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Two Old Maps and Their Odd Inaccuracies
BY GEORGE B. UPHAM
ITH the progress of the Revolu
W tion European interest in the
theater of the war was greatly stimulated. As campaigns were conducted and battles fought in places hitherto unheard of in Europe the demand. for maps increased.
It was for some time thought that the issue of the conflict would be settled in New England or on its western borders. Here, quite naturally, the cartographers concentrated their attention. The Connecticut River valley was of interest, for New England might be invaded through this natural approach from from Canada.
The earliest map issued to supply the new demand was published in London in 1776. Its full title is
A MAP OF
Compiled from Actual Surveys by order of
WILLIAM TRYON, Esq.
Captain General and Governor of the Same, By CLAUDE JOSEPH SAUTHIER to which is added New Jersey, from the Topographical Observations.
of C. J. SAUTHIER & B. RATZER. Engraved by WILLIAM FADEN, (Successor to the late Mr. Thos. Jefferys, 1776)
The Counties and "Mannors" are colored in a way to make the map highly decorative. It seems strange to see Albany County reaching from the Delaware River, the border of Pennsylvania, nearly to the Connecticut River back of Brattleborough. Two counties, Cumberland and Glocester, extend along the
Connecticut from Massachusetts to the Canada line. New York then claimed all the territory now Vermont and these counties are colored as vividly as those on or west of the Hudson. This visualization, better than any print or words, impresses the fact that New York once exercised dominion as far east as the Connecticut River.
All of New Hampshire that is shown. is left blank except along the Great River. Here towns of consequence are indicated by circles; larger circles and more prominent lettering indicating the larger settlements; Charlestown No. 4, Ashley and Windsor are thus made to appear as of more consequence than Unity, "Clearmount" and Cornish. Ashley is placed near the sharp right-angled bend in the Connecticut which is seen just above the ferry. The name "Clearmount" is placed south of "Sugar R" which is made to rise in a small pond about ten miles east of Plainfield. (1)
Further north we find Lebanon, and close to it Dartmouth College with the crude suggestion of a large two-steepled building. Hanover is five or six miles further north. Crossing the Connecticut into Cumberland County, New York, we find Ware (now Hartford) opposite Lebanon. (2) Further south are Windsor and Weathersfield, as well as Ascutney and Caschetchawage (Skitchawaug) Mountains, properly placed. A road is shown passing through Charlestown and Ashley, crossing the Connecticut River near Windsor and ending apruptly at Juill's (Lull's) Brook in "Hart," that is Hartland.
(1) Sugar River flows from Sunapee Lake at the "Harbor," about midway on its much indented western shore. With sometimes sharp angles, sometimes winding curves, its clear amber waters flow in a general westerly direction. Descending in its twenty miles about 830 feet it empties into the Connecticut four miles westerly from Claremont Village, and a mile or two southeasterly from the lower slopes of Ascutney. A view of it and of the mountain from Lottery Bridge in Claremont is a view to be remembered. See illustration in Granite Monthly. Vol. 52, p. 50.
(2) Few know of the existence of Hartford Vermont, but as White River Junction it is familiar at least around the railroad station-to hundreds of thousands who have wearily waited there.
PART OF THE M. BRION DE LA TOUR MAP, PARIS 1779. HEAVY BLACK LINES INDICATE PROVINCE BOUNDARIES.
King's Wod Rochest
A French map purporting to show the theatre of the War between the English and Americans, and to have been drawn from the latest English maps, also shows Ashley, but not Claremont. It was published in Paris in 1779 and in one corner is described as follows:
THEATRE DE LA GUERRE Entre les Anglais
et les Americains :
d'apres les Cartes Anglaises les plus modernes, Par M. Brion de la Tour, IngenieurGeographe du Roi. 1779 a Paris
Chez Esnauts et Rapilly, rue St. Jacques a la Ville de Coutances.
The title is embellished by the depiction of an impossible Indian having the physiognomy of a British prize-fighter, dressed in a costume of skins and feathers, the like of which no Indian ever saw. Shod with Greek sandals he is seated in the forest with shield, battle flags and other European impedimenta beside him.
be, we again find Ware, but on this French map engraved "Major Villard's ou Ware." Recalling that Hartford, this location, was one of the Hampshire Grants in 1761; that the King in Council in 1764 declared "the Western Banks of the River Connecticut......to be the Boundary Line between the two Provinces of New Hampshire and New York;" and further recalling the fact that the French have no W in their alphabet; we are led to look to the New York records for a knowledge of Major Willard's activities. Investigation reveals that he had obtained a New York charter for Hertford, now Hartland, adjoining Hartford on the south, and was employed to act for the Proprietors of the latter town. He apparently gave the impression that he owned it. It further appears that New York was willing, on certain conditions, to grant the charter under the name Ware, but there were delays, perhaps owing to the lack of cordiality between the "Green Mountain Boys" and the "Yorkers," so the charter was never issued. The name given by Benning Wentworth remained, except in so far as, to the outside word, it was changed to White River Junction after the coming of the railroads.
It will be seen that M. Brion de la Tour made as much of a mess of the rivers flowing into the Connecticut from the west as he did of those flowing into it from the east
"Ashley," its circle surmounted by a cross indicating the possession of a church, is here shown as just south of "Pt. Sugar R," (Little Sugar River) which should be in Charlestown and Unity, several miles south of Ashley. It is, however, moved north to take the place of the real Sugar River, while the latter is, in turn, shoved several miles further north and made to empty into the Connecticut directly opposite "Mt. Asseumea" (Ascutney) at a place about half way between the circles designating the locations of Weathersfield and Windsor. Claremont and Cornish are wholly omitted. "Blowme Down R❞ is properly placed but "Darmouth" is located half-way between Plainfield and Hanover.
Over the river from "Darmouth," which is placed where Lebanon should
Judging by the varied size of the lettering and circles or pentagons Walpole "Charles Town" and "Darmouth" were the largest towns in this vicinity. Next in size were Ashley and Windsor, while Weathersfield, Plainfield, and Dantzick, now Newbury (much too far north) were less populous. The outlet of the unnamed lake, Sunapee, is placed at its southern end. This unnamed river is evidently intended for Cold River for it flows into the Connecticut a little north of Walpole. The map maker had merged Cold Pond with Sunapee. To be continued
AN ANTHOLOGY OF ONE POEM POETS
have been selected, though it is not
Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, as suddenly as the thought struck him, when he and a friend of his who long ago described it to me, were hunting for a lost poem together: "I should like to have an anthology of the one-poem poets!"— in sympathy with which fugitive. wish the poems to be published under this heading from month to month.
WINDS TODAY ARE LARGE AND FREE
BY MICHAEL FIELD
Winds to-day are large and free,
Ah, it is a wild, sweet land
As our frosts can never rob
Of their triumph, when they bound
Great within me is my soul,
Oh, to keep the spring with them
SAY NOT THE STRUGGLE NAUGHT AVAILETH
BY ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH
Say not the struggle naught availeth,
And as things have been they remain.