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4. Account for the difference in efficiency and success of the English efforts in the Seven Years' War and in that of the American Revolution.


1. What events in the reign of Louis XVI seem to you to have aided in precipitating the French Revolution? Give reasons in defence of your answer.

2. "I am the Revolution.” What did Napoleon mean when he said that, and to what extent is his claim justified by facts?

3. Give a full account of Napoleon's dealings with any one of the following countries: Prussia, Poland, Italy, or Egypt and Syria.

4. Contrast the rival merits in war of Wellington and Napoleon, using as illustration the entire Waterloo campaign. Give, if you can, a map of the country involved in the struggle.

D. (for intra-mural students only).

Discuss the change in the influence exerted by trade and commerce on war, using Seeley's argument for the eighteenth, and Angell's Great Illusion for to-day; or, illustrate the strength and weakness of theory in politics from Rousseau's Contrat Social.



(Candidates will attempt question 10, and any six others).

1. Estimate the importance of the discovery of the New World on European thought down to 1625.

2. Make out a sketch plan, suitable for an essay or a lecture, upon: The life and ideals of Columbus.

3. Give a short account of the Jesuit Missions in any two of (a) South America, (b) Maryland, (c) Canada.

4. Sketch the Spanish system of colonial administration. Do you agree with Bourne's estimate of it?

5. Explain the conditions in England which led to the founding of (a) New England, (b) Maryland.

6. "The colonial policy of Cromwell was that of his predecessors, as it was that of the statesmen who followed him." (a) Explain this statement. (b) Discuss its accuracy.

7. Explain the importance to the British colonies of the illicit trade with Spanish America.

8. What were the forces making for union in the American colonies previous to 1763? Why did they prove unsuccessful?

9. How far were the causes of the American Revolution economic?

10. Write short notes, explanatory or critical, on the following passages from Lord Durham's Report:

(a) "The singular alliance between the English population and the colonial officials, who combined from perfectly different motives, and with perfectly different objects, against a common enemy."

(b) “A degree of practical toleration, known in very few communities, has existed in Lower Canada, from the period of the conquest, down to the present time."

(c) "The evils produced by the system of reserving land for the clergy have become notorious, even in this country."

(d) "Throughout the whole of the North American provinces there prevails among the British population an affection for the mother country, and a preference for its institutions, which a wise and firm policy on the part of the imperial government may make the foundation of a safe, honourable, and enduring connexion."



Four questions in A, one in B, and one in C are to be done.


1. Compare the philosophy of the Megarians, Cyrenaics and Cynics.

2. Give Glaucon's defence of the thesis that justice is conventional. How does Plato's conception of justice differ from that of the Sophists?

3. Give and explain Aristotle's definition of the soul.

4. Estimate the value of Aristotle's conception of virtue as habit.

5. "The conception of the finite in some sense presupposes the conception of the infinite." If this is admitted, why does Descartes employ the principle of causality in proof of the existence of God?

6. Compare Spinoza's first and second stages of knowledge. What does he mean by "intuition"?

7. What contradiction is involved in Spinoza's doctrine that God is completely expressed both in nature and in mind? Is his solution of the contradiction satisfactory?

8. What does Leibnitz mean by a "monad," and how do monads differ from one another?


9. Discuss the theory of psychophysical dispositions in its relations to memory and recognition.

10. Can 'revival by similarity' and 'revival by contiguity' be reduced to a single fundamental principle of Association? If so, how?


11. Distinguish between the universal and collective judgments and show the relation of the former to the hypothetical judgment.

12. What is Induction? State and criticize the theories advanced by Aristotle in this connection.

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