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economics and science. It is intended to establish an Institute of Science and Economics of the Near East, which, in connexion with the universities, high schools, and libraries of south-west Germany, will collect information relating to the East and communicate information on questions of national and private trade.

The German Asia Minor Society (Deutsche Vorderasiengesellschaft), with which is associated the Asia Minor Institute (Vorderasieninstitut), was founded at Leipzig in 1905 for the purpose (to quote the prospectus) of 'the promotion of German research and cultural work in the Islamic East.' The President is Dr Hugo Grothe, Lecturer at Leipzig University, a well-known writer on the Near East. The Society has an Information Bureau, which collects material relating to German trade and economic conditions in Turkey, the Balkans, North Africa, and Persia. It publishes the Deutsches Vorderasien- und Balkanarchiv,' issued as a supplement to the quarterly review, Deutsche Kultur in der Welt,' the official organ of the Society for spreading German Civilisation (Deutsche Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft), which also has its headquarters at Leipzig.

The German Levant Association (Deutscher Levante Verband), by the energy it has displayed since its foundation in March 1916, has taken a prominent position among the propagandist societies operating in the Near East. Its object, according to its own statement, is to promote and to safeguard German trade, industry and finance in the Near East, in constant touch with, though quite independently of, the official authorities, without regard to selfish private interests or monopolistic endeavours. Its labours extend over the entire Near and Middle East, the Balkan States, Greece, Turkey and Persia. In order to facilitate economic activity abroad for its members, it helps them to secure import and export permits as promptly, and capital and credits as easily, as possible, and advises them in respect of the purchase of land. It has established a special Export and Import Bureau, which accepts offers of every kind of agricultural and industrial product. Its Market Reports (Orient Markt-Berichte) enumerate import and export business openings. It has set up an Information Bureau, which has already had opportunities of

cooperating in the acquisition of mining concessions, and in arrangements for the erection of factories. Apart from this, it is engaged in organising sample depôts of German agricultural and industrial products in Constantinople, Sofia, and Belgrade. A further sample depôt at Berlin for Oriental products is in contemplation. This Association has an official organ, the 'Deutsche Levante-Zeitung,' which advertises for the HamburgAmerica Line, the German Levant Line, the GermanBalkan Society, and the German-Bulgarian Society.

German propaganda rears its head all over Asia. There is at Berlin the German-Asiatic Association (Deutsch-Asiatische Gesellschaft), of which Field-Marshal Freiherr von der Goltz was President until his death in 1916. He was succeeded by General Raschdau, who had previously served as Vice-President, has held official positions in the East and has been in the Asiatic Department of the German Foreign Office. Another organisation, the German-Persian Economic Association (DeutschPersischer Wirtschaftsverband), has for its object the promotion of trade relations between Germany and Persia. It is, by its articles of association, debarred from independent economic operations and political activity: 'When peace is concluded,' so runs a passage in the prospectus, 'Persia, with its great natural resources, will be of great importance to the German import and export trades; and, in order to prepare for this period, it has been determined to start immediately on the preliminary work.'

Though, for the time being, its activities are paralysed, mention must be made of the German-Chinese Society (Deutsch-Chinesischer Verband), Berlin, which was founded for the purpose of acquainting the Chinese with the achievements of German science and technical progress, and of promoting trade relations between Germany and China. The importance attached in Germany to propaganda in China is clearly indicated by the standing of the members of the Board of Directors, amongst whom are Freiherr von Mumm (President), Admiral von Truppel (Secretary); Fr. Urbig, manager of the Disconto-Gesellschaft (Treasurer); Dr von Böttinger, Member of the Prussian Herrenhaus; Herr H. Friedrichs, President of the German Union of Manufacturers; Herr G. Rötger,

President of the Central Association of German Manufacturers; and Dr Schrameier, of the Admiralty, who edits the monthly official organ of the Association, the 'China-Archiv.'

The Indian Association (Indische Gesellschaft) at Berlin, the Secretary of which is Verendranath Chattopathyaza, is in close touch with the anti-English newspaper, the Hindustan Ghadar' of San Francisco, and the so-called Indian National Party. This Association differs from most of the other societies mentioned in that, so far as can be seen, it has no raison d'être other than an attempt to injure Britain by endeavouring to stir up sedition in India. It has produced a mass of literature, much of which claims to have been printed in England by presses which never existed. Among the pamphlets it circulates is British Rule in India condemned by the British themselves,' a patchwork of utterances by more or less distinguished Englishmen from Clive to Keir Hardie, which, like the reprint of W. J. Bryan's article under an almost similar title, has, under the auspices of the Association, been translated into many languages. It has recently issued a sequel to this work, Why India is in Revolt against British Rule.'

That Germany is well aware that its Berlin-to-Bagdad scheme has miscarried may be deduced from the energy which it has lately devoted to creating a favourable impression in the republics of Central and South America. These countries have always been regarded with the greatest interest by Germany, for there it saw great markets for its manufactures. As the war progresses, what was hitherto interest has become anxiety; for Germany has reluctantly come to the conclusion that, when peace is concluded, its European markets will have vastly contracted, and that Central and South America may perhaps be, not one, but almost the only dumpingground for its goods.

Spain and Portugal are the mother-lands of the Latin countries in America; and one society worked at first through both the parent-countries, and, since Portugal joined the Allies, now works through Spain. This is the bi-monthly News-service for the Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking Countries' (Nachrichtendienst für

die Länder spanischer und portugiesischer Zunge),* which has its headquarters at Frankfort, and is therefore often referred to briefly as the Frankfort Bureau. Founded immediately after the outbreak of war, for the special purposes of influencing public opinion in the Latin countries of Europe and South America, and of supplying information about these countries to the Foreign Office, it is frankly nothing more nor less than a propagandist organisation. Early in 1915 the Foreign Office made the Bureau a grant of M.10,000, and from May of that year gave it a monthly subsidy of M.3000, which in September was increased to M.4000, in recognition of the undoubted usefulness of the information service in the interests of truth in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries.'

The Frankfort Bureau was hard at work within a few days of its inception, and its progress has been very rapid. In August 1914 it had on its books but a few hundred names to which propagandist literature could be sent. Then the Deutsche Ueberseeische Bank (known in America as the Banco Alemán Transatlantico), which is run by the Deutsche Bank, and has branches in all Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, assisted it to compile large lists and to select its agents. At the end of 1914 no less than 3000 copies of its publications were distributed in Spain; while in August 1915 the number of copies printed was 7500 in Spanish, 4000 in Portuguese and 1700 in German. There is reason to believe that the number of paying subscribers is insignificant. That money was urgently needed by the Bureau is proved by the fact that the receipts from all sources for the year ending Aug. 31, 1915, amounted to less than 30007. Since it was obviously impossible for it with so small an income adequately to carry on its various activities, there can be no question but that heavy contributions to its war chest have been made either by the State or by the great industrialists who hope presently to profit by its labours.

The Frankfort Bureau's Intelligence Section works on the same lines as that of Transozean, with which it

This appears in translations as 'Servicio de informaciones para los países de lengua española y portuguesa' and 'Serviço de Informacões para a America Latina.'

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has a working agreement. It works mainly through its branch at Barcelona, of which Herr August H. Hofer is the Director. Through Barcelona it issues a daily pressservice to the leading newspapers in Spain, transmitting news inspired by the Wilhelmstrasse; it invites the editors to print any article from these publications, and supplies for their use the principal German newspapers. At Barcelona it founded in 1916 two daily newspapers, Correspondencia Alemana,' printed in Spanish, and Deutsche Warte,' printed in German, both of which are avowedly issued by the Deutscher Nachrichtendienst für Spanien, an abbreviated form of the full title of the Bureau. It is also responsible for the fortnightly review, 'Germania,' which has a circulation of 3000 copies, and probably of the French weekly paper La Vérité,' both of which are edited by Luis Almerich and are published at Barcelona. The Bureau circulates Spanish and Portuguese editions of Transozean's magazine, Der Grosse Krieg in Bildern'; the Arabic papers and pamphlets prepared by the News-service for the Orient, to enlighten the Syrian and Arabic colonies in South America as to the state of affairs'; the Spanish and Portuguese editions of the Hamburger Nachrichten' (El Heraldo de Hamburgo and O Mensajeiro de Hamburgo) and Welt im Bild' (issued by the 'Hamburger Fremdenblatt').

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The kindred society, the German South-American Institute (Deutsch-Südamerikanisches Institut), known in South America as El Instituto Sud-Americano Alemán de Aquisgran, was founded on Dec. 29, 1912, at Bonn, but it has since transferred its headquarters to Aachen, and has Committees at Stuttgart and Barcelona. The President is Professor Dr Steinmann, of Bonn; and the Prussian Minister of Education sits on the Board of Directors. The Institute-so runs its programme

'is a union of Germans and Latin-Americans, who maintain intellectual relations between Germany and the countries of Latin-America.' 'Its purpose is to foster these relations. Questions of politics and creed are excluded.'

It endeavours to fulfil its aims by issuing publications, by assisting the exchange of publications issued by its members, as well as those issued by authorities, institutions, associations, and other public bodies, and by

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