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Students must answer the question under A and any five of the questions under B. Note that the last question is equivalent to two.


State carefully Locke's theory that the only source of knowledge is experience. Examine this theory under two heads, (1) the source of ideas, and (2) the part played by thought in constituting knowledge.


1. What is Descartes' proof of the existence of matter?


2. What does Spinoza mean by attribute? Why did he claim that there is an infinite number of attributes?

3. State and examine Leibnitz' view of freedom?

4. Is Berkeley consistent in attributing the origin of ideas of sensation to God?

5. "Berkeley simplified Locke's doctrine by eliminating material substance. Hume further simplified the theory by reducing mental substance to a series of impressions and ideas." Expand this statement.

6-7. State briefly the philosophic system of either Descartes, Spinoza or Leibnitz, and point out any fundamental defect you find in it.



(Special paper for students registered previous to the present session).

Students must answer six questions. Note that the last question is equivalent to two.

1. State and examine the Socratic doctrine of virtue.

2. Give Plato's views on the relative values of literature, mathematics and dialectic.

3. Explain the idea of the "mean" as held by Aristotle, and estimate its value.

4. How do the Stoics and the Epicureans each regard (a) the individual, (b) the state?

5. What is Descartes' conception of the relation of mind and matter?

6. Examine Locke's view that mind is at birth a "tabula rasa."

7-8. State carefully the theories of knowledge held by (a) Protagoras, (b) Locke. Examine these theories carefully, stating your own view as to the source of knowledge and the part played by thought in extending the range of knowledge.



(Answer two questions in A, and four in B. The last question is compulsory).


1. How did the ancient sceptics seek to prove the relativity of knowledge? Criticize the doctrine.

2. Give a short account of the philosophy of Plotinus, and point out its relation to Christianity.

3. Explain and examine Kant's doctrine that a moral act must exclude all objects of desire.

4. State Kant's arguments for (a) immortality, (b) the existence of God. Are they satisfactory?


5. Discuss the analogy of morality with art, as used in the argument with Thrasymachus.

6. Does the Platonic state give adequate scope for individuality?

7. What was the theory of Ideas or Forms?

8. Explain and criticize Plato's psychology.

9. 'Imitation—it enters into the very fastnesses of character; and we, our souls, ourselves, are for ever imitating what we see and hear.' Discuss this view with reference to the 'Republic.'

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