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We shall divide this chapter into two Articles. In the first, we will expound the secondary parts of a letter; in the second, we will give its praxis.



1. The date of the letter, is the inscription of the name of the place where; of the day, month, and year when, a letter is written; thus, "San Francisco, July 4th, 1867."

2. Letters should always bear a date, for the sake of reference, if necessary, and for other purposes. Business letters absolutely require it.

3. The date is generally placed at the head of the letter, on the right hand side of the writer; however, it is not against usage, to place it at the end of it, after the writer's signature.

4. The address of the letter, consists of the

(1.) What does the date of a letter mean?

(2.) Why must letters be dated?

(3.) Where is the date generally placed in a letter? (4.) In what does the address of the letter consist?

name and title of the person, to whom the letter is written.

5. The address is placed at the head of the letter, on the left hand side of the writer; because the object is to make the recipient aware that the letter is addressed to him; nevertheless, examples are not wanting, of the address being placed at the end of the letter, after the writer's signature.

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6. The title, is a name of distinction, assigned to a person, on account of his rank, office, or profession. If the person addressed has no special title, one that is common to all, must be used; hence, a gentleman is addressed as "Sir," or "Dear Sir;" a married lady as "Madam," or "Dear Madam; an unmarried lady, as "Miss," or "Dear Miss." The pronominal adjective my, is addressed when the two correspondents are intimate relations, or friends; but relations are always addressed according to their degree of relationship; as "My Dear Father," or "Brother," or "Uncle," etc.

7. If the person addressed bears, or has (5.) Why is the date placed at the head of a letter? (6.) What is the title?

What title is to be given to persons who have not a special one?

(7.) Is the special title of a person to be placed before, or after

his name?

borne a title, on account of office, profession, or rank, such a title is placed before, and sometimes after his name; thus, if he be the President, or Governor of a State, or States, the address will be, "To His Excellency, Frederick F. Low, Governor of the State of California;" if he be a judge, or legislator, the title usually prefixed to the person's name is Honorable, or by abbreviation, Hon.; and so with other titles, either civil, or military, or ecclesiastical.

8. The clause of the letter, is the signature added to the body of the letter, bearing the writer's name, or title and name prefixed to it, expressive of the relative position which the writer holds toward the person addressed. Thus, if the writer be a friend, the clause may be, "Very affectionately yours," or "Your true friend, N. N." If the writer be an inferior, the title may be, "Your humble," or "Obedient Servant;" if he is an equal, “"Respectfully yours,” etc.; if a relation, "Your dear brother," etc.

9. Clauses may vary in form, but all must be appropriate and sincere.

10. The outside direction of the letter is the

(8.) What is the clause of a letter?

What must be the clause with regard to different persons? (9.) What are the qualities of clauses?

(10.) What is the outside direction?

superscription made after it has been closed and folded, containing the name of the person addressed, his title, the place and State where he resides; thus, "To Hon. John Currey, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California, San Francisco, Cal."

11. The name of the person addressed, and title, is generally written on the middle, and name of the place on the right hand side of the writer, and that of the State immediately under it.

12. The outside direction must be correct, and plainly written, for upon that, the safe transmission and receipt of the letter often depends.



1. First, think of the points on which you. wish to write.

2. Second; Write them down in brief sentences, and in the order required by the nature of the letter, which often varies, according to the object. Thus letters of persuasion, petition,

Give an example.

(11.) How is the outside direction written?

(1.) What is the first practical direction for writing a letter? -the second?-third?

and advice, in which reasons are assigned, require better order than others.

3. Third; Develop and amplify each point, or complex idea, in suitable language.

4. Fourth; Pay particular attention to punctuation.

5. Fifth; When all the points have been properly developed in language, read your letter: observe how you have observed the rules, according to the kind of the letter; make the necessary corrections, and let your mind rest.

6. Sixth; After a reasonable time, read the letter again; and if nothing more occurs for correction, copy it, if necessary, in order that there be no cancellations. After which, fold and direct it, according to the directions before and hereafter given.

7. We will illustrate this praxis, by giving the outline of Cicero's letter to Titus Pomponius Atticus, above quoted, on the subject of information.

8. It will be the pupil's duty to develop and amplify the ideas, contained in the outline,

(4.) What is the fourth direction ?—the fifth ?—the sixth ? (6.) Can you illustrate this praxis by example?

(8.) What must a student do?

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