Puslapio vaizdai

for having allowed, and, as alleged, encouraged, the entry into the garrison towns of their Mussulman fellow-islanders, the result of which has been to intensify their hatred against the Christians, and, hence to expose to serious danger the lives, property, and honour of the Christian dwellers in the towns. They disclaim all responsibility for this migration, as they have not ceased, since they formed themselves into a body, to respect the lives and property of the Mussulmans. They conclude by begging the Consuls to call the attention of their respective Governments to this state of things, and to solicit their philanthropic help.

I understand by the expression "philanthropic help" a request that the Powers would send some ships of war to protect the Christians. Such, indeed, is the request put forward by the Christian inhabitants of Candia to the Vice-Consuls there, who go so far as to beg that ships of war may be allowed, as in the last insurrection, to convey them to a place of safety. As I have on previous occasions had the honour of stating, the Vali of Crete has forbidden any one to leave the island, and there are hundreds of Christians forcibly detained here, where they are starving from want of work, in consequence of this unfeeling order. I know of no other part of the Empire where the inhabitants, thinking their lives in danger, are not at liberty to run away. In an interview which I had with the Vali to-day, I asked his Excellency if the proliibition was still in force, and I found that he was not inclined to relax its operation.

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A MM. les Consuls d'Angleterre, de France, d'Italie, d'Autriche-Hongrie, d'Allemagne, et de Grèce.

M. le Consul,

VOICI cinq mois environ que le peuple Crétois, dans le but de soutenir les modifications au Règlement Organique proposées dans les deux dernières Assemblées Générales, tenues à la Canée, a eu recourse à une démonstration pacifique. Ces modifications, qui ont pour bases l'égalité et le self-government, visent utiles à tous les éléments de la population du pays, conformément au principe de ce siècle de progrès.

Le Gouvernement Ottoman a, par malheur, méconnu ces dispositions pacifiques du peuple Crétois, qui ont été portées à sa connaissance, ainsi qu'à celle des Gouvernements Européens, par la publication faite à Clima par l'Assemblée. Il a par suite autorisé et même favorisé l'entrée dans ses forteresses de nos compatriotes Musulmans, excitant ainsi ceux-ci à la haine envers les Chrétiens, malgré nos assurances répétées que les Chrétiens, par les modifications demandées, recherchaient à vivre en harmonie et dans une fraternelle amitié avec les Musulmans, en jouissant avec eux des bienfaits d'une paix longue et durable.

Les conséquences de cette conduite étaient, M. le Consul, faciles à prévoir. L'entréc dans les forteresses des Musulmans, très supérieurs en nombre et excités ainsi contre nous, malgré nos assurances pacifiques, devait constituer menace pressante pour la vie, l'honneur et les biens de nos coreligionnaires des villes et de leurs environs.

C'est ainsi qu'il y a trois jours, à Rethymo, les Musulmans ont fermé les portes de cette ville, et en ont menacé non seulement les habitants Chrétiens mais aussi M. T. Trifilli et son drogman, M. Em. Papadaki, qui avaient voulu s'interposer en faveur des Chrétiens, et qui ont été obligés de chercher leur salut dans une prompte retraite.

C'est à bon droit que cette conduite de nos compatriotes Musulmans nous a causé, à nous, seuls légaux représentants du peuple Crétois à l'Assemblée Générale des Crétois, légalement constitué, de craintes justifiées pour la sécurité dans l'avenir de nos frères Chrétiens des villes et de leurs environs.

Nous avons par suite le devoir de protester contre le Gouvernement Ottoman et ses agents, seule cause de cette situation, et réclamer pour la vie, l'honneur et les biens de nos frères Chrétiens des villes et de leurs environs, qui sont actuellement en danger, le secours philanthropique des Grandes Puissances Européennes.

Dans l'espoir que vous voudriez bien appeler la bienveillante attention du Gouverne

ment que vous représentez dignement sur ces faits, pour obtenir ce que l'humanité exige, nous avons, &c.

L'Assemblée Générale des Crétois,
Les Membres.


Appocorona, le 22 Décembre (v. s.), 1877.

[Suivent les signatures.]


To the Consuls of England, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Greece.

M. le Consul,

IT is now about five months since the Cretan people, in order to maintain the modifications in the "Règlement Organique" proposed in the last two General Assemblies, held at Canea, had recourse to a pacific demonstration. These modifications, which have equality and self-government for their bases, are beneficial to all the elements of the population of the country, conformably with the principles of this century of progress.

The Ottoman Government has unfortunately misunderstood these pacific dispositions of the Cretan people, which have been brought to its knowledge, as also to that of the European Governments, by the promulgation made by the Assembly at Clima. It has accordingly authorized and even encouraged the entry of our Mussulman compatriots into its fortresses, thus exciting them to a hatred of the Christians, in spite of our repeated assurances that the Christians were endeavouring by means of the modifications they asked for to live in harmony and in brotherly friendship with the Mussulmans, sharing with them the blessings of a long and lasting peace.

It was easy, M. le Consul, to foresee the consequences of this conduct. The entry into the fortresses of the Mussulmans, far exceeding us in number, and excited against us in this manner, notwithstanding our pacific assurances, was bound to establish a serious menace against the lives, honour, and property of our co-religionists in the towns and their neighbourhood.

Thus three days ago, at Rethymo, the Mussulmans closed the gates of that town, and assumed a threatening demeanour not only towards the Christian inhabitants, but also towards M. Trifilli and his Dragoman, M. Em. Papadaki, who tried to interfere on behalf of the Christians, but were obliged to seek safety in a speedy flight.

It is not without reason that we, the only legal representatives of the Cretan people in the General Assembly of Crete, legally constituted, have been alarmed by this conduct on the part of our Mussulman compatriots, for the security in the future of our Christian brethren in the towns and their neighbourhood.

We are accordingly in duty bound to protest against the Ottoman Government and its Agents, who are the only cause of this state of things, and to claim, for the lives, honour, and property of our Christian brethren, in the towns and their neighbourhood, which are at this moment in danger, the philanthropic assistance of the Great Powers of Europe.

In the hope that you will be good enough to call the kind attention of the Government which you worthily represent to these facts, to obtain what humanity requires, we have, &c.

The General Assembly of Crete,


The Members.

[The signatures follow.]

Appocorona, December 22 (o.s.), 1877.

No. 8.

My Lord,

Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received January 28.)

Canea, Crete, January 13, 1878. IN my despatch of the 7th instant I had the honour to inform your Lordship that, in consequence of the disturbed state of the town of Candia, Samih Pasha had gone thither himself. I take the liberty of inclosing copy of a despatch written by the ViceConsul there, describing the influx of Mussulman fugitives into that town and the efforts of the authorities to prevent it. The Christian inhabitants were in a state of terror, and Mr. Calocherino begs that a small vessel of war might visit that port in order to reassure them. I was glad to learn yesterday from Samih Pasha that the authorities have succeeded in stemming the torrent of Moslem fugitives, and I would fain hope that the excitement is subsiding. There are now few Mussulmans remaining in the open country from the western coasts of Crete as far as Candia, which embraces quite half the island, and the consequences of this displacement of the population are visible in the immense amount of misery inflicted on both religious sections of the community. The Mussulmans being without employment, and the great majority in absolute want, commit depredations on the Christians, who unable, by reason of the Vali's orders, to leave the island, are gradually withdrawing to the hills. I have been urging the Vali to disarm the Mussulman immigrants, a measure which his Excellency has agreed to adopt, and I shall be glad to be able to report that it has been carried out. His Excellency told me that he had received a report from the Kaïmakam of Selina stating that the zaptiehs of that sub-district, in company with a few needy Moslems who have remained behind, are pillaging the deserted houses of the fugitives, but that the Christians had abstained from committing any damage whatever. This statement confirms what I had the honour to report last week, and shows that the assertion of the Committee in Apokorona, in their Petition inclosed in my previous despatch, that the Christians had refrained from offering any violence to the Mussulmans, was no idle boast.

The authorities having withdrawn their police from most of the villages of this half of Crete, and the Courts of Law having practically ceased to work except in the chief towns, where they discharge their duties in a perfunctory manner, the Government may be said to have partly abdicated its functions. Such order as exists is due to the force of habit, supplemented by a police force supported by the people, independent of the legitimate authorities, but there is a growing excitement observable owing to the landing of several Chiefs from Greece. The most noted of these came a week ago with a good stock of rifles and gunpowder, having in his company a priest who was Secretary to the Committee in the last insurrection. Several Chiefs of minor importance have also made their appearance, and there is now no lack of arms, but the want of food must soon be severely felt. The authorities can no longer disguise the fact that the island is in a state of rebellion, though no hostile act involving bloodshed has been committed, for the Committee is anxious to avoid the odium of being the aggressors until they have exhausted all pacific means of obtaining what they consider to be their rights. This matter remains to be decided between them and the Ottoman Commissioners, concerning whose proceedings I shall have the honour to report in my next despatch.

My French colleague, seeing the disorder reigning around, has thought it prudent to lodge on his premises a party of six sailors belonging to a French corvette stationed in Suda Bay. This measure is viewed with great dissatisfaction by the local authorities, who have since posted a guard of regular troops hard by, as if by way of protest.


I have, &c. (Signed)

Inclosure 1 in No. 8.


Vice-Consal Calocherino to Consul Sandwith.

Candia, Crete, January 8, 1878.

I HAVE the honour to state that the Turks of the villages, and especially of Messara, pretending that they are not in security in their homes on account of some robberies of animals which have taken place there, brought all their movables into this town, and now they enter armed with their families, though the Christian inhabitants of this district have not shown any insurrectionary sign.

The Governor-General arrived here on the 3rd instant, and sent the Mutessarif to the

villages in order to stop the movements of the Turkish families, and the Vali himself, at the gates of the fortress, tried to turn them back; nevertheless they insist, and they enter, as they have done even to-day, by force.

The Christian inhabitants of this town and environs are afraid of this accumulation of the Turks in town, as the latter, having no work here, will of course commit all kinds of abuses, and especially now that the Government is so weak, and asked the GovernorGeneral either to send the Turkish families to their villages or to give permission to the Christians to leave the island. The Pasha promised that as soon as he returns to Canca he will decide upon their demand.

I inclose herewith three Petitions of the inhabitants of this town, of Malevision, and of Messara, on this matter.

At the same time, I beg to submit to you, Sir, if you think it proper, to ask that a British gun-boat be sent to remain for some days in this port, in order to repress the fanaticism of the Turks, because nobody can predict the end of this affair.

I have, &c.

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TURKISH families of the villages continue to enter the fortress, though the Christians declare that they accept the proposals of the Government and remain quiet. In five days all the Turkish families will be in this town, when there will be great danger that atrocities will be committed in town and the environs by Turks. Government cannot stop families but by force, which they decline to employ. Vali sent two days ago the Mutessarifs to the villages to stop families by fair means; nevertheless, Turkish families continue to arrive here; by force only they will stop them. I learn Vali leaves this town in desperate condition.

My Lord,

No. 9.

Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received January 28.)

Canea, Crete, January 14, 1878. IN my despatch of the 6th instant I had the honour to inform your Lordship that it was the intention of Costaki Pasha and his colleague to issue a Proclamation at once, and then to return to Apokorona.

I went to see Costaki Pasha on the 8th instant, when his Excellency told me, with much concern, that in consequence of a step taken by the Vali at Candia, he had delayed publishing the intended Proclamation, and that he would await his Excellency's return to Canea. It appears that the Vali had, while in Candia, without consulting the Commissioners, already given orders for the election of the Deputies for a new General Assembly, and that the elections had already begun in that town and the surrounding districts. It had entered into the plans of the Commissioners to convoke the General Assembly at an early date, but not until they had come to a previous understanding with the Committee, without whose concurrence it is certain that the election of the Deputies in this part of the island could not be carried out. In a subsequent interview with Costaki Pasha his Excellency told me that he had abandoned the idea of proclaiming the object of his mission, and that he would set out without delay for Vamos, the Government head-quarters in Apokorona, and from thence proceed with his colleague, Salim Effendi, to the village where the Committee is sitting. His Excellency begged me, however, to write to the Committee, suggesting that three or four of their number should go to Vamos to invite the Commissioners to visit the Committee, and to escort them on the way. Although my former letter inviting some of the Delegates to come to Canea had not attained its object, I knew they could have no difficulty in complying with this fresh request, so I dispatched the desired letter yesterday, and the two Commissioners set out for Apokorona in the afternoon.

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P.S.-January 16. Costaki Pasha and his colleague returned from Apokorona last night. Arrived at Vamos, they were met, as I had requested, by ten or twelve of the

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more respectable Delegates, who escorted them to Fré. There they were received with all the honours due to their rank; and, in few words, Costaki Pasha and Salem Effendi told them the object of their mission. After some conversation on the subject of the Cretan demands, it was thought advisable to wait until all the districts had elected their Delegates, which it will take another week or ten days to accomplish. During this interval the Commissioners, who have just communicated to me this intelligence, will remain here.

T. B. S.

No. 10.

Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received January 28.)

My Lord, Canea, Crete, January 16, 1878. IN consequence of a delay in the arrival of the weekly steamer from Syra, I am able to add that I have seen the Commander of the French gun-vessel stationed in Suda Bay, who has just returned from a visit to Candia. He reports that that town is quiet again, and that, in his opinion, there was not at any moment any real cause for the alarm which I had the honour of reporting in my despatch of the 13th instant. The Mussulman peasantry had fled from the Christians, and the mutual fear which they seem to have inspired had in neither case any foundation, but is easily accounted for by the reminiscences left by the last insurrection and the more recent stories of massacres in European Turkey.

I am also glad to be able to state that a greater feeling of security prevails here. The Vali has begun disarming the Mussulmans, and strong patrols of gendarmes and soldiers occupy the roads, these vigorous measures having had a most salutary effect in inspiring confidence.

I have, &c,



No. 11.

The Earl of Derby to Consul Sandwith.

Foreign Office, January 29, 1878.

I APPROVE your proceedings with a view to facilitate a settlement between the
Cretan communities and the Commissioners sent by the Ottoman Government, as reported
in your despatch of the 6th instant.

I am, &c.

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The Earl of Derby to Consul Sandwith.

Foreign Office, January 31, 1878.
I APPROVE your proceedings, as reported in your despatch of the 14th instant,
with a view to bring about an understanding between the Turkish Commissioners and the
Cretan population.

I am, &c.

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Mr. Layard to the Earl of Derby.-(Received February 3.)

My Lord, Constantinople, January 23, 1878. MR. CONSUL SANDWITH, in his despatch to me (copy of which was sent by him to your Lordship), gives an account of an attack made upon Mr. Trifilli, the British Consular Agent at Rethymo. Yesterday Count Zichy called upon me with a despatch from the Austro-Hungarian Consul at Crete, giving a somewhat similar account of what

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