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and other life-saving appliances and equipment, and the further requirements herein as to davits, embarkation of passengers in lifeboats and rafts, and the manning of lifeboats and rafts, and the musters and drills of the crews, on steamers navigating the ocean, or any lake, bay, or sound of the United States, on and after July first, nineteen hundred and fifteen, shall be subject to the provisions, limitations, and minimum requirements of the regulations herein set forth, and all such vessels shall thereafter be required to comply in all respects therewith: Provided, That foreign vessels leaving ports of the United States shall comply with the rules herein prescribed as to life-saving appliances, their equipment, and the manning of same. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 14.)
STANDARD TYPES OF BOATS
The standard types of boats classified as follows:
B. Open. Internal and external buoy
ancy. (Entirely rigid sides)
C. Pontoon. Well deck; fixed water
tight bulwarks. (A. Open. Upper part of sides collaps
B. Pontoon. Well deck; collapsible (Partially collapsible sides)
water-tight bulwarks. C. Pontoon. Flush deck; collapsible
STRENGTH OF BOATS
Each boat must be of sufficient strength to enable it to be safely lowered into the water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.
ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF BOATS AND RAFTS
Any type of boat may be accepted as equivalent to a boat of one of the prescribed classes and any type of raft as equivalent to an approved pontoon raft, if the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, is satisfied by suitable trials that it is as effective as the standard types of the class in question, or as the approved type of pontoon raft, as the case may be.
Motor boats may be accepted if they comply with the requirements laid down for boats of the first class, but only to a limited number, which number shall be determined by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce.
No boat may be approved the buoyancy of which depends upon the previous adjustment of one of the principal parts of the hull or which has not á cubic capacity of at least one hundred and twentyfive cubic feet.
BOATS OF THE FIRST CLASS
The standard types of boats of the first class must satisfy the following conditions:
1A.-OPEN BOATS WITH INTERNAL BUOYANCY ONLY
The buoyancy of a wooden boat of this type shall be provided by water-tight air cases, the total volume of which shall be at least equal to one-tenth of the cubic capacity of the boat.
The buoyancy of a metal boat of this type shall not be less than that required above for a wooden boat of the same cubic capacity, the volume of water-tight air cases being increased accordingly.
1B.-OPEN BOATS WITH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL BUOYANCY
The internal buoyancy of a wooden boat of this type shall be provided by water-tight air cases, the total volume of which is at least equal to seven and one-half per centum of the cubic capacity of the boat.
The external buoyancy may be of cork or of any other equally efficient material, but such buoyancy shall not be secured by the use of rushes, cork shavings, loose granulated cork, or any other loose granulated substance, or by any means dependent upon inflation by air.
If the buoyancy is of cork, its volume, for a wooden boat, shall not be less than thirty-three thousandths of the cubic capacity of the boat; if of any material other than cork, its volume and distribution shall be such that the buoyancy and stability of the boat are not less than that of a similar boat provided with buoyancy of cork.
The buoyancy of a metal boat shall be not less than that required above for a wooden boat of the same cubic capacity, the volume of the air cases and external buoyancy being increased accordingly.
1C.-PONTOON BOATS IN WHICH PERSONS CAN NOT BE ACCOMMO
DATED BELOW THE DECK, HAVING A WELL DECK AND FIXED WATERTIGHT BULWARKS
The area of the well deck of a boat of this type shall be at least thirty per centum of the total deck area. The height of the well deck above the water line at all points shall be at least equal to one-half per centum of the length of the boat, this height being increased to one and one-half per centum of the length of the boat at the ends of the well.
The freeboard of a boat of this type shall be such as to provide for a reserve buoyancy of at least thirty-five per centum.
BOATS OF THE SECOND CLASS
The standard types of boats of the second class must satisfy the following conditions:
2A.-OPEN BOATS HAVING THE UPPER PART OF THE SIDES COL
A boat of this type shall be fitted both with water-tight air cases and with external buoyancy, the volume of which, for each person which the boat is able to accommodate, shall be at least equal to the following amounts: Air cases, one and five-tenths cubic feet; external buoyancy. (if of cork), two-tenths cubic foot.
The minimum freeboard of boats of this type is fixed in relation to their length; it is measured vertically to the top of the solid hull at the side amidships, from the water level when the boat is loaded.
The freeboard in fresh water shall not be less than the following amounts:
The freeboard of boats of intermediate lengths is to be found by interpolation.
2B.-PONTOON BOATS HAVING A WELL DECK AND COLLAPSIBLE BUL
All the conditions laid down for boats of type 1C are to be applied to boats of this type, which differ from those of type 1C only in regard to the bulwarks.
2C.-PONTOON BOATS, IN WHICH THE PERSONS CAN NOT BE AC
COMMODATED BELOW DECK, HAVING A Flush DECK AND COLLAPS-
The minimum freeboard of boats of this type is independent of their lengths and depends only upon their depth. The depth of the boat is to be measured vertically from the underside of the garboard strake to the top of the deck on the side amidships, and the freeboard is to be measured from the top of the deck at the side amidships to the water level when the boat is loaded.
The freeboard in fresh water shall not be less than the following amounts, which are applicable without correction to boats having a mean sheer equal to three per centum of their length:
For intermediate depths the freeboard is obtained by interpolation.
If the sheer is less than the standard sheer defined above, the minimum freeboard is obtained by adding to the figures in the table one-seventh of the difference between the standard sheer and the actual mean sheer measured at the stem and sternpost. No deduction is to be made from the freeboard on account of the sheer being greater than the standard sheer or on account of the camber of the deck.
When motor boats are accepted, the volume of internal buoyancy and, when fitted, the external buoyancy, must be fixed, having regard to the difference between the weight of the motor and its accessories and the weight of the additional persons which the boat could accommodate if the motor and its accessories were removed.
ARRANGEMENTS FOR CLEARING PONTOON LIFEBOATS OF WATER
All pontoon lifeboats shall be fitted with efficient means for quickly clearing the deck of water. The orifices for this purpose shall be such that the water can not enter the boats through them when they are intermittingly submerged. The number and size of the orifices shall be determined for each type of boat by a special test.
For the purpose of this test the pontoon boat shall be loaded with a weight of iron or bags of sand, equal to that of its complement of persons and equipment.
In the case of a boat twenty-eight feet in length two tons of water shall be cleared from the boat in a time not exceeding the following: Type 1C, sixty seconds; type 2B, sixty seconds; type 2C, twenty seconds.
In the case of a boat having a length greater or less than twentyeight feet the weight of water to be cleared in the same time shall be, for each type, directly proportional to the length of the boat.
CONSTRUCTION OF BOATS
Open lifeboats of the first class (types 1A and 1B) must have a mean sheer at least equal to four per centum of their length.
The air cases of open boats of the first class shall be placed along the sides of the boat; they may also be placed at the ends of the boat, but not in the bottom of the boat.
Pontoon lifeboats may be built of wood or metal. If constructed of wood, they shall have the bottom and deck made of two thicknesses with textile material between; if of metal, they shall be divided into water-tight compartments with means of access to each compartment.
All boats shall be fitted for the use of a steering oar.
No type of pontoon raft may be approved unless it satisfies the following conditions:
First. It should be reversible and fitted with bulwarks of wood, canvas, or other suitable material on both sides. These bulwarks may be collapsible.
Second. It should be of such size, strength, and weight that it can be handled without mechanical appliances, and, if necessary, be thrown from the vessel's deck.
Third. It should have not less than three cubic feet of air cases or equivalent buoyancy for each person whom it can accommodate.
Fourth. It should have a deck area of not less than four square feet for each person whom it can accommodate and the platform should not be less than six inches above the water level when the raft is loaded.
Fifth. The air cases or equivalent buoyancy should be placed as near as possible to the sides of the raft.
CAPACITY OF BOATS AND PONTOON RAFTS
First. The number of persons which a boat of one of the standard types or a pontoon raft can accommodate is equal to the greatest whole number obtained by dividing the capacity in cubic feet, or the surface in square feet, of the boat or of the raft by the standard unit of capacity, or unit of surface (according to circumstances), defined below for each type.
Second. The cubic capacity in feet of a boat in which the number of persons is determined by the surface shall be assumed to be ten times the number of persons which it is authorized to carry.
Third. The standard units of capacity and surface are as follows:
Units of capacity, open boats, type 1A, ten cubic feet; open boats, type 1B, nine cubic feet.
Unit of surface, open boats, type 2A, three and one-half square feet; pontoon boats, type 2C, three and one-half square feet; pontoon boats, type 1C, three and one-fourth square feet; pontoon boats, type 2B, three and one-fourth square feet.
Fourth. The Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, may accept, in place of three and onefourth, a smaller divisor, if it is satisfied after trial that the number of persons for whom there is seating accommodation in the pontoon boat in question is greater than the number obtained by applying the above divisor, provided always that the divisor adopted in place of three and one-fourth may never be less than three.
Pontoon boats and pontoon rafts shall never be marked with a number of persons greater than that obtained in the manner specified in this section. This number shall be reduced
First. When it is greater than the number of persons for which there is proper seating accommodation, the latter number being determined in such a way that the persons when seated do not interfere in any way with the use of the oars.
Second. When in the case of boats other than those of the first two sections of the first class, the freeboard, when the boat is fully loaded, is less than the freeboard laid down for each type respectively. In such circumstances the number shall be reduced until the freeboard, when the boat is fully loaded, is at least equal to the .standard freeboard laid down above.