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Pittsburg (though surveyed before 1790) 34 seems to have been considered too rough to settle until more suitable lands had been apportioned. In 1792, as we have seen, some so-called Loyalists were brought from England, many of whom had no claim for compensation and had never been in America. Some of these were apparently settled east of Kingston, but the greater part of the township seems to have been left uninhabited until a much later date.
The title of Wolfe and Howe Islands was in dispute during the whole period of settlement and this fact probably induced both those in authority and would-be settlers to seek elsewhere with less chance of being disturbed. These islands, which had once formed part of La Salle's estate, were disposed of under his instructions by his agent La Forest. They passed through various hands until, eventually, they came into the possession of the Baroness de Longueuil and Patrick Langan, whose petition in 1807 for a clear title, relates the history of the transfer. Sir John Johnson was a petitioner in 1790 for these islands but the Executive Council of Quebec upheld the old title and Sir John, withdrawing his claim, 'received from His Majesty the grant of another island in lieu of Grand Isle.'
In the meantime, however, Wolfe Island was not entirely without inhabitants, though perhaps of a less desirable character. Hon. Richard Cartwright, in correspondence with Governor Gore in 1808, notes that 'owing to the disputed title, about one hundred people have established themselves there, are cutting timber, and acting in a lawless manner.' Three of them had been fined and imprisoned and Cartwright feared that, if left undisturbed, they might some day contest the title. Evidently the island had been occupied for some time.
Amherst Island, on the other hand, was early acquired by Sir John Johnson, who secured his title, in all probability, as a recompense for losing the claim which he had advanced for Wolfe Island in 1790.
Capt. Sherwood, who had taken part in the survey of the region, evidently expected that both islands would be erected
34 Third Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario. A Map of the District of Mechlenburg. S. Holland, 1790, p. ci.
into townships.35 He counts a total of ten in his estimate and makes Long (Wolfe) Island two and Amherst Island one.
It would be interesting to discover the opinions held by the original Loyalist settlers on Amherst Island about their tenure. Herrington states that the first record of transfer of title to an actual settler is in 1803,36 but there is abundant evidence of settlement almost contemporaneous with that on the 'main shore'. Some of the settlers such as Barnabas Wemp of Guy Johnson's battalion,37 and Colin McKenzie, who had helped to guide Burgoyne on his southward march,38 were original Loyalists. Others appear to have been the sons of Loyalists settled elsewhere on the 'Bay',39 while still other names, possibly those of servants or slaves, yield no clues. From the Records of the Court of Quarter Sessions for the Mechlenburgh District one would gather that before the end of the eighteenth century, Amherst Island, with its magistrate, its constable and its quota of jurors could boast a considerable number of inhabitants.40
We have thus taken a bird's eye view of the region in which certain groups of the Loyalists settled. Even across the stirring events and political complexities of more than a century we may feel something of the throbbing life of that great age when men went forth 'not knowing whither they went'; when they turned from war to peace and, meeting
35 Sherwood was, perhaps, ignorant of the claim to Wolfe Island whieh the Baroness de Longueuil based on La Salle's French title. It was also the general policy of the Crown to hold islands in reserve where they might be of military importance.
36 Herrington, The History of Lennox and Addington, p. 190. This was probably the transfer to Barnabas Wemp, the first white settler. 37 Genealogy of the Wemp Family. William B. Wemp, New York City; 1912.
38 First Report of the Bureau of Archives of the Province of Ontario. Pt. I, 1903-4; p. 450; Loyalist Claims.
39Ontario Historical Society. Papers and Records, vol. 1. Toronto: William Briggs, 1899. Birth and Marriage Registers of the Rev. R. McDowall and the Rev. J. Langhorn.
40 Early Records of Ontario, being Extracts from the Records of the Court of Quarter Sessions for the District of Mechlenburgh (afterwards the Midland District), with introduction and notes by Adam Shortt, M.A., Kingston, 1900.
Nature face to face, found her less unkind than their own brethren; and when, forced into another war, they repulsed the invader and won for Canada the opportunity to become a State within the British Empire.
R. W. CUMBERLAND.
Pinorum ventus de monte
Pruni sylvestres albescunt,
Per campum vagantur oves,
Ruminant in stabulis.
Dum reportat calathos?
Phyllis redeuns ab agro
F. de B.
ANCIENT STORIES AND MODERN LIFE
F one could give anything like a complete list of English books, apart from formal commentaries, dealing with the ancient Hebrew histories and issued during the last twenty years, it would be seen that there has been a revival of interest in the wonderful stories which form such an important part of the Old Testament. One cannot, in a brief article, attempt anything so ambitious, but a sufficient number of examples may be cited to show that there is no exaggeration in the statement just made. I ventured a number of years ago to make the following remark: "The Preachers who have lived and worked during the last generation, when the results of criticism were forced upon their attention and brought to the notice of the larger public, have had the experience of losing some of the Old Testament stories, so far as pulpit use is concerned, and the joy of finding them again in a richer, more suggestive form.' Several years before that was written, I remember meeting one of our ministers, who later distinguished himself in literary and political circles, and asking him what had been the subject of his recent preaching, he replied, 'Some of the early stories in the Old Testament.' The next question was naturally as to the method pursued and this was stated as follows: "To tell the story and to draw the lessons.' Surely the whole secret is there, but much depends upon the way in which this apparently simple process is carried out. Taking the story 'as it stands' may mean merely an attempt to draw from it certain practical lessons without facing the question of its origin and history. That, though it leaves many problems untouched, does, in the hands of a capable teacher, bring the ancient life into living contact with the life of to-day.
One is glad to note the success of one of our Canadian professors in this line of exposition; Dr. A. R. Gordon, of Montreal, shows that linguistic and critical studies have not disqualified him for the task of commending these wonderful stories to young people. In the preface to The Enchanted