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guage; but, before all, he must be an honest and impartial man; one, whose integrity and patriotism is unimpeached; in order that he may gain the confidence and belief of the community, which he undertakes to instruct and persuade in civil matters. The course of a journalist in the tempestous sea of politics, it must be confessed, is very difficult and dangerous. In one way only, he can escape shipwreck; and that is, "by having the Public Good for his end; impartial Justice for his guide; Truth for his light." Opposition will doubtless raise a hurricane of anger against him, and will set all the political waves in motion; but these will soon spend their fury against firmness and determination; and when Time shall have dispelled the clouds of ignorance, prejudice, or malice; Truth, shining at length in her native beauty, with her peerless light, will brighten the name of the honest and impartial journalist.


Take a newspaper; examine first the division of the principal subjects, and see whether it is right. In regard to subjects of information, ex amine whether the report possesses the qualities of perspicuity, and probability, or certainty, according to the nature of the subject. Lastly, examine if the style is adapted to the subject; and if you find any faults on these points, show how they can be corrected.

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Make a sketch of a journal: make a division, both general and particular, of the subject: give your reasons: let other students criticise it, and give their reasons. If you have time, amplify the points of your outline.



We shall divide this chapter into two articles; in the first, we shall give the definition and qualities of oratorical narrations; in the second, the praxis of analysis of an oratorical narration.



1. An oratorical narration "is the recital of some facts, connected with the case of an orator."

2. Although, this subject belongs to oratory; yet, it may well be treated here also.

(1.) What is an oratorical narration?

(2.) To what department of study does the subject properly belong?

3. It must be remembered that the main object of a historian is to inform, and of an orator to persuade; hence, the difference between a historical and an oratorical narration is, that the former, which is designed to inform correctly, must be strictly true; while the latter, which aims principally at persuasion, either total or partial, may admit of different degrees of probability.

4. The requisites of oratorical narrations, in accordance with the object of the orator, are FIRST, Perspicuity; SECOND, Probability; THIRD, Brevity; FOURTH, Ornament of Style. Of the two former qualities, we have spoken in the preceding chapter. It remains for us now, to speak of the last two only.

5. Brevity of narration means, that all unnecessary adjuncts must be retrenched; and that such only as favor the case, or the orator's object, should be mentioned.

6. Ornament of style means, that in oratorical narrations, not only the simple, but the mid

(3.) Is the certainty required in an oratorical narration, of the same degree as that demanded by a historical one? (4.) What are the requisites of oratorical narrations, according to the object of an orator?

(5.) What does brevity of narration mean?

(6.) What does ornament of style in narrations signify?

dle and sublime styles also, may be used; the latter, especially, when passions or emotions of the mind are to be excited.

7. All narrations that have for their object, persuasion, may be referred to this class.

8. The following narration from Cicero against Verres is an illustration of the oratorical narration.

NOTE. The small numbers indicate the different periods.


"The unhappy man, Publius Gavius Cosanus, being arrested as he was going to embark for his native country, is brought before the wicked Prætor. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance distorted with cruelty, he orders the helpless victim of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be brought; accusing him, but without the least shadow of evidence, or even of suspicion, of having come to Sicily as a spy. It was in vain that the unhappy man cried out, "I am a Roman citizen: I have served under Lucius Pretius, who is now at Panormus, and will attest my innocence." "The blood-thirsty Prætor, deaf to all that he could urge in his own defense, ordered the infa

(7.) May all narrations, having for their object persuasion, be referred to this class?

(8.) Have you an example of oratorical narration, from an ancient author?

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mous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, Fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publicly mangled with Scourging; whilst the only words he uttered amidst his cruel sufferings were, I am a Roman citizen!' With these, he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy. But of so little service was this privilege to him, that, while he was asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution-for his execution upon the cross! 70, Liberty! O, sound, once delightful to every Roman ear! O, sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! Once sacred, now trampled upon!"

9. The following narration of Aaron Burr's achievements, is also an illustration of the qualities demanded in an oratorical narration:



Who, then, is Aaron Burr, and what the part which he has borne in this transaction? He is its author; its projector; its active executor. Bold, ardent, restless and aspiring, his brain conceived it; his hands brought it into action. Beginning his aspirations in New York, he associates with him men, whose wealth is to supply the necessary funds. Possessed of the main spring, his personal labor contrives all the machinery. Pervading the continent from New York to New Orleans, he draws into his plan, by every allurement which he can contrive, men of

(9.) Give an example of the oratorical narration from a modern author?

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