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ardized evaluation of quality in life. Their tests are tempests and the sea that Dr. John H. Finley in an address before drowns, the N. E. A. at Milwaukee this summer,
They are my country's line, her great art
done commenting upon a recent editorial in By strong brain laboring on the thought the New York Times which declared
unwon, that the events of which Aristophanes They mark our passage as a race of men.” wrote were more modern than the days
In these long days of darkness, have of the administration of Rutherford B. you read with tears and laughter BarHayes, said: “But this was simply be
rie's “The Old Lady Shows Her cause Aristophanes immortally por- Medals,” in which a poor little London trayed the undying things in human na
charwoman, grieving because she has ture, whereas the issues associated with no son and therefore no part in the this particular administration were
great world war, adopts a stalwart evanescent. The immortal is always Scottish Highlander whom she has modern, and the classic is the immortal, never seen, and by her devotion to him the timeless distillation of human ex- thus wins her right to a share in this perience.”
great struggle for democracy? Have
you and I this craving to be a part of This brings a second question which
the whole and to share in its betterwe as teachers must ask of ourselves: ment? "Have I a quickening sense of human tendencies and relations gained through the teacher's next task is to qualify her
After qualifying as a world citizen, an acquaintance with the best in liter
pupils. How shall we transmit this ature?” Emerson says, “If we encoun
idea of citizenship in a world state tered a man of rare intellect, we should
made possible by the overcoming of ask him what books he read.” We can
the shallow and the provincial through know intimately few persons in the
the power of quality and internationalflesh, but our literary acquaintances are
ism? How does one cultivate a child's limited only by our aptitude for read
musical taste? By having him hear ing. Are you more kindly because you
good music. How does one cultivate a count among your friends Colonel
child's taste for art? By surrounding Newcome, Silas Marner, Jean Val
him with the beautiful. By similar jean? Do you keep yourself growing upon ideas that fit your maturing ca
means shall we teach him quality in life
by giving him quality in his friendspacity? Is there not too much narrow conscientiousness among us teachers?
his literary friends. Since November, Are we not everlastingly "doing for our
1918, we face a new world and yet not
a new world. The law of gravity is schools,” slaves to the blue pencil, to
still in force; and the square erected long hours and the preparation of the next day's lesson? Why not take a
upon the hypothenuse is and always
will be equal to the sum of the squares spin not with the NC-4, but a shorter
erected upon the other two sides. So flight and come back refreshed with in
also in human relations: the labor unspiration for our pupils? Do you know
rest of today is merely a calling for the John Masefield's “Ships”?
fulfillment of that implied promise "You should have seen, man can not tell to made to Adam that he should receive you
the bread which he had earned by the The beauty of the ships of that my city.
sweat of his brow. Again and again Yet, though their splendour may have
has labor because of ignorance tried in ceased to be,
vain to throw off its oppressors. Yet at Each played her sovereign part in making each essay the struggle is upon a higher
plane and human laws are slowly beI touch my country's kind, I come to grips, coming divine. The whole world is With half her purpose, thinking of these awakening to the fact that the schools ships.
- your school and mine-are the modThey are grander things than all the art of
ern Moses who will lead to the Canaan towns,
What are Child Classics in reading? of the world of the present and of the In a broad way, they are that portion future. of the literature of all times which the
To give that vicarious experience to child can comprehend. Dr. William T.
pupils means the power to make of the Harris once said that the whole of hu
child a creator in himself. It is no idle man experience is to be found in Moth- phrase to say of an actor that he reads er Goose. All militarism, as well as
his lines well. To read well, the actor the "Three Wise Men of Gotham," can
or reader relives in his own person the be summed up in “If the tub had thought of the author and thus becomes been stronger, the tale had been
an artist. Instead of clay, or canvas or longer." In "Hey, diddle, diddle," the
musical instrument, the reader has that child enjoys nonsense just for nonsense
subtler and finer material, the human and the tonic it gives to his nerves.
mind and body. Our responsibility as When he arrives, as he will shortly, to
teachers in this work of creating citia six-hour day of labor we shall find
zens cannot be overestimated. “Who is him seeking the community houses that the Master?” says one. "The one who he may have legitimate recreation and
awakens." "Who is the scholar?" all because he has this
“The one who answers." What thererhyme down in his heart. Another im- fore must be the attitude of him who mortal for children, is Aesop with his wonderful cosmos. With the crafty How must he ever conceive himself as
dares to awaken the child to thought? Reynard forever outwitted in childish experience, a belief in the futility of his spiritual body? He must plan that
creator and artist making for this child craftiness is established whether in
this child, his creation, shall fill his grasping statesmen or in selfish nations. And would one be stretching ly, unctiously. Nay more, he must for
place in the world beautifully, graciousthe analogy too far to say that China, get to plan. So present must this ideal the tortoise, may yet win in the race
be, that all technique is forgotten in for Asiatic supremacy? And so we
the impelling insistent ideal of man. can give folk tales, myths, proverbs, And how shall you know a man? Says and stories of devotion to country and Confucius, “A man can never be hid.” to ideals not only for the emulation to which they stimulate the child, but for the more powerful reason that they (Note: The second article in this give him vicarious experience in living series will deal with the presentation as a citizen in the world of the past and of the Child Classics Primer and First thus becoming qualified to be a citizen Reader.)
The Organized Spelling Lesson
By Byron Kirby, South Bend, Indiana. Spelling is one of the fundamental the written page is able to determine subjects in the curriculum; one of the the intended meaning. fundamental needs in the experiences of But we, as educators, should bear in the individual, yet we find that in prac- mind one thing; namely, that we must tically no school, and certainly in no raise the educational standards, in fact, school system, is it given more than that it is our work to elevate the level casual consideration.
of the entire intellectual plane. It is It is argued that a majority of the not our task to create a few geniuses at people do not need spelling, that their the expense of the rest of society, but experiences do not call for a written it is our duty to give all a practical form of communication, or if they are working knowledge of the underlying called upon to write a page or two, a principles of human betterment. Every few misspelled words will be of little individual whom we leave behind in consequence, as long as the recipient of our great intellectual advance will be handicapped-his hold upon happiness, (1) The choice of words is primarupon prosperity, upon life will be inse- ily the work of the teacher; she should cure, uncertain, while the blame will be choose words which the child needs in ours.
his particular stage of development and, There is a certain analogy between also, those which are missed by the the results of bad grammar and bad
class in all forms of written work. It spelling. We learn proper modes of is also a good plan to permit the chilspeech so that we will not be offensive
dren to contribute to the spelling list, to our friends, and so that we may
by suggesting words which they have make a good impression upon those
found that they cannot spell. with whom we talk. As far as com- (2) The pronunciation should be munication itself is concerned, we are emphasized, for many words are misable to understand quite well a person spelled because they are
are mis-prowhose speech is characterized by mis- nounced. The words should first be pronounced words, improper phrases, pronounced by one of the brighter puand unidiomatic expressions. But mis- pils, then the class should pronounce takes in grammar are repulsive to edu- them in concert, after which three or cated people; and the person who is four of the more backward pupils addicted to this form of weakness is at should be asked to give them independa a disadvantage-a disadvantage which ently. It is a mistake for a teacher will become more pronounced as we hurriedly to pronounce a word that the progress educationally. The errors of majority of the class does not know. the poor speller will become, likewise, The skillful teacher will, through wise
, more and more repulsive; he will not leadership, keep herself in the backstand an equal chance in business with ground and let the children do the those who can spell well; while with work. the individual who writes only a few (3) A definition for each word letters, it will be still more important should be given by some member of that he spell well, for the first impres- the class if possible. There is always sion is the lasting impression and in his some member of the class who can decase there will be little chance to re- fine one or more of the new words so deem himself. Bear in mind that this that, generally, it is possible to get article is based upon the presumption through a list without the teacher's givthat we are rapidly raising the educa- ing much assistance. Each word tional level; mistakes in spelling and should be discussed separately, all the grammar that attracted only a little at- definitions that the class can think of tention yesterday may spell defeat to advanced, and the ways in which the morrow.
word is used considered quite fully. It is important, then, that we empha- (4) If a word has any outstanding size spelling in the schools,—that we characteristics or syllables where one is give the subject scientific, systematic likely to make a mistake, these should treatment. Ás a rule, the spelling les- be noted and discussed.
. For instance, son is given in much the same way that if the word "separate” is in the list ask a dose of medicine is given-the quick- the children where they are likely to er we can finish the task the better. make a mistake. Some of them will Many lessons are given in six or seven see that there will be a tendency to use minutes, while as a matter of fact, no "e" in place of the first "a." Calling atlesson can be given in a justifiable way tention to the fact will minimize the in less than twenty minutes.
danger. “Receive," "believe," words There are six distinct phases in the with silent letters, etc., should be
treated in this way. art of preparing a lesson, namely: (1) The choice of words. (2) Pronuncia- (5) After this informal, interesting tion. (3) Definition and use. (4) discussion the class should have six or Characteristics. (5) Study. (6) Writ- seven minutes to study and writè out ing the lesson.
(6) The words should then be pro sented after this method, will be more nounced by the teacher to be written interesting, more easily acquired, and in pen and ink by the class.
more readily retained than that which Spelling work systematically pre- is given in a haphazard manner.
Mrs. Josephine Corliss Preston
Third Woman President of the N. E. A. Back to the snowy wintry plains and The question of the school teacher prairies of Minnesota dates the career "boarding around,” the poor living conof Mrs. Josephine Corliss Preston, ditions that she had to encounter, and President of the National Educational
the hardships she had to suffer, Mrs. Association and State Superintendent Preston realized were not conducive to of Public Instruction of the State of the best services that a teacher could Washington. Back to the little one- give. So she conceived the idea of the room school house where the students teachers' cottages—a home for the were foreigners unable to speak one teacher. The State of Washington was word of English, Mrs. Preston then the first in the United States to have a just a mere slip of a girl first received teacher's cottage and Mrs. Preston was her inspiration to carry education and largely the inspiration of these "teachadvantages to all the people. To this erages.” Today nearly every state in very day there is a motherly feeling in the Union is building or has a large the heart of Mrs. Preston for every number of teacher's cottages. struggling one-room school and for the "I have always made it a rule that rural schools in general.
the teachers should have an adult Josephine Corliss Preston was born
member of their family live with them in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and when
in the cottages," said Mrs. Preston. “I but fourteen years of age was teaching do not approve of the school teachers school. Not satisfied with her educa- living alone. One school teacher came tion she taught school a year and went
to me at the beginning of the school to school a year. She was educated in
term and said that she had expected the public schools of Fergus Falls, Min
her father to be with her, but that he nesota, and at Carleton College, North
was unable to come, so she would live field, Minnesota.
alone. I told her she could not live in
the cottage alone, so she sent to KanMrs. Preston came to the State of sas City for her married sister to come Washington in 1892 and taught school out and live with her." in Waitsburg for four years and in Mrs. Percy V. Pennybacker, PresiWalla Walla for seven years. She was dent of the State Federation of Womappointed Assistant County Superin- en's Clubs in Texas, heard Mrs. Prestendent and later was three times elect
ton speak on the Teachers' Cottages at ed as County School Superintendent of the Council Meeting of the General Walla Walla County, serving nine Federation of Women's Clubs in Portyears in all in this office.
land in 1915, and immediately hurried During these years the closest sub- back to Texas with the message. The ject to her heart was the rural school. result was that the State Federation of How could she better these schools? Women's Clubs of Texas made a camHow could she bring the best of ad- paign for teachers' cottages and built vantages to the boys and girls on the more in one year than the State of farm, and how could she aid children, Washington did in ten. teachers and parents? These were the Community Center work has also foremost questions that were ever be- been guided to a successful zenith in ing studied by Mrs. Preston.
this state by Mrs. Preston. Teaching
and living in the rural districts soon Mrs. Preston took special courses at taught her that country life needed a Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washcertain amount of socialization and nat ington, and in 1914 this institution uralization as well as recreation to re- awarded her an Honorary Master's Delieve the drudgery and monotony, and gree for "distinguished work in the field that the farm would be unable to hold of education.” She was the first womthe boy and girl unless the farm offered an to ever be elected to a state office some pleasure as well as work. She in the State of Washington at which immediately advocated Community time there were but three women state Center work-today Community Cen- superintendents of public instruction. ter work is a national phrase and Mrs. She has served in this office since 1913, Preston is a national figure in this work. being re-elected in 1916. In 1911 Mrs. "Whether it is a spelling bee, an
Preston was appointed a member of the
State Board of Education. evening of music, debates, or any other sort of get together meeting,” said Mrs. In 1913 she attended her first session Preston, “Community Center work is of the N. E. A. at Salt Lake City. Just simply the quickening and vitalizing of six years later or July of this year she country life. It develops talent, that no went back and was honored with the one before ever had a suspicion of, it position of president. From 1913 to brings out a spirit of initiative and har- 1918 she served as vice-president of the mony among the people and tends to N. E. A., and has served on several difmake better communities and better ferent important committees treating citizens."
on the rural schools. Last year when The consolidated district is another placed on the nominating committee
she refused to allow her name to be of Mrs. Preston's pet hobbies. Under her supervision since she has been placed for vice-president again as she State Superintendent of Public In
was a member of the National Emergstruction she has seen fine model build- would take up a great deal of her time.
ency in Education Commission which ings take the place of the run-down country schoolhouse. She has seen the Mrs. Preston has served in the N. E. A.
Among the committees upon which development of rural high schools that would have been impossible without
are the National Illiteracy Commisconsolidation. One of the examples of sion, National Rural
tee, and the National Committee for the a consolidated school district is that at Morton in Lewis County of the State Superintendents’ Problems in AdminMorton in Lewis County of the State istration, the Emergency in Education of Washington. It is the largest consolidated district in the United States. Commission, and the Resolutions Com
mittee. The consolidation includes fourteen districts. There is a city superintendent Mrs. Preston has been for several who is employed at the salary of $2640 years a member of the N. E. A. and who heads a staff of thirty-six teachers. was this year named vice chairman of Seven hundred and eight pupils are en- that council. At the present time she rolled at the school and there are twen- is serving in the following five capacity different buildings. The tax levy is ties: President of the N. E. A.; Super6.7 mills and every educational advan- intendent of Public Instruction of the tage of an urban school is brought State of Washington; President of the within the reach of the children and Washington State Board of Education; adults of this district. The assessed Chief Executive Officer for the State valuation is $2,990,000.00 This dis- Board of Vocational Education; and trict is an example of what Mrs. Pres- member of the National Women's Exton has been able to accomplish in the ecutive Committee for the National way of consolidation.