidered or painted. Another him, also left the "go-cart'' among his designs.
and a larger hoop is stretched over the child's head ; this serves Michael Angelo, in his old age (he was modest as well as the double purpose of protecting its face in the event of a fall, great), drew the figure of an old man in a “go-cart," and wrote and as a screen against the weather. Besides, a toy may be beneath it 'Ancora impara” (still learning). We have had conveniently hung from the canopy for baby to play with. painters since who appear never to have seen the force of this When mamma has to travel, however, the toy is taken away, design.
and baby's arms bound to his sides as an additional safeguard The Roundabout, represented in the larger engraving on this against the effects of tumbling. How the child is carried from page, was a contrivance far less common than the “go-cart," place to place may be seen in our engraving. A strap or broad though it was almost as ingenious. To be sure, there was this strip of hide is passed round the back of the hoard and over the objection to it, that going rapidly round and round a pole, at a mother's forehead, as porters sometimes use to carry their loads. distance of a couple of feet or so, is likely to produce giddiness, In this way the child is confined for seven months; it is then and even, perhaps, to addle infant brains. On the other hand, released and carried in the folds of a blanket at the mother's while it is impossible to calculate the orbit of a phenomenon in back. Should the infant die before it reaches the age of seven
months, it is buried, and its place in the cradle filled with we have exhausted the curiosities of baby-nursing and babyblack quills and feathers. This altered burden is still carried training. For instance, we have not mentioned an odd trick from place to place by the disconsolate mother for more than a practised on the brown infants of Ind. In the cultivated disyear sometimes (if no other little stranger arrives in the mean- tricts of the north the women go to labor in the fields with time), and all with the same care as if the veritable baby Sioux their sucking-babes on their hips. But in this situation they was cooing or yelling at her back. While engaged with her are rather hampering to agricultural pursuits; and it is imsmall domestic duties, she will chatter the jargon of mothers to portant, too, that the dear little things shall not be left to cry. her poor bundle of black feathers, just as if the little one were Now there are channels along which water for irrigating the still there with ears to listen to her fond foolishness. No doubt land runs. The mother places her baby with its head to one she believes it is there ; that she has charmed its spirit into the of these channels, and by means of a reed, or some such concradle, where it lies bid amongst the feathers. Only on this trivance, causes a small stream of water to flow on the baby's supposition can we account for the statement of an eminent bald pate. This is so cool, so soothing, that he drops off to American traveller, “that it matters not how heavy cr cruel sleep, and so remains till sheer hunger compels him to call their load, or how rugged the route Sioux mothers have to pass mamma from her work. That pastoral scene we leave to be over, they will faithfully carry this, and carefully, from day to depicted on the retina of the dear reader's mental vision. It is day, and even more strictly perform their duties to it than if rather a pretty one, and a little affecting too. the child were alive." Ridicule fails to abolish the custom. The whites on the frontier have tried it, of course ; but unsuccessfully.
SEA ISLAND COTTON. To go back to Italy, it will be seen that we have an engraving representing a woman of the Campagna carrying two The superior quality of Sea Island cotton has induced us to give | children in a basket on her head ; and a very picturesque way an illustration of the appearance of the plant when in full of carrying children too. This engraving is copied from an bloom, and of the appearance of the pod in its ginned and unetching by Pinelli, made about fifty years ago. Of course, in ginned state. The Sea Island cotton is raised at Port Royal, real life, the basket was not left open for the cberubs to fall out South Carolina, now fully in possēssion of the National troops. of it. Cords or straps were passed across and across it; and the As all the readers of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper are basket was fitly lined with wool, like a nest. A more agreeable aware, the Atlantic coast from Charleston to Savannah is prinmode of travelling can scarcely be conceived.
cipally made up of small islands, formed by small arms of the In India children are carried astride on the hip; in Egypt and sea, varying from sixty to two hundred yards ; these are called in many other eastern countries the same custom is known. the Sea Islands, and from soil and situation they are peculiarly The Egyptian women, however, oftener carry their babes astride fitted for the culture of cotton. The artist of Frank Lestie's on the shoulder. Thus, in Isaiah we read, " I will lift up mine paper, who accompanied the expedition to Port Royal and who hand to the Gentile, and set up my standard to the people, and has been for several months stationed there, gives in one of his they shall bring up thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters letters the following interesting account of a recent visit to shall be carried upon their shoulders." The Egyptian children some of the plantations where the far famed Sea cotton is are little cared for, except among the wealthier classes, who are raised : indulgent to excess. Still, it is often the case, says Mr. Lane, "At last I am able to remit you the sketches illustrating the that those children who are most petted and beloved are the gathering of cotton in the islands in this vicinity. I went on dirtiest and worst clad. “It is not uncommon in Cairo to see board the Mayflower, Captain Phillips, and visited the following a lady shuffling along in ample tob and habarah of new and glis- plantations, where the cotton was being picked, ginned and tening silks, and one who scents the streets with the odor of bagged for transportation to New York, after being discharged musk or civet as she passes along-with her person scrupulously from out of the Mayflower into a Government steamer. The clean and delicate-her eyes neatly bordered with kohl, and the plantations I first visited were Mr. Pope's, Dr. Jennings's, Frogtip of a finger or two showing the fresh dye of the henna ; and more's and Drayton's. I here witnessed the modus operandi by her side a little boy or girl-her own child-with a face be through all its branches, and my sketches have been pronounced smeared with dirt, and with clothes appearing as though they by competent judges the most accurate they have ever seen. I bari bean worn for months without being washed.". But even trust you will excuse the vanity of my repeating this. That I this appears to be only an unexpected result of affection. might thoroughly observe all I could, I employed the whole Mothers tbus neglect their children sometimes from fear of the four days in the investigation and sketching, filling up the more evil eye, " which is excessively dreaded, and especially in the elaborate minutiæ afterwards. When I left the Mayfiower, case of children, since they are generally esteemed the greatest through the kindness of my friend, Mr. Benjamin Salisbury, of blessings."
now stationed at Dr. Jennings's plantation (under Colonel ReyAmong other people who carry children on the hip are the nolds, Government Cotton Agent, who has the supreme superSamoans, amongst whom a curious custom of adoption prevails. I intendence of collecting cotton for the United States), I was The general rule is for the father to give his child to a married furnished with a Secesh horse and gig,' and we enjoyed a desister ; and as children are a source of wealth, she or her hus- lightful ride of five miles, through woods and cotton fields, to band makes some present in return. As, of course, their child- Dr. Jennings's plantation. This is certainly the finest one I ren are given away after the same fashion, the traffic is endless. have seen. The mansion is a large two storey, with spacious What have the paternal and maternal instincts-upon which we verandabs, fine airy rooms, with a noble flower-garden in front, are accustomed to insist so much-to say to this practice ? most tastefully arranged. Near the garden is a spacious
The women of ancient Ethiopia seem to have carried their library and billiard-room, containing a costly billiard-table, children from place to place somewhat after the manner of the with all its appartenances. In the rear are splendid stables, Sioux Indians. The first picture on page 313 is copied from a
with harness, &c. ; while on the right side, close by, stand cast (in the British Museum) taken from the sculptures of Beit. rows of negro huts, built in the usual monotonous style of archiOually, Nubia. This figure represenis one of the captives who tecture. As usual, the proprietor of this lordly estate lett everygraced the triumph of Ramses II., after his conquest of the thing at the first roar of the National artillery. As far as it Ethiopians; and our readers know how many years distant that is possible, the property of these unhappy and deluded men is event is. However, there is little change in the African quar- preserved for future consideration, despite orders given by ter of the globe, and it is extremely probable that our pic-massa to Sambo to burn everything rather than it should fall ture is as true of to-day as of three or four thousand years ago. into the hands of the Yankees. Through the politeness of
We have now only one engraving to call attention to-that Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Noble, formerly of the Seventy-ninth which represents a curly-haired little boy reposing under an New York Higblanders, I am allowed to copy his private memorapparatus which looks like a meatscreen. In fact, it is a con- andum of the cotton he had collected up to the 3rd December : trivance used amongst some Europeans in Hindostan for keep
Bales. ing mosquitoes from their children. It is made of green gauze, From St. Helena's Island, ginned and unginned, 3,480 stretched over an elastic frame.
3,560 Here we must make an end--withont at all conceiving that Buford Island
Ladies Island and Field's Point
“I am also informed by Colonel Reynolds, that since then we have gathered as much more, so that we shall bave reaped
GARIBALDI AT HOME. here, up to the date of my letter, above thirty thousand bales. I must not forget to add that Mr. Pierce has been appointed A Turin letter of January 8 gives the following interesting assistant to the Colonel.
account of Garibaldi at home : “The work of ginning, picking, packing, bagging and ship-' We found him planting fig-trees in his island. " We must ping, is performed by the negroes here, who work cheerfully make haste," he said, " for spring is approaching." The idea and efficiently, receiving from Uncle Sam food, clothing and a of something to be done in the spring now appears continutrifle as wages. I am convinced that negroes are accessible to a ally in every word that Garibaldi says. He may be often seen firm kindness as well as to the rod of terror.
on the peak of one of the rocks of the island, studying the "Mr. Salisbury informs me that the Mayflower alone has col- vast real map spread before bim, and contemplating the far lected upwards of $150,000 worth of cotton. After she bad distant horizon, as if seeking for a landing point. collected a certain quantity of cotton from the different planta- The colony of Caprera has been somewhat augmented within tions on the islands, she discharged her cargo into one of the these last few days. M. and Madame Deiden, old friends of Government streamers at anchor off Port Royal, such as the Garibaldi, have returned ; the general is surrounded by his Atlantic, Baltic, Vanderbilt, &c., and steams away with it to children ; Ricciotti has left London to remain constantly with New York.
his father and Theriseta, who, with her husband, is passing the “The McCarthy steam gin is considered as the model ma- winter at Caprera. Theriseta has her piano in the house. She chinery for this kind of work, and two hundred pounds is the is a good musician, and Garibaldi himself, though music is not daily quantity one of them can accomplish.
a pursuit with him, has one of the sweetest voices in the world. “I do not trouble you with a long essay upon cotton, as some It is quite a sight to see the way he draws himself up when to prosy specials might do, remembering that Mr. Squier has writ- his daughter sings the war-song from the Puritani : ten a book upon the subject, nor will I tell you that the word
Suoni la tromba intrepido, cotton' is taken from an Ethiopic word, and that Whitworth's
Io pugnero da forte. gin, which separates the cotton from the seed, is the invention Colonel Deiden has just set up the iron house which was sent of a Yankee. I shall conclude now with the hope that my
over from England to Garibaldi. It is a little wonder. Every sketches will make the rise and progress of cotton clear to all piece fits in and takes out as neatly as in a baby-house. There your readers."
are no less than six rooms in this moveable habitation. It has The Sea Island cotton is planted in March, and is in full been set up in a shady place, otherwise the metal roof would bloom in September and October. When our troops landed at have rendered it unhabitable under the hot sun of Caprera. As Port Royal in November, the greater proportion of the cotton it is, there is a talk of covering it with a thatch. Garibaldi is was gathered; what was still on the field was taken charge of building a wing to his own very small mansion, and does the hy our officers, and gathered under their superintendence.
principal mason's work in fashioning the stones himself. Gla
ziers visit Caprera very seldom ; a recent storm broke several JAPANESE PIGS.
windows, which are at this moment stuffed up with paper. Presents to Garibaldi arrive frequently, and are very useful, for
the three thousind livres a year which he has to live upon are The engraving thus entitled represents ome very curious speci
a poor provision for all his household. He has to feed, on an mens of the porcine tribe which are now in the possession of Mr. C. Jamrach, of Ratcliff-highway, London, a well-known im- average, fifteen people a day. porter of wild and rare animals. It is stated that they have qualities which would render their mixture with our native breeds advantageous.
THE SICK IN BED.— With a proper supply of windows, and a At any rate, the Acclimatization Society of Vienna has already proper supply of fuel in open fireplaces, fresh air is comparaavailed itself of the opportunity of securing some of these pigs,
tively easy to secure when your patient or patients are in bed. 80 that there is a probability of their becoming familiar in Never be afraid to open windows then. People don't catch Europe.
cold in bed. With proper bedelothes, and hot bottles, if neWhen referring to an importation of domestic animals from cessary, you can always keep a patient warm in bed, and well Japan, it may be worth while to notice that Steinmitz, an ac
ventilate him at the same time. Never to allow a patient to credited writer on that country, in a work published not very
be waked intentionally or accidentally is a sine quî non of all I ng ago, states that, though abundantly stocked with pictures good nursing. If he is roused out of his first sleep, he is aland carvings of dragons, and all sorts of monsters, borrowed most certain to have no more sleep. It is a curious but quite from the Chinese, the Japanese empire is but sparingly pro- stead of a few minutes’ sleep, he is much more likely to sleep
intelligible fact, that if a patient is waked after a few hours' invided with four-footed beasts, wild or tame.
The country is too much cultivated and peopled to afford again; because pain, like irritability of brain, perpetuates itself. cover to the wild quadrupeds, and the tame are bred only for If you have gained a respite of either in sleep, you have gained carriage and agriculture. The use of animal food is interdicted and of the same intensity will be diminished, whereas both
more than the mere respite. Both the probability of recurrence by the national religion, and they have not left pasture enough will be terribly increased by want of sleep. This is the reason to support many sheep and oxen. “They have a few swine, which were brought over from China, and which some of the why a patient, waked in the early part of his sleep, loses not country people near the coast still keep, not indeed for their only his sleep, but his power to sleep. The more the sick own use,
but to sell to certain Chinese junks which are allowed sleep, the better will they be able to sleep. A good nurse will to come over and trade, most of the Chinese mariners being always make sure that no door or window in her patient's addicted to pork.”
room shall rattle or creak; that no blind or curtain shall, by However this may be, it would appear from a statement of any change of wind through the open window, be made to flap; the same writer that some pains have been taken by the Jap- espec'ally will she be careful of all this before she leaves her anese with these : nimals, for he says that Sir Elward Belcher, patient for the night. If you wait till your patient teils you or when at Japan, " was supplied with some hogs that were over
reminds you of these things, where is the use of his having a whelmed with their own fat, and weighed about one hundred
nurse ?- Florence NigWingale. and fisty pounds."
Agar said, "Give me neither poverty nor riches,” and this The Japanese idea of the bringing up of the pig seems to be will ever be the prayer of the wise. Our incomes should be akin to that which produces the specimens which we see at ibe like our shoes ; if too small, they will gall and pinch us; but annual cattle show in London.
if too large, they will cause us to stumble and to trip. But wealth, after all, is a relative thing, since he that has little, and
wants less, is richer than he that has much, but wants more. The Prince Imperial, though only five years and a half old, True contentment depends not upon what we have, but upon already spe iks three foreign languages-English, German and what we would have. · A tub was large enough for Diogenes, Italian.
but a world was too little for Alexander.