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admitted as a State with its present boundaries. These are defined below in an extract from the State constitution:
Beginning one marine league at sea due west from the point where the fortysecond parallel of north latitude intersects the same; thence northerly, at the same distance from the line of the coast lying west and opposite the State, including all islands within the jurisdiction of the United States, to a point due west and opposite the middle of the north ship channel of the Columbia River; thence easterly to and up the middle channel of said river, and where it is divided by islands, up the middle of the widest channel thereof, and in like manner up the middle of the main channel of Snake River to the mouth of the Owyhee River; thence due south to the parallel of latitude forty-two degrees north; thence west along said parallel to the place of beginning, including jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases upon the Columbia River and Snake River concurrently with States and Territories of which those rivers form a boundary in common with this State. But the Congress of the United States, in providing for the admission of this State into the Union, may make the said northern boundary conform to the act creating the Territory of Washington.
The boundary line between Oregon and Washington on the fortysixth parallel of latitude was surveyed and marked in 1864, under the General Land Office.
This was organized March 2, 1853, from a part of Oregon Territory. Its limits, as originally constituted, were as given in the following clause from the act of Congress creating it:
That from and after the passage of this act all that portion of Oregon Territory lying and being south of the forty-ninth degree of north latitude, and north of the middle of the main channel of the Columbia River from its mouth to where the forty-sixth degree of north latitude crosses said river, near Fort Walla Walla, thence with said forty-sixth degree of latitude to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, be organized into and constitute a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Washington. (Thirty-second Congress, second session.)
In 1859, on the formation of the State of Oregon, the residue of the Territory of Oregon, being the portion lying east of the present limits of the State, extending thence to the crest of the Rocky Mountains, was added to Washington. This area, with the part of Washington lying east of its present limits, was included in Idaho on the formation of that Territory in 1863.
The present boundaries of the State of Washington are as follows: Beginning on the coast at the mouth of the Columbia River; following up the main channel of the Columbia River to its point of intersection with the forty-sixth parallel of latitude; thence east on the forty-sixth parallel to the Snake River; thence down the main channel of the Snake River to the mouth of the Clearwater; thence north on the meridian which passes through the mouth of the Clearwater to the boundary line between the United States and the British Possessions; thence west with that boundary line to the Pacific.
Washington was admitted as a State on November 11, 1889, with its limits as above defined.
BOUNDARY LINES OF THE STATES.
California was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850. area was taken from territory acquired from Mexico by the treaty of Guadelupe-Hidalgo. Its limits, as defined in the State constitution, are as follows:
Commencing at the point of intersection of forty-second degree of north latitude with the one hundred and twentieth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, and running south on the line of said one hundred and twentieth degree of west longitude until it intersects the thirty-ninth degree of north latitude; thence running in a straight line in a southeasterly direction to the river Colorado, at a point where it intersects the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude; thence down the middle of the channel of said river to the boundary line between the United States and Mexico as established by the treaty of May 30, 1848; thence running west and along said boundary line to the Pacific Ocean, and extending therein three English miles; thence running in a northwesterly direction and following the direction of the Pacific coast to the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence on the line of said fortysecond degree of north latitude to the place of beginning. Also all the islands, harbors, and bays along and adjacent to the Pacific coast.
The northern boundary was surveyed and marked in 1868-69, under the General Land Office.