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that province in direct violation of the understanding with Greece that no such settlement should be made near the Greek frontier.
He was about, he said, to ask the serious attention of the Turkish Government to the matter.
The reports that I have received from Consul Barker enabled me to assure M. Condouriotis that the fugitives who had been sent to Macedonia were not Circassians, but Tartars from the Dobrudja, described to me as peaceable, hard-working people, who had fled from their villages in consequence of the Russian invasion.
Mr. Layard to the Earl of Derby.—(Received October 4.)
Therapia, September 26, 1877. I HAVE the honour to inclose copy of a memorandum made by Mr. Sandison of the note addressed by Server Pasha to M. Condouriotis, with regard to a Turkish subject who had been protected by the Greek Consul in Crete, and enabled by that official to join the revolutionary committee in the island with compromising papers.
I have, &c.
A. H. LAYARD.
Inclosure in No. 61.
Memorandum of Note addressed by Server Pasha to M. Condourioti, September 24, 1877.
IL y a quelque temps un Crétois nommé Joanni Massanki débarquait à la Canée, venant de Syra muni d'un passeport Hellénique. Cet individu, convaincu d'être détenteur de divers papiers compromettants, est allé se réfugier au Consulat de Grèce à la Canée.
Son Excellence Sami Pasha s'est adressé alors à M. Logotheti pour demander la remise de Massanki entre les mains de l'autorité locale; mais cet Agent s'y est refusé en contestant la qualité d'Ottoman du prévenu. Vainement a-t-on constaté que Massanki, né à Lacos de parents sujets Ottomans, n'avait j'amais cessé d'appartenir au même titre que les autres membres de sa famille à sa nationalité d'originaire; que parti en 1866 pour Athènes muni d'un passeport Ottoman, il rentrait au bout de cinq ans dans son pays toujours comme sujet Ottoman et qu'il repartait en 1872 pour la Grèce, sans qu'il eut jamais été question d'un changement de nationalité quelconque. Vainement a-t-on fait observer à M. Logotheti que la prétention de Massanki, d'ailleurs si peu conforme à la loi sur la nationalité Ottomane, ne saurait en aucune façon se justifier par un passeport que son détenteur n'était pas parvenu à se procurer qu'en trompant la bonne foi de la Légation Hellénique à Paris, M. le Consul a persisté à vouloir garder l'individu en question, qu'il a fini par laisser aller rejoindre le comité réuni à Klimadaki, et cela malgré les réserves formulées par le Gouverneur-Général en prévision du cas où l'accusé viendrait à disparaître.
La Légation est trop juste pour hésiter à reconnaître toute la gravité de ce qui précède. M. Logotheti n'a pu qu'obéir à des sentiments peu en harmonie avec ceux de son Gouvernement, en soustrayant un sujet Ottoman aux poursuites de ses autorités légitimes et le faisant disparaître sous des conditions aggravantes.
L'impression que cet incident a laissée sur les autorités Impériales est des plus pénibles. Aujourd'hui M. Logotheti se trouve placé vis-à-vis d'elles dans une position. telle que son maintien à la Canée est devenu impossible.
Le Ministère des Affaires Etrangères vient par conséquent prier la Légation de Sa Majesté Hellénique de vouloir bien aviser au rappel immédiat d'un Agent si oublieux des obligations qui incombent au Consul d'une Puissance amie et voisine.
SOME time ago a Cretan named Joanni Massanki landed at Canea, having come from Syra, furnished with a Greek passport. This individual, having been convicted of being in possession of certain compromising papers, took refuge at the Greek Consulate at Canea.
His Excellency Sami Pasha then addressed himself to M. Logotheti with the demand
that Massanki should be surrendered to the local authorities; but that officer refused the request, disputing the Turkish nationality of the accused. In vain was it proved that Massanki, who was born at Lacos of parents who were Turkish subjects, had never ceased to belong to his nationality of origin on the same ground as the other members of his family; that, having left for Athens in 1866, furnished with a Turkish passport, he returned at the end of five years to his country, remaining a Turkish subject, and that he left again for Greece in 1872, no question of any change of nationality having arisen. In vain was it pointed out to M. Logotheti that Massanki's claim, which was, moreover, quite inconsistent with the law respecting Turkish nationality, could in no way be justified by a passport, which its holder had only been enabled to procure by deceiving the good faith of the Greek Legation at Paris; the Consul persisted in his determination to keep the individual in question, and eventually allowed him to rejoin the Committee assembled at Klimadaki, and this, in spite of the reservations which had been laid down by the Governor-General in anticipation of the event of the accused person's disappearance.
The Legation is too just to hesitate to recognize the full gravity of what I have stated above. M. Logotheti must needs have acted in obedience to feelings but little in harmony with those of his Government, in withdrawing a Turkish subject from the pursuit of his own legal authorities, and in causing him to disappear under aggravated circumstances.
The impression which this incident has left on the Imperial authorities is of the most painful nature.
At this moment M. Logotheti occupies such a position towards them, that his remaining at Canea has become an impossibility.
The Minister for Foreign Affairs has therefore to request His Hellenic Majesty's Legation to take steps with a view to the immediate recall of an Agent so forgetful of the obligations incumbent on the Consul of a friendly and conterminous Power,
Mr. Wyndham to the Earl of Derby.-(Received October 5.)
My Lord, Athens, September 26, 1877. WITH reference to your telegram of yesterday, I have the honour to inform your Lordship that the Turkish Minister at this Court informed me this morning that he has been assured by the Hellenic Minister for Foreign Affairs that a steamer belonging to the Greek Government has been sent in pursuit of Dimitrion's band. His Excellency also informed me that M. Tricoupi had notified to him the passage of a band into Epirus with a view of his informing the Ottoman authorities, and stating at the same time that the conduct of the Greek authorities on the frontier was to be inquired into as to the passage of the band in question.
Server Pasha has conveyed to the Greek Government through the Turkish Minister here, in a note dated the 20th instant, satisfaction at assurances given by the Greek Government as to the control they state they are exercising over the Committees.
I have, &c. (Signed)
Mr. Wyndham to the Earl of Derby.-(Received October 6.)
My Lord, Athens, September 28, 1877. I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that I saw M. Tricoupi, the Hellenic Minister for Foreign Affairs, to-day, and that he stated that the Government intended de facto to remain at peace, but that it was not possible for them to give formal engagements on the subject.
Mr. Wyndham to the Earl of Derby.—(Received October 6.)
My Lord, Athens, September 28, 1877. WITH reference to my despatches of the 26th instant, I have the honour to state that I spoke to M. Tricoupi this afternoon about the bands reported to have left Greece under certain leaders named Dimitrion and Scoltzoyanni. M. Tricoupi told me that the Greek Government had at first believed in the existence of the band under Dimitrion, but that now that belief had turned out to be unfounded, and that with regard to Scoltzoyanni's band the Turkish authorities at Janina not having heard of it in Epirus it was doubtful whether it had left Greece; but at any rate he said the Government were going to take severe measures against the frontier authorities, and that they were considering the propriety of removing the Nomarch and Demarch in Acarnania from their posts, which measure, he said, if carried into effect, would be a salutary warning to the authorities on the frontiers to be more vigilant for the future.
The Greek Government have every desire to remain at peace with Turkey, judging from the language held to me to-day by M. Tricoupi.
I have, &c.
I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that M. Tissot, the French Minister at this Court, informed me to-day that he had counselled the Greek Government to follow a prudent and pacific policy.
I have, &c.
(Signed) HUGH WYNDHAM.
Acting Consul Barker to the Earl of Derby.-(Received October 8.)
Salonica, September 26, 1877.
I HAVE the honour to inclose herewith, for your Lordship's information, a copy of my despatch of the 22nd instant to Her Majesty's Ambassador at the Porte, reporting particulars of the excesses committed by the Albanian irregulars in all the Christian villages on their road to the frontiers of Greece; that the Government expect to have 50,000 men on those frontiers; and that martial law has been proclaimed at Yanina and in all Epirus, and a Christian of note arrested at Prevesa on suspicion of correspondence with Russia.
Inclosure in No. 66.
Acting Consul Barker to Mr. Layard.
Salonica, September 22, 1877.
I HAVE the honour to report to your Excellency that the information I touched upon cursorily in my private letter of the 18th instant by last post has been fully confirmed.
Selim Bey, a Chief who has property at Debra, engaged to raise a body of 4,000 irregular Albanian volunteer troops, to be sent to the frontiers of Greece. His offer was accepted, and these men were divided into three bands of 1,500, 1,200, and 1,200, taking three different roads, but electing to pass through the richest Christian villages. The first 1,500, of whom 300 were horsemen, passed through the village Katafee-ee. Here, after having extorted what money they could by threats of murder, they pillaged all the
houses and carried off all the goods of any value they could lay hands upon, even cooking utensils, loading them upon eighty mules belonging to the villagers, and some of their own horses, and sent them, accompanied by twenty of their fellows, to their own villages. They beat the Bishop of Katafee-ee, and took away his silver crozier. This village is in the Caza of Servia, or Servitza-Kozan. Leaving Katafee-ee, they proceeded to levy contributions and pillage other Christian villages on their way to Tricala, who all suffered more or less.
The band of 1,200 took the road through Livadia, a very large Christian village, pillaged it, and went on to do the same to other villages on their way from Monastir to the frontier, Ellassonah, &c.
The last batch of 1,200 have not yet left Debra, for we have not heard of their doings.
As the Christians did not offer any resistance (though at Livadia they were well able to defend themselves if they had not feared the consequence of punishment by the local authorities, for self-defence is a crime in Turkey as in Russia), only one man was killed and two wounded.
These Albanians (Gheghas) are the most ferocious race of Albanians, and that is why they were selected to be sent against the supposed Greek invasion.
The villagers who have suffered have applied to our Vali for redress, and his Excellency has telegraphed to the different authorities in his vilayet, and to the places whither these irregulars are gone, to compel them to restore the mules and other property taken away. His orders are not likely to be obeyed, for there were fifty regulars at Livadia, with their officers, when this pillage of the houses occurred, but they looked on and did not interfere.
Speaking of these Gheghas, Mr. Vice-Consul Sutor says that, on their arrival at Larissa, the fame of their doings had created such alarm that all the shops in the bazaars were shut, and kept close as long as they remained there; and he adds, "their lawless, violent proceedings, under the eyes of the chief local authorities, show what excesses they will be capable of when beyond them, for the superior powers display little energy towards preventing them."
This is very true, for it is difficult to make even the educated, intelligent Turk understand that Christian property is not legitimate plunder to those who go to fight for what they believe to be their "country and rights ;" and though there are 15,000,000 of Christians in Turkey, who contribute very materially to fill the Exchequer of the Turkish Government, that these last have any "rights" whatever.
Regarding the Circassians who were imported and located in Thessaly, at Carttitza, Armyro, Tricala, Pharsala, and Dimoko, their number has been much reduced by sickness, and by the return of many to Constantinople to seek more active fortune in the war. Zeibecks from Smyrna, another race of lawless irregulars, are expected in Thessaly, but their destination is not yet known. The Vali tells me the Government expect to have 50,000 men on the Greek frontier.
From Mr. Vice-Consul Blakeney I learn that martial law has also been proclaimed at Yanina and in all Epirus, and a Christian of note has been arrested at Prevesa on suspicion of keeping up a correspondence with the late Russian Consul now at Santa Maura.
Here nothing of the kind has occurred as yet. The Vali has not put any one into prison on suspicion.
"The "Pallas" has left us for Besika Bay, and my French colleague, M. Mallet, is gone on a visit to Mount Athos in the French man-of-war "L'Illinois."
I have, &c.
M. Tricoupi to M. Gennadius.-(Communicated to the Earl of Derby by M. Gennadius,
Athènes, le 14 Septembre, 1877. VOUS n'ignorez pas que la Sublime Porte a proclamé depuis quelque temps la loi martiale dans plusieurs de ses provinces. Les Représentants des Puissances à Constantinople, à l'exception de l'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre, se sont enpressés de faire, en faveur de leurs nationaux, des représentations auprès de la Porte contre la juridiction créée par cette loi, juridiction incompatible, quant aux étrangers, avec les Capitulations. La Porte a répondu à ces représentations, que la loi en question ne concernait pas les sujets étrangers,
Quant à l'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre, il s'est réservé de faire les démarches nécessaires au sujet de cette loi, dès que la Porte l'aura communiquée aux Légations. En attendant la Porte n'en a fait, jusqu'ici, aucune communication officielle, et tout porte à croire que cette communication, pour des raisons faciles à concevoir, n'aura pas lieu.
Mais tout en s'abstenannt de commuiquer officiellement aux Légations la loi précitée, la Porte a donné des instructions aux Gouverneurs des Provinces pour sa mise à exécution, et les Gouverneurs de Salonique, d'Andrinople, de l'Epire, et de la Thessalie ont déjà notifié la mise en vigueur de cette loi par des Circulaires adressées aux Consuls des Puissances Européennes.
Sur les ordres du Gouvernement Royal, les Consuls Helléniques compétents ont répondu à cette communication, qu'on ne saurait permettre que la moindre atteinte fût portée aux Capitulations.
Cette réponse constituait un déclinatoire formel contre la loi en question, en ce qui concerne les sujets étrangers.
Mais les autorités locales n'ont pas entendu respecter, à l'égard des sujets Hellènes, les priviléges découlant des Capitulations.
Les rapports de nos autorités Consulaires signalent une série de mesures arbitraires contre des sujets Hellènes, qui ont été traduits devant les cours martiales au mépris des représentations de nos Consuls.
Un tel état de choses révèle chez les autorités locales l'intention manifeste de faire tomber en désuétude les immunités dont jouissent les sujets Hellènes en Turquie.
Nous avons dû, en conséquence, charger M. Coundourioti de réclamer de la Porte, qu'elle fasse connaître aux autorités des provinces que la loi martiale n'est pas applicable aux sujets étrangers.
La coopération des Puissances étrangères étant nécessaire pour assurer le succès de la démarche de M. Coundourioti, vous êtes prié d'entretenir de cette affaire le Cabinet auprès duquel vous êtes accrédité, afin qu'il veuille bien donner à cet effet des instructions à son Représentant à Constantinople.
Athens, September 14, 1877.
YOU are aware that the Sublime Porte lately proclaimed martial law in several of its provinces. The Representatives of the Powers at Constantinople, with the exception of the Ambassador of Great Britain, hastened to make representations to the Porte on behalf of their countrymen and against the jurisdiction created by this law--a jurisdiction which, as regards foreigners, was incompatible with the Capitulations. The Porte replied to these representations that the law in question did not affect foreigners. The English Ambassador postponed taking the necessary steps as regards this law until the Porte should have communicated it to the Legations. In the meantime, the Porte has never communicated it officially; and all tends to the belief that, for reasons which are not far to seek, it never will be communicated.
But the Porte, while avoiding an official communication of the aforesaid law to the Legations, has instructed the Governors of the provinces to put it into force; and the Governors of Salonica, Adrianople, Epirus, and Thessaly have already, by Circulars addressed to the Consuls of the European Powers, notified to them that it will be forthwith carried out.
The Hellenic Consuls affected have, by order of the Royal Government, replied to this communication that they cannot sanction the slightest infraction of the Capitulations. This answer constituted a formal declinatory plea against the law in question in so far as it affects foreign subjects.
But the local authorities have not respected in the persons of Hellenic subjects the privileges which are a consequence of the Capitulations.
The reports of our Consular authorities record a series of arbitrary measures directed against Hellenic subjects who have been brought before court-martials in spite of the representations of our Consuls.
Such a state of things reveals a manifest intention on the part of the local authorities to allow the privileges which Hellenic subjects in Turkey enjoy to fall into abeyance.
We have consequently instructed M. Coundourioti to call upon the Porte to make known to the provincial authorities that martial law is not applicable to foreign subjects.
As the co-operation of the forcign Powers is necessary to ensure the success of the steps which M. Coundourioti has taken, you are instructed to communicate on this subject