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A complete theoretical discussion will be expected.
7. From a solution of magnesium chloride, ammonium hydroxide solution will partially precipitate the magnesium as the hydroxide. From the same solution of magnesium chloride, ammonium carbonate solution will precipitate the greater part of the magnesium as a basic carbonate. Neither of these reactions will occur, however, if ammonium chloride be previously added to the magnesium chloride solution. Explain completely.
(Nine questions only to be answered).
. 1. Distinguish between alkyl and acyl halides, giving some of the important reactions by which each is formed and also some reactions of the different substances with other substances.
2. How is malic acid obtained? What is its relation to succinic acid and to tartaric acid as shown by structural formulae and by the reactions which change one of the acids to the other?
3. A colourless liquid is given you which may be an aldehyde, an ether or an amine; how would you determine which it is?
4. Discuss cyclic hydrocargons in general or aromatic halogen derivatives.
5. Give the structural formulae of the following and the name which corresponds to the formula (e.g. chloroform is trichloromethane): phenol, aniline, alanine, guaiacol, pyrogallol, saccharin, alizarin, palmitin, nitroglycerine, chloral.
6. Discuss briefly any great division of organic substances of medicinal or economic importance, for example, alkaloids, or dyes, or proteins; or, discuss more particularly any one important organic substance whose use is such as to make its manufacture an important industry.
7. Apply the phase rule to the dehydration of hydrated salts, for instance copper sulphate.
8. The value of R as applied to gases is approximately the same as in the case of the solute in dilute solutions. Calculate the value in either case showing what is meant by the number obtained. Show what deductions can be made from the fact that the values in the two cases mentioned above are the same.
9. Draw a figure to represent the cooling of a dilute solution to the point of saturation; also the cooling of a saturated solution, and make deductions from the figure.
10. How can the molecular weight of a substance be determined from the lowering of the freezing point of a solution of it?
11. What is meant by balanced action? Illustrate by the case of ethyl acetate.
12. Apply the theory of electrolytic dissociation to as many cases as you have time for.
1. Describe fully the life history of a river valley under ordinary conditions of weathering and erosion. Cite illustrations of the stages, as far as possible, from present day
2. Describe the types of topography produced by Alpine and Continental glaciers, and, in as far as possible, show how they are produced.
3. (a) What type of coast is found in Prince Edward Island? in British Columbia? How was each formed?
(b) Cite two examples of control of drainage by underlying rock structure from Canada, describing the conditions as fully as possible.
4. Define the following rocks and show how they are formed: (a) quartz diorite; (b) slate; (c) quartz porphyry; (d) granite gneiss; (e) hornblende syenite.
5. Define the following terms and, where possible, show briefly how the object or structure or material (as the case may be) is formed: (a) amygdaloid; (b) till; (c) artesian well; (d) nevé; (e) monsoon; (f) fault breccia; (g) isobar; (h) batholith; (i) stalagmite; (j) coquina.
6. What can you say about earthquakes, their origin and distribution? Describe the distribution of volcanoes. What is the probable relation between the two? What is the probable nature of the earth's interior, and why?
7. Name the chief subdivisions of the Tertiary, describe its distribution and sediments in North America, and state the chief features of the history and life of the Tertiary.
8. (A) Select five of the following and describe or illustrate by sketch, and state the age: (a) Ostracoderms; (b) Cyrtoceras; (c) Eurypterus; (d) Glossopteris; (e) Trinucleus; (f) Orthoceras; (g) Lepidodendron; (h) Mastodon.
(B) Name and describe the principal types of reptiles of the Mesozoic.
9. Describe all the easily observable phenomena (including barometric changes) that accompany an ordinary oneor-two-day winter rain or snow storm, and show how they are related.