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Alexandria is in northern Egypt at one of the mouths of the Nile river and is the chief seaport of Egypt. It is an ancient city with an interesting history.
6. Oysters are found all along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and notably in Chesapeake Bay. Spruce forests are found in Maine, Michigan, Minnesota and Washington. Rich iron mines abound almost entirely around Lake Su. perior in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The "corn belt" extends from Ohio through Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, into Kansas and Nebraska. Rich copper mines are worked in northern Michigan, in Montana and Arizona.
7. The chief exports of Australia are wheat, wool, meat, and gold. Melbourne and Sydney are the chief cities. The settlers in Australia are almost exclusively from the British Isles.
8. Venice is in northeastern Italy on the Adriatic Sea. The Ukraine is the name formerly given to (and now revived) a province in southern Russia comprising the governments of Kharkov, Podolia and Poltavia. Verdun is a strongly fortified city in northeastern France. The region northwest of Verdun contains the most important coal and iron deposits of France and possession of these resources was of great advantage in the war. The Germans manufactured munitions in this region. The loss of this region was a great blow to France and the allies,
PHYSIOLOGY. 1. Discuss the condition of the bones of
young children in contrast with those
of aged persons. 2. Explain the relation of food, rest and
exercise to efficiency. 3. Discuss the reason for abundance of sun
light and fresh air in our rooms. 4. What causes meat to spoil if left in the
air? What is the effect of boiling in
this respect? Explain. 5. What precautions can one take to avoid
typhoid fever? 6. Explain the effects of a cheerful attitude
upon the bodily functions as a whole. 7. Explain why persons who indulge in rich
foods are subject to digestive derange
ments. 8. Give rules for the care of the eyes. 9. How does change of occupation rest the
brain? 10. Discuss the evil effects of overheated
schoolrooms. 11. Why and how are epidemics frequently
spread through schools to the commun-
Answers 1. Bones of adults contain about two parts of lime to one part of animal matter. Bones of children have less lime than adults, hence they are less liable to be broken, and having a higher per cent. of animal matter, they reunite more readily, if broken.
2. Food, rest and exercise are essential to efficiency. The human machine cannot perform its proper functions without food and rest. The proper kind of exercise is necessary for the development of the body. Unless the body is kept in proper condition it is absolutely impossible to reach a high degree of efficiency.
3. Light is destructive to bacteria and bright sunlight kills many kinds of germs in a few minutes. Bedclothes and rugs should be exposed to the sunlight occasionally. Sunlight is especially important in rooms occupied by consumptives, or by pneumonia, diphtheria or influenza patients. Fresh air is essential in all the above cases in build up the resistance of the body.
4. Meat exposed to the air spoils because it is attacked by bacteria. Cooking such meats kills the bacteria but does not remove the poisons already formed. Therefore, it is dangerous to eat such meats.
5. Typhoid may be avoided by: Using pure drinking water, proper disposition of human sewage, destroying the germs that come from the bodies of typhoid patients, and removing the breeding places of flies and other carriers of typhoid germs. Vaccination against typhoid is extensively practiced where the disease is prevalent.
6. The attitude of the mind has a great deal to do with the bodily functions. It is said that when one is angry a poison is thrown into the system that impairs the functioning of the organs.
Intense sorrow, sudden shocks, despondency, etc., affect the nervous system and impair the vital organs. Hence, a cheerful attitude leaves the organs free to function naturally. Out of this theory the adage “Laugh and grow fat" has arisen.
7. Too much rich food leads to overindulgence, thereby overtaxing the organs of digestion, which give rise to digestive derangements.
8. The eyes should be allowed to rest a moment or two quite often if doing close work. This is best accomplished by closing them or by looking at distant objects.
Do not abuse the eyes by reading in a dim and flickering light. Avoid bright lights. Give attention to the bodily position while reading If trouble is experienced, consult a competent oculist.
9. Change of occupation brings into action a new set of nerve centers. Hence the new combinations give rest to the old series, thereby resting the brain.
10. Overheated schoolrooms give rise to headaches, colds, listlessness, fatigue, restlessness and kindred symptoms.
11. Where proper precautions are not taken, children of the school carry contagious diseases to the homes and thence throughout the community. This may
be avoided by isolating the victims of infectious diseases for a period sufficient to prevent infection of others.
AGRICULTURE. 1. Corn is king, and alfalfa is queen. Jus
tify this statement. 2. How do soil particles become small? 3. Describe the conditions of ripening milk. 4. Name ten garden plants that can stand
some frost. 5. Describe the dairy types of cattle. 6. Describe the rag doll corn tester. 7. Tell the time for planting early and late
potatoes. Give the depths for planting
potatoes. 8. Describe a good corn cultivator.
Answers. 1. Corn is the most important farm product in the United States. Alfalfa is not only a wonderful food producer, but it restores and maintains the fertility of the soil, which makes possible the continued production of corn and other crops.
2. By weathering, such as freezing, thawing, the effect of the oxygen in the air and other chemical action.
3. Ripening is a process of the souring of milk, or cream, preparatory to churning. This is caused by certain germs which give the butter a desirable flavor; sometimes other germs develop, which give the butter an undesirable flavor. The ripening process is now controlled in modern dairies, 80 that undesirable flavors are not developed.
4. Peas, beets, parsnips, cabbage, lettuce, onions ,celery, kale, potato, spinach.
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5. The dairy cow has the wedge shape, whether viewed from side, top or front. She is
spare of flesh, somewhat loose-jointed. The coat is smooth and soft, the eyes are bright, the jaw strong, stomach and other digestive organs capacious. The circulatory system should be large and strong. Among the best dairy breeds, which conform, in a general type, are the Holstein, Jersey, the Guernsey and the Ayrshire. Cannot describe each type for want of space.
6. Take a strip of muslin nine inches wide and four or five feet long. Draw a line lengthwise through the middle of the strip and beginning fifteen inches from each end draw cross lines three inches apart. Number the spaces, wet the cloth thoroughly, place the kernels in the spaces, tips in same direction, roll up the cloth, tie with a string, stand in bucket of tepid water several hours, tips down, keep moist until grains germinate.
7. Plant early potatoes as soon as ground is in condition, latter part of March or first of April. Late potatoes should be planted the last half of May or early in June, according to locality, cover four or five inches deep.
8. A good cultivator should have several small shovels instead of a few large ones. It should be possible to regulate the depth of the plowing as shallow cultivation after the corn is well started is best. Other characteristics of the cultivator may be determined by the nature of the fields. If fields are large and level, a two-row cultivator may be used to good advantage; if fields are small or hilly, other types of cultivators will be needed.
3. Tell the story of one of the great ex
plorers, and tell where to find a full
account of his explorations. 4. What is the latest acquisition of terri
tory to the United States, and how was
it secured ? 5. Tell fully how national aid accomplished
some internal improvements. 6. How much would you want your school
as a whole to learn about some great battle-say Chickamauga? How can you use such subject-matter to (a) adapt quantity of work to the individual. (b) promote reading. (c) develop
investigation and reasoning? 7. Give a bare outline of the relations of the
United States, from the time of its coionization, with Great Britain, France
or Mexico. 8. Name five American statesmen who were
not Presidents, and state something promoted by each which shows his
statesmanship. 9. For what are the following persons
noted: Hoover, Pershing, Edison, Jea
nette Rankin, Joffre? 10. What historical events are suggested by
the dates 1776 and 1789 ? 11. Name three events which have occurred
since January, 1918, which you would teach as current history. Why are these important?
Answers. 1. In some respects the recent world war from the standpoint of the United States may be compared to the War of 1812 and the Spanish-American War. In the War of 1812 freedom of the sea and rights of merchantmen and crews to equal use of the sea was at stake in much the same manner as refusal of Germany to respect the rights of the United States on the open sea, led to the recent war with that country.
A second great reason for the recent war was the inhumanity of the Germans. The frightful
UNITED STATES HISTORY. 1. Compare the occasion and ultimate aim
of the present war with those of two
of our earlier wars. 2. What mistakes were made in the recon
struction of the southern states?
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ness with which that country had waged war caused a very bitter feeling against the German government. The Spanish-American war was waged to free Cuba from the inhuman treatment of Spain.
2. Time has shown that the South was sincere in accepting the results of the war, but fear that the freedmen would again be really enslaved and a bitter memory of the blood and treasure lost in putting down the rebellion caused the North to take severe steps to overcome such an outcome. The war amendments made the freedmen voters. A people not able to care for themselves was made the equal of the white in governmental affairs and a "carpetbag” movement soon put this new class of voters in power in several localities. The white population was practically disfranchised and the negro voter exploited to the profit of the northern "carpetbagger" and southern "scalawag.” The entire problem of reconstruction hinged upon these facts. A great number of illiterate and easily influenced people were admitted to the electorate and immediately came under the control of irresponsible persons who controlled them for their own benefit and the real intelligence of the South was excluded from participating in public affairs through the disfranchisement of the whites.
3. John Smith, the hero of the Virginia colony, was one of the great English explorers. His work is not considered very authentic but he has preserved a complete story of his explorations and adventures in "A General History of Virginia" and "A True Relation.”
4. The latest acquisition of territory to the United States is the Virgin Islands, located east of Porto Rico. They were ob
tained from Denmark by purchase. The chief port of the islands is St. Thomas.
5. The question of spending Federal money for internal improvement was for many years a national issue in American politics. The great National Road extending from Cumberland, Maryland, to the Mississippi is one of the best examples of the advantage of this policy. This road passed through the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois and was the artery through which a very large part of the population of these states came. It crosses Indiana through Richmond, Indianapolis and Terre Haute.
6. Taken as a whole school they should know enough about such a battle as Chickamauga to tell the names of the commanders on each side and how this battle was part of a great plan on the part of the aggressor or a skillful maneuver on the part of the side on defensive. To adapt this to an individual for quantity work, readings showing General Rosencrans' movements and those of his
chief lieutenants—Generalg Thomas, Crittenden, Sheridan, Wilder, and others, may be assigned. The same may be applied to the movements of General Bragg in all cases following the movements
of some months or weeks prior to the engagement. This may be so arranged as to promote reading on the part of the pupil and the strategy of the movements develop investigation and reasoning. A map should always be used in such reading.
7. Relations of United States with Great Britain: (A) Colonial period.
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2. Colonial wars, colonies helping in each.
King William's war.
French and Indian war.
1. English offers of peace; 2, Continental
Congress and formation of Union; 3,
in England and peace. (C) National Period:
1. Unfriendly attitude toward American
traders; 2, Impressment of American sailors; 3, War of 1812; 4, Maine boundary settled; 5, Settlement of_Oregon question; 6, "Trent Affair"; 7, Friendly attitude toward Confederacy; 8, Alabama claims; 9, Fisheries trouble; 10, Friendly
attitude during SpanishAmerican War; 11, Allies during the
World War. Relations of United States and France. 1. Opponents of colonies during inter
colonial wars; 2. Friendship and help during Revolution; 3, Trouble with France during John Adams' administration; 4, Berlin and Milan decrees;
5, Unfriendly attitude in Mexico dur. ing Rebellion; 6, Allies during World
War. 8. Henry Clay, promoter and founder of the American tariff system; Salmon P. Chase, author of first national banking act; Alex. ander Hamilton, best known for tariff and excise taxation and establishment of the credit of the United States during Washington's administration; Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war during the Civil War; William H. Seward, secretary of state dealing with the troubles with England and France during the Civil War.
9. Hoover, noted as food administrator during war; Pershing, commander of American forces in France; Edison, noted as an inventor and scientist; Jeanette Rankin, first woman member of the House of Representatives; Joffre, French general during the late war.
10. 1776 suggests the signing of the Declaration of Independence; 1789 suggests the going into effect of the Constitution of the United States.
11. Three things that I would teach as current history since January, 1918, are: Speed with which United States threw men and supplies into Europe; signing of the armistice and steps toward a treaty of peace and league of nations.
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Price, $1.75 net. 3. Thrift and Conservation, by_Arthur
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spirational teaching of language in the High School
Received from E. P. Dutton & Co., 681 Fifth Avenue, New York: First Spanish Book, by Frank R. Robert, revised for American schools by Alice P. Hubbard. This work is intended to give not only necessary vocabulary and drill in grammar, but also to furnish information about Spanish life and customs, as well as a section devoted to commercial phases and letter writing. Price, $1.50.
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