Puslapio vaizdai

twelve hours. A great part of the capital was destroyed, and some hundreds of junks were lost.

The soil of the lower tracts and the more gentle slopes of the mountains is very fertile, and produces abundance of corn, which is exported to the harbours of Fukian, of which the island is said to be the granary. It produces rice of excellent quality; also wheat, millet, maize, and several kinds of vegetables, among which are truffles. The sugar-cane is extensively cultivated, and the sugar made in the island goes to China, as far as Peking. Orchards are carefully attended to. They produce oranges, pine-apples, guavas, cocoa-nuts, areca-nuts, jack-fruit, and other fruits found in the East Indies; also peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, pomegranates, and chestnuts. Melons are also much grown. Only green tea is cultivated, and it is stated that it forms an article of export to China, where it is used as a medicine. The blossoms of the wild jasmine are dried and exported to China, where they are used to give a scent to the tea. Other articles of export are camphor, pepper, aloes, and timber. Timber abounds in the large forests in the northern districts of the island. It is also stated that coffee, cotton, and silk are produced to a small amount.

duce of the country, especially rice and sugar, to this place. Tan-shuy-kiang, at the embouchure of the river Tan-huy khy, is at the innermost recess of a fine bay, which w large enough for a numerous fleet, but has not been visited by Europeans. The best harbour is near the northern extremity of the island, and is called Ky-long-shai: the Dutch call it Quelong. It is capacious enough to contain 30 large vessels, and is the station of the Chinese navy at the island. An active commerce is carried on at this place.

The commerce of the island is limited to that with the eastern provinces of China, especially Fukian, to which it sends its agricultural produce, with sulphur and salt, and from which it imports tea, raw silk, woollen and cotton stuffs, and other manufactures. It is stated that the number of junks that annually enter the ports amounts to more than 1000. The navigation of the channel of Fukian, though difficult on account of the gales and the rough sea, is rendered much less so by the situation of the Ponghu Islands, which offer a safe refuge in time of danger. These rocky islands are thirty-six in number, most of them very small, and a few somewhat larger. The largest has an excellent harbour, in which vessels of between nine and ten feet draught may anchor in security. The Chinese have erected some fortifications on them, as they have occasionally been taken possession of by pirates, who frequently infest the adjacent coast of China.

Opposite the southern extremity of the eastern coast of Taï-wan is the island of Botol Tabago-xima. It is elevated, and about ten miles in circumference. It is surrounded by a sea without soundings, and no navigator has ever landed on it. It is said to be very populous.

The domestic animals are cattle, buffaloes, horses, asses, and goats, but sheep and hogs are rare. The horses are small, and the Chinese find them unfit for their cavalry. It is said that on the eastern unknown portion of the island there are many beasts of prey, as tigers, leopards, and wolves, but they are not found on the western side, where wild hogs, deer, monkeys, pheasants, and game are very abundant. Salt is made to a great extent, and, together with sulphur, forms a large article of export.

The population consists of Chinese settlers and of aborigines. The Chinese are only found on the west side of the island, where they first settled a hundred and eighty years ago (1662). Their number many years ago was stated to be about 500,000 individuals. They are mostly from Fukian, and have preserved the customs of their original country, and the spirit of industry and enterprise by which their countrymen are distinguished. A considerable number of aborigines are settled among the Chinese, to whom they are subject, and are obliged to pay a tribute in corn and money. The collectors of the tribute are Chinese, who are required to know the language of the aborigines for the purpose of explaining to them the orders of the court. It is said that the oppression to which the aborigines are subject from these interpreters frequently causes them to rise in rebellion. These aborigines are of a slender make, and in complexion resemble the Malays, but they do not differ from the Chinese in features. Their language shows that they belong to the widely spread race of the Malay nations; and it is said that they greatly resemble the Horaforas of the Moluccas. Their religion resembles what is called Shamanism. The Dutch took some steps to convert them to Christianity, but their sway on the island was too limited and of too short a duration to produce any lasting effect. Nothing is known of the aborigines who inhabit the east side of the island. They are not subject | to the Chinese, and are said to be continually at war with them. Inhabiting a country covered with lofty mountains, they are said to subsist mostly on the produce of the chase and by fishing.

The Chinese portion of Taï-wan is divided into four districts, which, from south to north, are Fung-shan-hian, Taï-wan-hian, Tshul-lo-hian, and Thang-hua-hian. The capital, Taï-wan-fu, is a considerable place, and has a garrison of 10,000 troops. The wall was built in 1725. The streets are straight, and intersect one another at right angles: they are full of shops, which are abundantly provided with all articles of Chinese industry. The largest building is that which was erected by the Dutch during their short sway in Tai-wan. There is still a small church built by the Dutch. It is stated that 1000 junks can anchor in the harbour; but as the single entrance, at spring-tides, has but from nine to ten feet of water, only vessels of moderate size can enter it. There was formerly another entrance, which had a greater depth of water, and for the protection of which the Dutch had built the fortress of Zelandia; but it is said that this entrance has been filled up with sand. The commerce of this place with China is considerable. Wu-teaou-kiang, which was visited by Lindsay in 1832, has a harbour, which was then crowded with junks and numerous coasting vessels which brought the pro-after them by other European nations, to the Buddhist

TALAPOINS is the name given by the Portuguese, and

It appears that the island of Taï-wan was known to the Chinese and Japanese at an early period, but they did not settle on it nor subject it to their sway. When the Dutch appeared in these seas, following the track of the Portuguese, they found no Chinese settlement either on the Ponghu Islands or on Tai-wan. They erected some fortification on the Ponghu Islands, and in 1634 they built the fortress of Zelandia at the entrance of the harbour of Taïwan-fu, where there was then a small town. They built also a small fortress at the harbour of Ky-long-shai. The protection which was thus offered to emigrants induced a large number of families from Fukian to settle in the island, and the colony rose rapidly in importance. Meanwhile China was laid waste by the wars which terminated in the overthrow of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the present family on the throne. The adherents of he former dynasty maintained their footing longest in the eastern and southern provinces, Chekiang, Fukian, and Quangtun, but being pressed by their enemies, they abandoned the mainland, and continued the war on the sea. One of their chiefs, Tshing-tshing-kung, called by the Europeans Koxinga, sailed, after the loss of a battle, to the Ponghu Islands, and occupied them. Hence he proceeded to Taï-wan, and finding only a very weak garrison in the Dutch fortress, he took it, after a siege of four months, in 1662. Thus the Dutch lost the island, after having been in possession of it for twenty-eight years. Tshing-tshingkung, the new king of Taï-wan, favoured the settling of his countrymen, the inhabitants of Fukian, and thus the island in a short time was converted into a Chinese colony. He was also favourable to the English, who had, during his reign, a commercial establishment on the island, from which they carried on an active commerce with Amoy. The province of Fukian, which continued its opposition to the victorious Mantchoos longer than any other part of China, had been compelled to submit to their sway; and as Tshing-tshing-kung had died, and the throne of Taï-wan was occupied by a minor, a Chinese fleet in 1682 took possession of the Ponghu Islands. The Chinese were also preparing a descent on Taï-wan, when, in 1683, the council which governed in the name of the young prince thought it most prudent to surrender the island to the court of Peking without a war.

(Père du Mailla, Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, vol. xviii.; Klaproth's Description de l'Isle de Formose, er traite de livres Chinois, in Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie; La Pérouse, Voyage autour du Monde; and Lindsay's Voyage of the vessel Amherst along the coast of China, in Parliamentary Reports, 1831.)

priests, or rather monks, of Siam, and is supposed to be p. 110. In their dresses of yellow cotton or silk, which derived from the fan which they always carry, usually are of the same fashion with those of the Buddhist priests made of a leaf of the palmyra-tree, and hence, says Craw- in Ava and Ceylon, the Talapoins of Siam present a highly furd (Journal of Embassy to Siam, p. 358), denominated favourable contrast to the rags and squalidity of the geneby the Sanscrit word Talpat. Tal is the common Indian ral population. On the other hand, a talapoin is not only name for the palmyra; and the older travellers give Ta-separated from society by being condemned to celibacy, lapa as the Siamese word for a fan. In the Pali (or learned and is prohibited from possessing property, but is expected tongue) the Talapoins of Siam are said to be called Thayn- to observe very strictly several of the precepts of the ka; but in the common language of the country they are national religion which are very little attended to by anyspoken of, as well as to, simply by the term Chau-cou, or body else, especially the prohibitions against the slaying Chau-ca, which signifies My ford (or literally Lord of me), of animals (although they will eat them when slain), stealthe first of the two forms being that commonly used, the ing, adultery, lying, and drinking wine. There are differother that employed to express extraordinary inferiority on ent orders of Talapoins, and La Loubere says there are the part of the speaker. (La Loubere, Du Royaume de also female Talapoins, whom he calls Talapouines; but Siam, i. 407.) Mr. Crawfurd states that they are called these, according to Crawfurd, are only a few old women Phra, which he says is a Pali word signifying Lord, ap- who are allowed to live in the unoccupied cells of some of plied also to Gautama or Buddha, to the king, to the white the monasteries. The national head of the Talapoins, elephant, to the idols of Buddha, &c. By the Burmese styled the Son-krat, is appointed to that dignity by the the Talapoins are said to be called Rahans, whence seems king, and always resides in the royal palace. to come the name Raulins, given to them by the Mohammedans; as by the Chinese they are called Ho-changi; in Tibet, Lama-seng or Lamas; and in Japan, Bonzes. (Prevost, Histoire Générale des Voyages, vi. 328; and Dr. Fr. Buchanan, On the Religion and Literature of the Burmas, in Asiatic Researches, vol. vi.) In Ceylon the name for the ordinary priests is stated to be Tirounnanse; but, as the novices are said to be styled Saman Eroo Ounnanse, and certain inspectors, exercising a general superintendence over the temples, Naïke Ounnanse and Mahanaike Ounnanse, it would seem that the name for priests of all kinds is Ounnanse. (Joinville, On the Religion and Manners of the People of Ceylon,' in Asiatic Researches, vol. vii.) Samana, or Somona, according to Dr. Buchanan, is a title given in Burma both to the priests and to the images of Buddha; whence the Buddhists are often called Samanians. It is derived, he says, from the Sanscrit word Saman, signifying gentleness or affability.

TALAVERA DE LA REYNA, or LA REAL, a large town of Spain, formerly in the province of Toledo, but now, since the late division of the Spanish territory, the capital of the province of its name. It is situated on the right bank of the Tagus, at the end of an extensive and well cultivated plain, 38° 52′ N. lat., 6° 39′ W. long. It was called by the Romans Ebora Talabriga, as the inscriptions and remains found in its territory show. It has a fine Gothic church, the foundation of the celebrated Rodrigo Ximenez, archbishop of Toledo, the author of a history of the Arabs and a Latin chronicle of Spain, about the beginning of the thirteenth century. The town is badly built, and the streets are narrow and crooked. The population does not exceed 12,000, who are chiefly occu-pied in the manufacture of pottery and hardware, for which Talavera is famous all over Spain. A large silk manufactory, which belongs to the government, employs also many of the population. In July, 1809, Talavera was the scene of a battle between the British under Wellington (then General Wellesley) and the French commanded by Jourdan. The battle was long and obstinately contested, but it ended in the complete defeat of the French. The exhausted condition of the English troops, who were without provisions, prevented them from following up their advantage and pursuing the enemy. There is another town, in La Mancha, called Talavera la Vieja, or the old.'

Ample information on the subject of the Talapoins is given by La Loubere, who visited Siam in 1687-8, in quality of envoy from the French king, in his work entitled Du Royaume de Siam,' 2 vols. 12mo., Amsterdam, 1691, vol. i., chaps. 17, 18, 19, 21, pp. 341-368 and 381-426; and by Mr. Crawfurd, in his Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China' (in 1821-22), 4to., London, 1828, pp. 350, &c. They are, as has been stated, a species of monks living in communities of from ten to some hundreds, and employing their time in devotion, religious study, and meditation, and in begging, or rather receiving alms, for they are not permitted actually to solicit charity. Their monasteries, in which each monk has his separate cell, are always adjoining to some temple; but it does not appear that the Talapoins officiate as priests or ministers of religion in our sense of the term. Neither are they considered as forming or belonging to the literary or learned class: the pursuit of any secular study is looked upon as unseemly and profane in a Talapoin; and in fact they are mostly very ignorant. Yet the instruction of youth in the elements of learning appears to be chiefly or exclusively in their hands. Every Siamese, we are told, becomes a Talapoin for some time. Every male in the kingdom,' says Mr. Crawfurd, must at one period or another of his life enter the priesthood, for however short a time. Even the king will be a priest for two or three days, going about for alms like the rest, and the highest officers of the government continue in the priesthood for some months. Usually, it may be supposed, a man goes through the ceremony of getting himself made a talapoin without any intention of permanently forsaking the world; but if he enters one of the sacred communities a second time, he cannot again withdraw from it. The Talapoins are said to be very numerous; but they seem to consist for the greater part of mere temporary members of the order, and of persons who have thus entered it for the second time in advanced life. Its advantages, or temptations, are, a life of idleness, exemption from taxation and from the conscription, security of subsistence and comfortable raiment, together with the ceremonious marks of respect with which a talapoin is everywhere treated. All the monasteries are endowed by the government, or by wealthy individuals, under whose protection they are considered to be. La Loubere has given a drawing of one; and another is described in Finlayson's in Britain, in Perthshire and Banffshire in Scotland, and account of The Mission to Siam and Hué in 1821-22,' | in the Shetland Islands,

Indurated talc is massive, of a greenish grey colour; the structure is schistose and curved: it is of a shining and sometimes of a pearly lustre, and somewhat translucent. It is soft and rather unctuous to the touch. Its specific gravity is 2.9.

It occurs in primitive mountains in clay slate and serpentine, in several countries on the continent of Europe

TALC, a mineral which occurs crystallized and massive, and it is probable that some distinct species of minerals have been so called. Primary form of the crystal a rhom boid, but usually occurs in the secondary form of hexagonal laminæ, and sometimes in long prisms. Cleavage distinct, perpendicular to the axis. It is easily separable into thin plates, which are flexible, but not elastic. It is easily scraped with a knife, and the powder is unctuous to the touch. Colour white, green, greyish, and blackish-green and red. Becomes negatively electrical by friction; lustre pearly. Transparent; translucent; opaque. Specific gravity 2-713.

Crystallized talc is mostly white, or of a light green colour; is met with in serpentine rocks in small quantity, with carbonate of lime, actinolite, steatite, and massive talc, &c. It is found in the mountains of Salzburg and the Tyrol: it occurs in many other parts of the world, as in Cornwall, in Kynan's Cove, where a bed of it underlies serpentine. It also occurs in Scotland, in Glen Tilt, Perthshire; and in Saxony, Silesia, and Piedmont, &c.

The massive varieties of talc are less flexible than the crystallized: they are principally of an apple-green colour, and sometimes of a radiated structure. It is met with in considerable quantity in beds in micaceous schistus, gneiss, and serpentine.

Some of the varieties of talc are infusible; others be come white, and yield a small button of enamel with borax.

affinity are not entertained, such a classification has some plausible reasons to recommend it. In fact, the feet of the two birds are formed nearly on the same principle but, then, so are those of Orthonyx, a little scansorial bird not much bigger than a robin. All three genera, in short, are remarkable for their large disproportionable feet, long and slightly curved claws, and the equality of length, or nearly so, of the outer and the middle toe. It is by instances such as these that we perceive the full extent of those unnatural combinations which result from founding our notions of classification from one set of cha TALEGALLA. Mr. G. R. Gray makes the Megapo-racters, and forgetting to look at the full consequences of diine the third and last subfamily of his Palamedeide carrying those notions into extended operation. Nor is (PALAMEDEA, Linn.). this the only peculiarity of the New Holland Vulture;

We proceed in this article to notice the genera Talegalla, Leipoa, and Megapodius, the natural history of which, especially with regard to their habits and nidification, has lately been satisfactorily made out. And first of

The Megapodiince comprise the following genera:-for, unlike all others of its family, it possesses eighteen Talegalla, Less. (Alectura, Lath.; Talegallus, Less.; feathers in its tail. An examination of the bill," Mr. Numida, James; Catheturus, Sw.); Megapodius, Quoy et Swainson gives a cut of it, which is decidedly raptorial, Gaim. [MEGAPODIIDE; CRACIDE, vol. viii., p. 132]; Me- joined with many other considerations, shows that all sites ? J. Geoffr.; Menura, Shaw (Parkinsonius, Bechst.; these are but analogical relations to the Rasores, while the Megapodius, Wagl.) [MANURA]; Alecthelia, Less. (nec real affinities of the bird are in the circle of the Vulturida, Swains.) [CRACIDE, vol. viii., p. 133]. of which it forms the rasorial type. A perfect specimen of this very rare vulture, now before us (procured by Mr. Allan Cunningham in the forests adjoining Van Diemen's Land), enables us to speak of its structure from personal examination. In the synopsis to Mr. Swainson's second volume (1837), we find it in the family Vulturidæ, under the name of Catheturus (which cannot be retained), be tween Neophron and Gypaetus, recorded as the rasorial type of the Vulturida. And yet it is no bird of prey at all. Latham, in his tenth volume, and Lesson, were right in considering it a rasorial species. es được hai so i Mr. Gould, to whom we are indebted for a full and satisfactory account of the habits of this extraordinary bird, to which we shall presently advert, modestly says:After all the facts that have been stated, I trust it will be evident that its natural situation is among the Rasores, and that it forms one of a great family of birds peculiar to Australia and the Indian Islands, of which Megapodius forms a part; and in confirmation of this view I may add, that the sternum has the two deep emarginations so truly characteristic of the Gallinacea at all events it is in no way allied to the Vulturida, and is nearly as far removed from Menura. It seems to us that Talegalla Lathami may be considered, in a degree, as the representative of the turkey in Australia. Dont boqulovat.

Description.-Adult male: whole of the upper surface, wings, and tail, blackish-brown; the feathers of the under surface blackish-brown at the base, becoming silvery-grey at the tip; skin of the head and neck deep pink-red, thinly sprinkled with short hair-like blackish-brown feathers wattle bright yellow, tinged with red where it unites with the red of the neck; bill black; irides and feet brown.

Female about a fourth less than the male in size, but so closely the same in colour as to render a separate description unnecessary. She also possesses the wattle, but not to so great an extent. (Gould.) badinyata

Size about that of a turkey.

According to Vauquelin, lamellar tale consists of






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Steatite, chlorite, and other magnesian minerals are nearly allied to mica, and they are by some mineralogists considered as varieties of the same substance.

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Generic Character.-Bill very robust, very thick, onethird of the length of the head compressed above, with the upper mandible convex; nostrils basal, lateral, ovaloblong, pierced in a large membrane; lower mandible less high but wider than the upper, nearly straight below, with smooth edges, the branches widened at the base, and that width filled up by a feathered membrane; cheeks entirely naked; head and neck furnished with feathers with simple barbules. Wings rounded, moderate, the first quill very short, the second rather longer, the third longest of all, the fourth and fifth diminishing in length after the third. Tail rather long, rounded; tarsi rather robust, moderately long, furnished with large scutella in front; toes rather long, the middle longest, the external shortest; the three front toes furnished at their origin with a membranous border, which is widest between the external and middle toes; claws convex, flattened below, slightly curved and moderately robust; the hind-toe long, resting entirely on the ground, and furnished with an equally robust claw. (Lesson.)

912 19

Mr. Gould gives the following synonyms:-New Holland Vulture, Lath.; genus Alectura, ibid.; Alectura Lathami, J. E. Gray; New Holland Vulture, Catheturus Australis, Sw.; Meleagris Lindesargii, Jameson; Brush Turkey of the colonists; Weelah of the aborigines of the Namoi.

Habits, Nidification, &c.-Mr. Gould describes Telegalla Lathami, or the Wattled Talegalla, as a gregarious bird, generally moving about in small companies, much after the manner of the Gallinaceae, and, like some species of that tribe, as very shy and distrustful. When it is disturbed, he states that it readily eludes pursuit by the pre-facility with which it runs through the tangled brush. If hard pressed, or where rushed upon by their great enemy, the native dog, the whole company spring upon the lowermost bough of some neighbouring tree, and, by a succession of leaps from branch to branch, ascend to the top, and either perch there or fly off to another part of the brush. They resort also to the branches of trees as a shelter from the sun in the middle of the day, a habit which Mr. Gould notices as greatly tending to their dedis-struction; for the sportsman is enabled to take a sure aim. and the birds, like the ruffed grouse of America, will allow a succession of shots to be fired till they are all brought down. พล But the most remarkable circumstance connected with the economy of this bird is its nidification, for it does not

Head and foot of Talegalla. (Gould.) Example, Talegalla Lathami. Latham, in his General History of Birds (vol. i.), described and figured this bird under the name of the New Holland Vulture; but, correcting his error, he, in the tenth volume, placed it among the Gallinaceous Birds, with the generic name of Alectura, which had been viously employed to designate a group of Flycatchers. M. Lesson places the genus at the end of the Phasianida.

Mr. Swainson, in his Classification of Birds (vol. i., 1836), treating of the Vulturida, notices this species, under the name of the New Holland Vulture, as being so like a rasorial bird, that some authors have hesitated (not having seen a specimen) as to what order it really belonged. So completely indeed,' says he, has nature guised this rare and extraordinary vulture in the semblance of that type which it is to represent in its own family, that it has even been classed by one writer with the Menura of the same Continent; and it must be confessed that if clear conceptions of the difference between analogy and

hatch its eggs by incubation. It collects together a great | early extinction of the race; an event, he remarks, much heap of decaying vegetables as the place of deposit of its to be regretted, since, independently of its being an inte eggs, thus making a hot-bed, arising from the decompo-resting bird for the aviary, its flesh is extremely delicate, sition of the collected matter, by the heat of which the tender, and juicy. There is no doubt that this species young are hatched. Mr. Gould describes this heap as the may be domesticated, and it would make a noble addition result of several weeks' collection by the birds previous to to those foreign denizens of the poultry-yard which enrich the period of laying, as varying in quantity from two to our homesteads and tables. Mr. Gould saw a living spe four cart-loads, and as of a perfectly pyramidical form. cimen, which was in the possession of Mr. Alexander This mound, he states, is not the work of a single pair of M Leay for many years. On my arrival at Sydney,' says birds, but is the result of the united labour of many: the Mr. Gould, this venerable gentleman took me into his same site appeared to Mr. Gould to be resorted to for garden and showed me the bird, which, as if in its native several years in succession, from the great size and entire woods, had for two successive years collected an immense decomposition of the lower part, the birds adding a fresh mass of materials similar to those above described. The supply of materials on each occasion previous to laying. borders, lawn, and shrubbery over which it was allowed to range presented an appearance as if regularly swept, from the bird having scratched to one common centre everything that lay upon the surface: the mound in this case was about three feet and a half high, and ten feet over. On placing my arm in it, I found the heat to be about 90° or 95° Fahr. The bird itself was strutting about with a proud and majestic air, sometimes parading round the heap, at others perching on the top, and displaying its brilliantly coloured neck and wattle to the greatest advantage: this wattle it has the power of expanding and contracting at will; at one moment it is scarcely visible, while at another it is extremely prominent."

The mode,' says Mr. Gould in continuation, in which the materials composing these mounds are accumulated is equally singular, the bird never using its bill, but always grasping a quantity in its foot, throwing it backwards to one common centre, and thus clearing the surface of the ground for a considerable distance so completely, that scarcely a leaf or a blade of grass is left. The heap being accumulated, and time allowed for a sufficient heat to be engendered, the eggs are deposited, not side by side, as is ordinarily the case, but planted at the distance of nine or twelve inches from each other, and buried at nearly an arm's depth, perfectly upright, with the large end upwards: they are covered up as they are laid, and allowed Before Mr. Gould left New South Wales, this bird, to remain until hatched. I have been credibly informed, which, during the greater part of the period when it was both by natives and settlers living near their haunts, that in Mr. M Leay's possession, was at large, and usually it is not an unusual event to obtain nearly a bushel of eggs associated with the fowls in the poultry-yard, was unfor at one time from a single heap; and as they are delicious tunately drowned in a tank or water-butt. On dissection eating, they are eagerly sought after. Some of the natives it was found to be a male, thereby proving, as Mr. Gould state that the females are constantly in the neighbour-remarks, that the sexes are equally employed in forming hood of the heap about the time the young are likely to the mound for the reception of the eggs. be hatched, and frequently uncover and cover them up Locality-Mr. Gould states that the extent of the again, apparently for the purpose of assisting those that range of this species over Australia is not yet satisfacmay have appeared; while others have informed me that torily ascertained. It is known, he says, to inhabit various the eggs are merely deposited, and the young allowed to parts of New South Wales from Cape Howe on the south force their way unassisted. In all probability, as nature to Moreton Bay on the north; but the cedar-cutters and has adopted this mode of reproduction, she has also fur- others, who so frequently hunt through the brushes of Illa nished the tender birds with the power of sustaining them-warra and Maitland, have nearly extirpated it from those selves from the earliest period; and the great size of the localities, and it is now most plentiful in the dense and egg would equally lead to this conclusion, since in so large little-trodden brushes of the Manning and Clarence. Mr. a space it is reasonable to suppose that the bird would be Gould was at first led to believe that the country between. much more developed than is usually found in eggs of the mountain-ranges and the coast constituted its sole smaller dimensions. In further confirmation of this point, habitat; but he was agreeably surprised to find it inI may add, that in searching for eggs in one of the mounds, habiting the scrubby gullies and sides of the lower hills I discovered the remains of a young bird, apparently just that branch off from the great range into the interior. excluded from the shell, and which was clothed with fea- He procured specimens on the Brezi range to the north of thers, not with down, as is usually the case: it is to be Liverpool Plains, and ascertained that it was abundant in hoped that those who are resident in Australia, in situa- all the hills on either side of the Namoi. (Ibid.) tions favourable for investigating the subject, will direct their attention to the further elucidation of these interesting points. The upright position of the eggs tends to strengthen the opinion that they are never disturbed after being deposited, as it is well known that the eggs of birds which are placed horizontally are frequently turned during incubation. Although, unfortunately, I was almost too late for the breeding-season, I nevertheless saw several of the heaps, both in the interior and at Illawarra: in every instance they were placed in the most retired and shady glens, and on the slope of a hill, the part above the nest being scratched clean, while all below remained untouched, as if the birds had found it more easy to convey the matenals down than to throw them up. In one instance only was I fortunate enough to find a perfect egg, although the shells of many from which the young had been excluded were placed in the manner I have described. At Illawarra they were rather deposited in the light vegetable mould than among the leaves, which formed a considerable heap above them. The eggs are perfectly white, of a long, oval form, three inches and three-quarters long by two inches and a half in diameter.' (Birds of Australia.)

The same author relates that these birds, while stalking about the wood, frequently utter a loud clucking noise; and, in various parts of the bush, he observed depressions in the earth, which the natives informed him were made by the birds in dusting themselves. The stomach is stated by Mr. Gould to be extremely muscular; and he found the crop of one which he dissected filled with seeds, berries, and a few insects.

The composure with which these birds sit to be shot i as above noticed, must, as Mr. Gould observes, lead to i

Talegalla Lathami. (Gould.)

M. Lesson describes the species from New Guinea, which serves as the type of his genus Talegalla Cuvieri, figured in the Zoologie de la Coquille, as entirely black, of the size of a common small hen, and recalling to the ob me of the forms of the Porphyriones. [RALLIDE, 281.]

of Talegalla affords a striking instance of assification based upon reasoning which

ta for its foundation: most of the errors


of our zoological systems may be traced to the same hill; and that in many instances that part of the mound surrounding the lower portion of the eggs had become so hard, that they were obliged to chip round them with a chisel to get the eggs out; the insides of the mounds were always hot.

Leipoa. (Gould.)

Generic Character-Bili nearly as long as the head, slender, tumescent it the base, the edges undulated and incurved at the ba. e, the nostrils ample, oblong, covered with an operculum, and placed in a central hollow. Head

Head and Foot of Leipos.

subcrested. Wings ample, rounded, concave; fifth primary quill the longest; the tertiaries nearly as long as the primaries. Tail rounded, tail-feathers fourteen. Tarsi moderate, robust, covered with scuta anteriorly, and posteriorly with scales which are rounded and unequal. Toes rather short; lateral toes nearly equal. (Gould.) Example, Leipoa ocellata, Ocellated Leipoa. (Gould.) Description.-Head and crest blackish-brown; neck and shoulders dark ash-grey; the fore part of the neck from the chin to the breast marked by a series of lanceolate feathers, which are black with a white stripe down the centre; back and wings conspicuously marked with three distinct bands of greyish white, brown and black near the tip of each feather, the marks assuming an ocellated form, particularly on the tips of the secondaries; primaries brown, their outer webs marked with two or three zigzag lines near their tip; all the under surface light buff, the tips of the flank feathers barred with black; tail blackish-brown, broadly tipped with buff; bill black; feet blackish-brown. (Gould.)

In size this beautiful bird is inferior to Talegalla Lathami, and it is more slender and more elegantly formed. According to Mr. Gould, it is the Ngow of the aborigines of the lowland; Ngow-oo of the mountain districts of Western Australia; and Native Pheasant of the colonists of Western Australia.


Habits, Food, Nidification, &c.-Mr. Gould, in his Birds of Australia, gives an account, collected by Mr. John Gilbert, from G. Moore, Esq., advocate-general, Mr. Armstrong, the aboriginal interpreter, and some of the more intelligent natives of Western Australia. The Ocellated Leipoa is there described as a ground-bird, never taking to a tree except when closely hunted: when hard pursued, it will frequently run its head into a bush, and is then easily taken. Food generally consisting of seeds and berries. The note mournful, very like that of a pigeon, but with a more inward tone. Eggs deposited in a mound of sand, the formation of which is the work of both sexes. According to the natives, the birds scratch up the sand for many yards around, forming a mound about three feet in height, the inside of which is constructed of alternate layers of dried leaves, grasses, &c., among which twelve eggs and upwards are deposited, and are covered up by the birds as they are laid; or, as the natives express it, the countenances of the eggs are never visible. Upon these eggs the bird never sits, but when she has laid out her lay, as the henwives say, the whole are covered up, when the mound of sand resembles an ant's nest. The eggs, which are white, very slightly tinged with red, and about the size of a common fowl's egg, are hatched by the heat of the sun's rays, the vegetable lining retaining sufficient warmth during the night; they are deposited in layers, no two eggs being suffered to lie without a division. The natives, who are very fond of the eggs, rob these hillocks two or three times in a season; and they judge of the number of eggs in a mound by the quantity of feathers lying about. If the feathers be abundant, the hillock is full; and then they immediately open and take the whole. The bird will then begin to lay again, again to be robbed, and will frequently lay a third time. Upon questioning one of the men attached to Mr. Moore's expedition, he gave to Mr. Gilbert a similar account of its habits and ode of incubating; adding, that in all the mounds they ned, they found ants almost as numerous as in an ant

Captain Grey, of the 83rd regiment, who had just returned from his expedition to the north-west coast, informed Mr. Gould that he had never fallen in with the nests but in one description of country, viz. where the soil was dry and sandy and so thickly wooded with a species of dwarf Leptospermum, that if the traveller strays from the native paths, it is almost impossible for him to force his way through. In these close scrubby woods small open glades occasionally occur, and there the Ngow-oo constructs its nest,-a large heap of sand, dead grass and boughs, at least nine feet in diameter and three feet in height; Captain Grey had seen them even larger than this. Upon one occasion only he saw eggs in these nests: they were placed some distance from each other, and buried in the earth. Captain Grey states that he is not sure of the number, but the account given by the natives led him to believe that at times large

numbers were found.

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Leipoa Ocellata. (Gould.)

In the article CRACIDE (vol. viii., p. 132) the generic character of Megapodius and an account of Megapodius Duperreyi is given. It is there stated that it would seem that the Megapodius of the Philippines leaves its eggs to the fostering heat of the sun. Mr. Gould, in the great work from which we have already drawn such interesting accounts of this extraordinary group of birds, has, from the notes of Mr. Gilbert, laid before the public a most satisfactory statement relative to the habits of Megapodius Tumulus

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