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If any master of a vessel coming into or having arrived at any port within the United States shall obstruct or hinder, or shall intentionally cause any obstructions or hindrance to any officer in lawfully going on board such vessel for the purpose of carrying into effect any of the revenue laws of the United States, he shall for every such offense be liable to a penalty of not more than five hundred dollars nor less than fifty dollars. (R. S. 3068. See secs. 454, 455, 581, tariff act, 1922, pp. 479, 483.)

Seizure of Vessels or Merchandise.

Every officer or other person authorized to make searches and seizures by this Title [R. S. 2517–3129] shall, at the time of executing any of the powers conferred upon him, make known, upon being questioned, his character as an officer or agent of the customs or Government, and shall have authority to demand of any person within the distance of three miles to assist him in making any arrests, search, or seizure authorized by this Title, where such assistance may be necessary; and if such person shall, without reasonable excuse, neglect or refuse so to assist, upon proper demand, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, nor less than five dollars. (R. S. 3071)

It shall be the duty of the several officers of the customs to seize and secure any vessel or merchandise which shall become liable to seizure by virtue of any law respecting the revenue, as well without as within their respective districts. (R. S. 3072.)

If any officer, or other person, executing or aiding or assisting in the seizure of goods, under any act providing for or regulating the collection of duties on imports or tonnage, is sued for anything done in virtue of the powers given thereby, or by virtue of a warrant granted by any judge, or justice, pursuant to law, he may plead the general issue and give such act and the special matter in evidence. (R. S. 3073.)

The collector within whose district any seizure shall be made or forfeiture incurred for any violation of the duty laws is hereby enjoined to cause suits for the same to be commenced without delay, and prosecuted to effect; and is, moreover, authorized to receive from the court within which such trial is had, or from the proper officer thereof, the sum recovered, after deducting all proper charges to

be allowed by the court; and on receipt thereof he shall pay and distribute the same without delay, according to law. (R. S. 3087.) Whenever a seizure, condemnation, and sale of merchandise takes place within the United States, and the value thereof is less than two hundred and fifty dollars, that part of the forfeiture which accrues to the United States, or so much thereof as may be necessary, shall be applied to the payment of the cost of the prosecution. (R. S. 3089.)

Moieties Informers' and Customs Officers' Awards.

All provisions of law under which moieties of any fines, penalties, or forfeitures, under the customs-revenue laws, or any share therein, or commission thereon, are paid to informers, or officers of customs, or other officers of the United States, are hereby repealed; and from and after the date of the passage of this Act the proceeds of all such fines, penalties, and forfeitures shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States. (Sec. 2.)

No officer, or other person entitled to or claiming compensation under any provision of this Act, shall be thereby disqualified from becoming a witness in any action, suit, or proceeding for the recovery, mitigation, or remission thereof, but shall be subject to examination and cross-examination in like manner with other witnesses, without being thereby deprived of any right, title, share, or interest in any fine, penalty, or forfeiture to which such examination may relate; and in every such case the defendant or defendants may appear and testify and be examined and cross-examined in like manner. (June 22, 1874, sec. 8. See sec. 619, tariff act of 1922, p. 490.) Procedure.

In all suits and proceedings other than criminal arising under any of the revenue laws of the United States, the attorney representing the Government, whenever, in his belief, any business book, invoice, or paper, belonging to or under the control of the defendant or claimant, will tend to prove any allegation made by the United States, may make a written motion, particularly describing such book, invoice, or paper, and setting forth the allegation which he expects to prove; and thereupon the court in which suit or proceeding is pending may, at its discretion, issue a notice to the defendant or claimant to produce such book, invoice, or paper in court, at a day and hour to be specified in said notice, which, together with a copy of said motion, shall be served formally on the defendant or claimant by the United States marshal by delivering to him a certified copy thereof, or otherwise serving the same as original notices of suit in the same court are served; and if the defendant or claimant shall fail or refuse to produce such book, invoice, or paper in obedience to such notice, the allegations stated in the said motion shall be taken as confessed unless his failure or refusal to produce the same shall be explained to the satisfaction of the court. And if produced, the said attorney shall be permitted, under the direction of the court, to make examination (at which examination the defendant or claimant, or his agent, may be present) of such entries in said book, invoice, or paper as relate to or tend to prove the allegation aforesaid, and may offer the same in evidence on behalf of the United States.

But the owner of said books and papers, his agent or attorney, shall have, subject to the order of the court, the custody of them, except pending their examination in court as aforesaid. (June 22, 1874, sec. 5.)

Oaths of Masters and Owners.

Nothing contained in this Title [R. S. 2517-3094] shall be construed to exempt the masters or owners of vessels from making and subscribing any oaths required by any laws of the United States not immediately relating to the collection of the duties on the importation of merchandise into the United States. (R. S. 3094.)

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The word "merchandise," as used in this Title [Collection of duties upon imports, R. S. 2517-3129], may include goods, wares, and chattels of every description capable of being imported. (R. S. 2766.)

The word "port," as used in this Title [R. S. 2517-3129], may include any place from which merchandise can be shipped for importation, or at which merchandise can be imported. (R. S. 2767.)

The word "master," as used in this Title [R. S. 2517–3129], may include any person having the chief charge or command of the employment and navigation of a vessel. (R. S. 2768.)

In cases where the forms of official documents, as prescribed by this Title [R. S. 2517-3129], shall be substantially complied with and observed, according to the true intent thereof, no penalty or forfeiture shall be incurred by a deviation therefrom. (R. S. 2769.) Vessels Exempt from Entry.

Vessels used exclusively as ferryboats carrying passengers, baggage, and merchandise, shall not be required to enter and clear, nor shall the masters of such vessels be required to present manifests, or to pay entrance or clearance fees, or fees for receiving or certifying manifests, but they shall, upon arrival in the United States, be required to report such baggage and merchandise to the proper officer of the customs according to law. (R. S. 2792.)

Any passenger vessel engaged triweekly or oftener in trade between ports of the United States and foreign ports shall be exempt from entrance and clearance fees and tonnage taxes while such service triweekly or oftener is maintained. (May 28, 1908. See sec. 441, tariff act, 1922, p. 475.)

Vessels Exempt from Certain Charges.

Enrolled or licensed vessels engaged in the foreign and coasting trade on the northern, northeastern, and northwestern frontiers of the United States, departing from or arriving at a port in one district to or from a port in another district, and also touching at intermediate foreign ports, shall not thereby become liable to the payment of entry and clearance fees, or tonnage tax, as if from or to foreign ports; but such vessels shall, notwithstanding, be required to enter and clear. (R. S. 2793.)

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Entry of Merchandise at Special Ports.

The collector of the district of Philadelphia may grant permits for the transportation of merchandise of foreign growth or manufacture across the State of New Jersey to the district of New York, or across the State of Delaware to any district in the State of Maryland or Virginia; and the collector of the district of New York may grant like permits for transportation across the State of New Jersey; and the collector of any district of Maryland or Virginia may grant like permits for transportation across the State of Delaware to the district of Philadelphia. Every such permit shall express the name of the owner, or person sending the merchandise, and of the person to whom the merchandise is consigned, with the marks, numbers, and description of the packages, whether bale, box, chest, or otherwise, and the kind of goods contained therein, and the date when granted; and the owner, or person sending such goods, shall swear that they were legally imported, and the duties paid. Where the merchandise, to be so transported, shall be of less value than eight hundred dollars, the permit shall not be deemed necessary. (R. S. 4362.)

The owner or consignee of all merchandise transported under the provisions of the preceding section and for the transportation whereof a permit is necessary, shall, within twenty-four hours after the arrival thereof at the place to which such merchandise was permitted to be transported, report the same to the collector of the district where it has arrived, and shall deliver up the permit accompanying the same; and if the owner or consignee shall neglect or refuse to make due entry of such merchandise within the time and in the manner directed, all such merchandise shall be subject to forfeiture; and if the permit granted shall not be given up within the time limited for making the report, the person to whom it was granted, neglecting or refusing to deliver it up, shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars for every twenty-four hours it shall be withheld afterward. (R. S. 4363.)

Clearance on Lake Champlain.

The master or person having charge or command of any steamboat on Lake Champlain, when going from the United States into the Province of Quebec, may deliver a manifest of the cargo on board, and take a clearance from the collector of the district through which any such boat shall last pass, when leaving the United States, without regard to the place from which any such boat shall have commenced her voyage, or where her cargo shall have been taken on board. (R. S. 4208.)

Special Permit to Unlade by Night and Preliminary Entry.

The Secretary of the Treasury shall fix a reasonable rate of extra compensation for overtime services of inspectors, storekeepers, weighers, and other customs officers and employees who may be required to remain on duty between the hours of five o'clock postmeridian and eight o'clock antemeridian, or on Sundays or holidays, to perform services in connection with the lading or unlading of cargo, or the lading of cargo or merchandise for transportation in bond or for exportation in bond or for exportation with benefit of drawback, or in connection with the receiving or delivery of cargo

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