Puslapio vaizdai



1. Write a note on Bacteria, discussing them under the headings: structure, reproduction, effects on dead materials. and on living materials, toxins and antitoxins, methods of preventing infection.

2. Show by diagrams the peculiarities of one poisonous mushroom, and of an edible one, sketching their life histories and methods of reproduction.

3. Describe briefly (1) the life history of each generation of a fern; (2) of each generation of a moss; (3) the structure and reproduction of Edogonium.

4. Mention the peculiarities of Gymnosperms in each of the following particulars: habits of growth; structure of wood; style and structure of leaf; kind of flowers; and kind of fruit.

5. Tell of the distinguishing marks of a monocotyledon in seed, in stem, in leaf and in flower, and make a floral diagram of Liliales.

6. Describe the structure and purpose (1) of an herbaceous dicotyledonous stem; (2) of xylem; (3) of phloem; (4) of cambium; and (5) of the root-cap.

7. Discuss briefly the process of diffusion of liquids, both solvents and solutes, noting its laws. Tell of the importance of this process in plant life. Describe briefly photosynthesis, assimilation, and respiration.

8. Tell (1) of plant breeding by selection.

(2) of plant breeding by hybridization.

(3) of plant reproduction by grafting and budding.

(4) of the modifications and habits of хего


(5) of the modifications of submerged water




1. Explain how we know that muscles contract on receiving a nerve impulse along a nerve. How is it that the human body can maintain the upright position and does not collapse in a heap? In what two ways may a muscle be paralysed?

2. What is the chief cause of the struggle for existence? What are some of its results?

3. Name the organs of the respiratory system in mammals. What other function does some of these organs perform? Point out the principal differences between expired and inspired air.

4. Give the general characters of (a) animals and (b) of plants, and specify exceptions to the characters in both


5. What diseases are spread from alvine discharges? Explain how the germs of these diseases are transferred from person to person. How may the spread of these diseases be prevented?

6. Distinguish idiocy, imbecility, weak-mindedness and insanity from each other. Discuss methods by which the state can prevent the multiplication of citizens afflicted with such defects.

Write the answers to the three following questions in a separate examination pad.

7. Describe (a) the water-vascular system, (b) the nervous system of the Echinodermata.

8. Write a note on the Class Insecta.

9. Trace the development of the heart from the Pisces to the Aves.

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