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BOUNDARY WEST OF ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
WEBSTER-ASHBURTON TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1846.
ARTICLE I. From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of the United States and those of Her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean: Provided, however, That the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude remain free and open to both parties.
ARTICLE II. From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude shall be found to intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the navigation of the said branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to all British subjects trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets the main stream of the Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, with free access into and through the said river or rivers, it being understood that all the usual portages along the line thus described shall, in like manner, be free and open. In navigating the said river, or rivers, British subjects, with their goods and produce, shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States; it being, however, always understood that nothing in this article shall be construed as preventing, or intending to prevent, the Government of the United States from making any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers not inconsistent with the present treaty.
The above treaty extended the line westward from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific along the forty-ninth parallel of latitude. This settled the northern boundary with the exception of the islands and passages in the straits of Georgia and of Juan de Fuca, the English claiming that the boundary should properly run through the Rosario Strait, the most eastern passage, while the United States claimed that it should naturally follow the Strait of Haro.
This matter was finally settled by a reference to the Emperor of Germany as an arbitrator, who decided it in favor of the United States on the 21st of October, 1872, thus finally disposing of our boundary with Great Britain.
ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES.
The entire basin of the Mississippi, with much of the coast region of the Gulf of Mexico, which was subsequently known as the territory of Louisiana, was originally claimed by France by virtue of discovery and, occupation.
In 1712 France made a grant to Antoine de Crozat of the exclusive right to the trade of this region. As this grant makes the first, and, indeed, the only statement of the limits of this vast region, as they were understood by France, a portion of it is here introduced.
We have by these presents signed with our hand, authorized, and do authorize the said Sieur Crozat to carry on exclusively the trade in all the territories by us