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the context in which it appears:—
(a) "It is not the dark place that hinders, but the dim eye.”
(b) "Thus the 'golden-calf of Self-love," however curiously carved, was not their Deity; but the invisible Goodness, which alone is man's reasonable service."
Oh, if we draw a circle premature,
Greedy for quick returns of profit, sure,
Bad is our bargain!
(d) But here is the finger of God, a flash of the will that can, Existent behind all laws, that made them, and, lo, they are!
(The following questions, 7 and 8, may be answered by extramural students only in place of any two questions in sections A and B.
7. (a) Describe the use and development of the medieval folk ballad. Name the chief characteristics of its style and thought, making references to specific ballads, and quoting wherever possible.
(b) Give some examples of Milton's use of archaic words and Latin constructions.
8. (a) Compare Dryden's use of the "heroic couplet" with that of Chaucer, Pope and Keats.
(b) Write brief character sketches of Horatio and Claudius.
9. Answer (a) and three other parts of this question.
(a) Name the most important members of the IndoEuropean family of languages. Why do these languages differ so widely?
(b) What different relationships between Latin and English are involved in the following three groups of words: piscis, fish; sanctus, saint; calx, chalk? Give a parallel in each case.
(c) Give three distinct examples of changes in language due to accident and three distinct examples of changes due to phonetic law.
(d) Write briefly on either the Danish or the Greek element in English.
(e) What aspects of early English life are reflected in Anglo-Saxon poetry?
10. Answer (a) and three other parts of this question. (a) Render literally in modern English:
1. And therto hadde he riden (no man ferre).
2. Was verraily felicitee parfyt.
3. But al that he mighte of his frendes hente.
4. Or if men smoot it with a yerde smerte.
5. Ful looth were him to cursen for his tythes.
6. Ful ofte tyme he had the bord bigonne.
7. And born him wel, as of so litel space.
8. What sholde he studie, and make himselven wood.
(b) Account for the modern spelling of four of the italicized words in the lines above.
(c) Account for the Chaucerian form of four of the italicized words in the following expressions: "late y-come," "the longe day," "sleves longe," "carf biforn his fader," "I was of hir felawshipe."
(d) Give the original meaning and account for the modern meaning of four of the following words: liquor, could, board (of trustees), curious, dangerous.
(e) Give Layamon's account of the passing of Arthur.
Students must select two questions from each of the sections A, B, C. Every student's selection must contain one at least of the questions asterisked.
1. Describe the social and economic condition of Britain after the withdrawal of the legions.
*2. Describe, with the aid of a sketch map, the early settlement of Britain by the Teutons. What reasons have we for mistrusting the received account?
3. Estimate the consequences to England of the Synod of Whitby.
4. Give some account of Mercian supremacy and decline.
5. Mark out the principal stages in the growth of the empire of Wessex.
6. Describe the main constitutional tendencies in the later Anglo-Saxon monarchy.
7. 'The Norman Conquest was neither Norman nor a Conquest.' Explain.
*8. Describe, with a sketch map, the condition of the Welsh border from 1066-1272.
9. Estimate the military significance of the year 1070.
10. Describe the economic condition of England from 1066-1189.
11. Describe the administrative changes which took place between the time of the Norman Conquest and the date of the death of Henry I.
*12. Discuss the relations between England and the Continent during the reign of Henry II. Illustrate, if possible, with a sketch map.
13. 'Magna Carta is a retrograde document.' What evidence can be cited in support of this statement?
14. How far was the opposition to Henry III a quence of the factious discontent of a few great nobles?
*15. Why did Edward I succeed in Wales and fail in Scotland?
Illustrate your answer by references to the geographical peculiarities of each country.
16. Compare the constitutional opposition to Edward II and to Edward III.
17. Account for the initial failure and partial success of Edward III's attack on France.
18. Investigate the causes, and outline the history, of the Peasants' Revolt.
19. In what directions was the liberty of the English Church curtailed by (a) the Pope, (b) the King, during the fourteenth century?
20. "Never was there a less justifiable war." fair description of Henry V's attack on France?
Is this a
21. Account for the breakdown of Constitutional Government in the hands of the Lancastrians.
22. Estimate the importance of London in English History from 1066-1485.
(Candidates will attempt six questions, of which one must be taken from each of the three sectins).
1. Describe what seem to you the motives leading each of the following statesmen to intervene in the Thirty Years' War: Oxenstjerna, Wallenstein, Richelieu, James I. of England.
2. Account for the change in the position of England in Europe when Cromwell entered on his term of power.
3. Louis XIV avait rendu la France odieuse à ses voisins et suspecte à tonte l'Europe" (Louis XIV had rendered France hateful to her neighbours, and suspected by all Europe). Justify this criticism of Louis XIV's foreign policy.
4. Describe the Spanish Succession War as a purely Spanish affair, and from the Spanish point of view.
1. Illustrate what is meant by "the expansion of England" between the years 1713 and 1763.
2. Defend the thesis that Frederick II of Prussia was the greatest man in the eighteenth century (i.e. before Napoleons time).
3. Write a note on either (a) the Blenheim campaign, or (b) the Rossbach-Leuthen campaign of Frederick; or (c) draw a map of Italy with the political divisions of the eighteenth century.