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For the general public the organisation published various propagandist works, the most important of which was the monthly periodical, 'Der Grosse Krieg in Bildern,' edited by Jos. Schumacher, consisting of about forty pages of photographs, with descriptions in German, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English. The covers designed for the different countries bear the titles, Illustrations of the Great War,' Album de la Grande Guerre,' 'La Guerra Grande en Cuadros,' 'Illustrações da Grande Guerra,' and 'La Grande Guerra Illustrata.' Another edition, with the legends printed in Turkish, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu, was published in co-partnership with the News-service for the Orient (Nachrichtenstelle für den Orient). Nor did the Association confine itself to distributing its own publications, but it circulated through its agents many propagandist works brought out by other societies. In conjunction with the Society for Economic Training (Gesellschaft für wirtschaftliche Ausbildung), Frankfort, it issued a newssheet, Wirtschaftliche Nachrichtendienst,' each number of which is devoted to a particular country, and gives a statistical survey of foreign trade, information as regards the position and prospects of the different branches of finance, industry, and agriculture, and the development of communication and traffic.
In September 1916 the Deutscher Ueberseedienst Transozean ceased to exist as such, and split up into two separate companies, known henceforth respectively as the Deutscher Ueberseedienst and the Transozean. From this date the Transozean dealt exclusively with the telegraphic news and the war-picture service; while the task of the Deutscher Ueberseedienst, which is presided over by Herr M. Rötger, a former managingdirector of Krupp's, was
'to establish a foreign news-service, with the object of enlightening public opinion both abroad and at home, particular attention being paid to the requirements of Germany's economic life. The company being the centre of all general organisations supported by private means to cultivate relations with foreign countries, it will be its special object to take all measures likely, when economic relations with other countries are resumed, to promote German commerce and German prestige in the world.'
Apart from the division of labour between the two companies, the work goes on as already described.
If Tranzocean and the Deutscher Ueberseedienst bulk very largely in the public eye, and work on an extensive scale, they are not the only institutions that the war has converted from commerce to politics. The Hamburg Colonial Institute (Hamburgisches KolonialInstitut) founded a news-service at the beginning of the war, and has issued at irregular intervals, but on an average once a week, 'Information for Foreign Countries' (Mitteilungen für das Ausland). This at first circulated widely, and was highly valued for propagandist purposes; but presently more attractive publications appeared, and it declined in consequence. The H.C. Institute in
January last started a weekly paper, 'Wirtschaftsdienst,' with the sub-title,Reports on Commerce in Foreign Countries during the War' (Kriegswirtschaftliche Berichte über das Ausland).
The War Combine of German Industries (Kriegsausschuss der Deutschen Industrie) is an amalgamation, since the outbreak of war, of two rival organisations, the Central Association of German Manufacturers (Zentral Verband Deutscher Industriellen), the President of which is Herr M. Rötger, and the Union of Manufacturers (Bund der Industriellen), the President of which is Herr H. Friedrichs. The principal function of the new organisation is to represent the industrialists in their controversies with the Government. This, however, does not prevent it from disseminating propaganda, frequently of a political kind, though its chief aim is said to be the demonstration of Germany's economic ascendency over her foes. The four-page leaflets which it issues in German, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, and Norwegian, are said to be written by the well-known financial expert, Arnold SteinmannBucher, who is the editor of the weekly organ of the association, 'Mitteilungen des Kriegsausschusses der Deutschen Industrie.' These leaflets are frankly propagandist; and among the subjects, which are treated entirely from the German point of view, are 'The German-American Crisis,' 'The Economic Conference at Paris,' and 'The German victory in the naval battle of
the Skagerrak.' It is doubtful if this propaganda is private propaganda. Indeed, the space devoted in the leaflets to official statements and to ministerial speeches suggests that the War-Combine of German Industries is really an official organisation masquerading under a title likely to impress unsuspecting foreigners.
It is a common subject of complaint in Germany that the German who goes abroad speedily becomes absorbed by the country in which he settles. If he comes to England, he is soon more English than the English. He casts his nationality from him as if it were a cloak. Every effort is therefore made to keep him in touch with the Fatherland. Hence such an organisation as the Union for Germanism in Foreign Countries (Verein für das Deutschtum im Ausland). It publishes a quarterly review, Das Deutschtum im Ausland,' and a service, Mitteilungen des Vereins für das Deutschtum im Ausland,' the objects of which are, at home, to spread German thought by word of mouth, by articles, and by lectures; abroad, to set up schools, kindergartens, and libraries, to encourage union between Germans abroad, and, above all, to keep them in touch with the country of their origin.
While this society, and others like the Union for the Development of German Commerce in Foreign Countries (Vereinigung zur Förderung deutscher Wirtschaftsinteressen im Ausland), take the whole world for their province, there are numerous societies which restrict their operations to a certain country or a group of countries. One great sphere of activity is the Near East, in which Germany has, during the last thirty years, made such remarkable progress by means of 'peaceful penetration. Some time since there was set up at Berlin the German-Bulgarian Society (Deutsch-Bulgarische Gesellschaft), which, however, in November last announced that it had become amalgamated with the more recently established Institute for Economic Intercourse with Bulgaria (Institut für den Wirtschaftsverkehr mit Bulgarien), which also has its headquarters in the capital. The Institute has been formed by three powerful German associations, the Union of Manufacturers, the Central Association of German Manufacturers, and the Union of
Farmers (Bund der Landwirte), their respective presidents, Herr H. Friedrichs, Herr M. Rötger, and Freiherr von Wangenheim, forming the Council. It was founded, under the patronage of the King of Bulgaria, for the purpose of stimulating and developing intercourse between the Central Powers and Bulgaria. It issues at Sofia its official organ, a newspaper bearing the title of the 'Deutsche Balkan Zeitung,' edited by the well-known German journalist, Hans Fischer (Kurt Aram').
Similar organisations are the German-Balkan Society (Deutsch-Balkan Verein), which has issued, through the Berlin firm of Rudolf Mosse, a 'Commercial Guide to the Balkans' (Balkan-Handelsführer), and the GermanTurkish Society (Deutsch-Türkische Vereinigung). The articles of association of the German-Turkish Society, which are akin to those of similar institutions, provide for the sending of German teachers to Turkey, the establishment of libraries and other educational centres, the distribution of literature and other publicity material, and assistance for Turkish subjects who wish to complete their education in Germany. As this society is typical, an extract from its report for 1916 may be given : 'During the three years of its existence the Society has contributed largely to the support and enlargement of German schools in Turkey (Constantinople, Aleppo, Bagdad, Jerusalem) and has founded a school of its own in Adana-the junction-place of Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Syria. Courses in the German language have been instituted in a number of Turkish towns; German teachers have been appointed at the cost of the Society in all kinds of Turkish schools. It is a tribute to the success of the methods of the Society that a member of its committee, Geh. Regierungsrat Prof. Dr Franz Schmidt, received an appointment as adviser to the Turkish Ministry of Education in order to cooperate in the reorganisation of Turkish schools. Professor Schmidt is also the organiser and intermediary for the admission of 100 Turkish youths to German educational institutions-a movement now under the auspices of the Society and greatly facilitated by the friendly cooperation of German municipalities. Besides this, the placing of Turkish pupils, especially trade apprentices, in German establishments and business houses has been promoted from the very outset, and is proceeding regularly.
'While a knowledge of Germany has been disseminated in Turkey by the circulation of tens of thousands of popular
pamphlets in the Turkish language, the Society is making every effort to promote a correspondingly better understanding of Turkish life and ideas in Germany. It has instituted lectures about Turkey; and, in connexion with these, the greater part of the Society's 4000 members in the bigger towns of the various provinces and states have formed themselves into local and provincial leagues. Courses in the Turkish language have been instituted in Berlin and many other towns. Medical work in Turkey has been promoted by the creation of a permanent medical committee under the direction of Ministerial-Direktor Geh. Obermedizinalrat Dr Kirchner, who arranged for the erection of clinical establishments and hospitals in Turkey, for the carrying out of which means will be found after the conclusion of peace. These will be primarily concerned with the combating and cure of endemical diseases, such as malaria, recurrent fever, and syphilis. The chief stations on the Bagdad and Anatolia railways are at present the centres for such medical work, more especially Konia, Aleppo, and Bagdad, besides Jerusalem, where German initiative has for some time past taken up the fight against malaria. Special attention will also be devoted to the improvement of midwifery in Turkey.
'It is a year ago since a Turkish-German Society (Türkisch-Deutsche Vereinigung) was formed, side by side with the German-Turkish Society, under the presidency of Enver Pasha, at Constantinople. Amongst its members are the German Ambassador, the Grand Vizier, Prince Said Halim Pasha, and the Ministers, Talaat Bey, Halil Bey, and Dschemal Pasha (in Damascus). . . .
'The German-Turkish Society has also established a special Information Bureau for German-Turkish Economic Questions (Auskunftstelle für Deutsche-Türkische Wirtschaftsfragen), which is in direct relations with authoritative sources in Turkey and Germany, to supply, free of charge, information on all trade and commercial matters relating to Germany and Turkey.'
An Institute of Science and Economics in the Near East (Institut für die Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft des Vordern Orients), with Herr Beit von Speyer as President, and Prof. Arndt and Consul-General Krebs as Vice-Presidents, has recently been founded at Frankfort. Apart from propagandist work for the general aims of the German-Turkish Society, opportunities will be given to members for obtaining information concerning the relations between Germany and Turkey, especially as regards