Puslapio vaizdai

but for those who with sad eyes look grievous life in the face. So Shakespeare drew men as he and Hamlet saw them. He showed the unequal combat between merit and force, and at the end gave the prize to one disparagingly described at the beginning as “of unimproved mettle hot and full.” To his unearned advantage all the tragic struggle moved.


Queen's University.

Here sleeps the Dreamer, 'mong plebeian dead!
Ah, little in his troubled day they wist
He was or poet or psychologist,
And though old Plato he had never read,
Life's richest lore with tears he husbanded-
Yea, Nature gave a shining lamp to him,
Which down the hall of years its rays has shed
While many an earthly torch has long been dim.

[ocr errors]

And since our way with trials is beset,
As theirs he saw in that divinest dream,
With hill, snare, fiend, fire, flood to Canaan's land,
He shall in countless hearts high thanks beget,
For he shall help o'er that estranging stream
Whose murky waves no human bridge has spanned.

Great Village, N.S.




HE twelfth session of the International Geological Con

gress has come and gone, and the geologists, mining engineers, and scientists in general of Canada are able for the first time to sit back and ask themselves, “Was it worth while ?” The best way to answer that query is to put another: Of what value is the knowledge of a country's geology to the development of that country, or to the happiness of its people? During the last quarter of a country the science of geology has been so applied and specialized as to bring it into serviceable association with almost every commercial enterprise. The direct service of geology to mining is so patent that to many people the terms geologist and mining engineer are synonymous. This is of course a mistake, but with that we are not at present concerned. Beyond this application, however, the value of a geological knowledge of a country is not generally recognized

It is an interesting pastime for one to look about him, and try to select a single object that has not had its origin directly or indirectly in the earth. How truly perfect is the metaphor “Mother Earth.” Geology is the science that investigates the history of the earth and its inhabitants, the processes at work modifying and sculpturing its surface, the effects of rain, wind, change of temperature, as well as the chemical processes at work within the so-called crust of the earth. It is obvious then that problems of transportation, whether by land or water, road construction, forestration, agriculture, climatology and therefore habitation, industrial location, sources of raw materials, and many other enterprises have a very direct relationship to the local geology. The value therefore of the International Geological Congress to Canada can be estimated largely by the contributions, the impetus, and inspiration given to Canadian scientists by a visit of the world's greatest geologists and mining engineers, the men, in fact, who make the science. One must add to this the value of the impressions, geological and otherwise, which will be carried to all parts of the world by the visitors.

Many of the members were mining engineers, and economic geologists, so that the value of their obtaining a knowledge of the agricultural and mining conditions in Canada is direct and obvious. There is another feature of the subject that has appealed to the writer. The majority of the visitors were authors, and instructors of various ranks in most of the universities and scientific institutions in the world. These men are constantly writing, and lecturing to the public. They will no doubt have occasion to refer frequently to Canada, for they were greatly impressed with the magnitude and variety of geological occurrences in this country. It is difficult to estimate the value of this feature to a rapidly growing country.

The International Geological Congress dates from the year 1876, when a series of geological maps and sections were shown at the International Exhibition at Philadelphia. These so impressed visiting geologists to the exhibition, that the need of international correlation in mapping, and exchange of information for comparative study, was seen. In August therefore of the same year, at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a committee was appointed to arrange for the first meeting, which took place two years later in Paris. It is worthy of note that a Canadian scientist, Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, was secretary of that committee. Meetings of the Congress have been held every three years since that time, and in the following order: France, Italy, Germany, England, United States, Switzerland, Russia, France, Austria, Mexico, Sweden and Canada. The next meeting takes place in 1916 in Belgium. The international character of the Congress is well established.

By means of these periodical meetings, the results of research in any one country are given a universal application and significance. The Congress is now endeavouring to adopt uniform systems of mapping, nomenclature, rock and mineral classification, and a more perfect paleontological correlation. At the meeting in Mexico in 1906 a geological map, admittedly imperfect, of North America was exhibited, and made a great impression. A similar map of Europe is now almost complete, and it is proposed to issue a geological map of the world. There are very great differences between a geological and a geographical map. For example, in a geological map each rock


formation is given a distinctive color, so that the distribution and contact of contiguous formations is readily seen, as well as the correlation of separated areas in various parts of the continent. The magnitude of such an undertaking as a world map is readily understood.

Another matter of great international importance is the preparation, for each meeting, of a special monograph on some particular resource. At the Swedish meeting "The World's Iron Resources” formed the subject of a complete review and estimation. For the Canadian meeting "The World's Coal Supply" was the topic, and a monograph has been prepared which will be of inestimable value to all peoples, since coal is the common benefactor of humanity. It is significant of the broad and beneficial character of geological research, that the subject for the next meeting in Belgium is “The Agricultural Resources of the World." The development of more intensive agriculture in Canada, Australia, South Africa, South America, Russia and elsewhere during the last decade, warrants a complete compilation of these resources, and there is an obvious difference between the treatment of any subject by a group of scientists interested in their research, and that of any group of men undertaking the same task for remuneration.

When it was learned that the invitation of the Dominion Government had been accepted, and that the Congress would meet in Canada, the task of entertaining the scientists was appreciated by very few. Excursions have become a special feature of the meetings. These excursions serve to illustrate the topics discussed; and afford opportunity to study the features of geological interest peculiar to the country, and to visit the geological occurrences about which most has been written. Considering the enormous territory to be covered, and the few Canadian scientists to undertake the making of complete arrangements, the preparation of guide-books, and the personal leadership of excursions, the undertaking was no light one.

The response of the mining men of Canada was splendid, but there is no doubt that the chief credit must go to the Geological Survey of Canada with its director R. W. Brock, and to the Bureau of Mines of Ontario with its chief, Dr. W. G. Miller. Without the direction of these two gentlemen, and the co-operation of their staffs, the Congress would have been a failure.

[ocr errors]

The Geological Survey and the various provincial Bureaus of Mines have been of great public service to Canada. Their labours have recently been so directed along economic lines, that they have aided mining and industrial development to a marked degree. These departments have, however, justified their existence in quite another way. Most of the material for the excursion guide-books, including the maps, was taken from publications of these various surveys. There is no doubt that the excellent work done by these surveys, and the wide publicity their reports have given to Canada in geological circles throughout the world, did much to bring the Congress to this country.

The excursions seemed to show Canada to the visitors in a way that has never been attempted before. One series was arranged to take place before the meetings, and covered Eastern Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Another series after the meetings, which were held in Toronto, covered Northern Ontario, the North-Western Provinces, British Columbia, and the Yukon. All were conducted by Canadian geologists familiar with the district under examination. Annotated time-tables and local maps were prepared for each excursion, and a guide-book in more detail. Each member was provided with a button bearing his name and number, so that by reference to a printed list of members, his residence and connections could be readily obtained.

For the information of readers of Queen's Quarterly, the synopsis of the three days' excursion in the vicinity of Kingston is given. This will serve to show the variety and amount of geology that could be seen in a single day, and will recall to many Queen's graduates, experiences of their undergraduate days.

MONDAY, AUGUST 4TH. Leave Hotel Frontenac by automobile 7.30 a.m. to visit the Frontenac lead and zinc mines at Perth Road; walk to the Foxton Phosphate mines; 2 p.m. walk to Sydenham Mica mines; 4 p.m. leave by launches for Sydenham, and take automobiles to Barite vein at Counter's Corners; 5.30 return by automobile to Kingston.

Leave by special C.P.R. train 7.30 a.m. for Verona. Drive

« AnkstesnisTęsti »