« AnkstesnisTęsti »
a stop to the further distribution of arms. He deeply deplored the step taken by Samih Pasha; and calling the Colonel of Gendarmerie into his presence, peremptorily forbad any more arms to be given out. At the same time he ordered him to go and verify the report I had just brought him of the licence committed in Galata, and to restore order without delay. The Colonel returned the same evening, and made a statement which quite bore out that which I had given to his Excellency. The next morning Costaki Pasha called together the principal Mussulman inhabitants, and commented in very earnest language on the evils which the conduct of the armed rabble was likely to bring on the Island, reminding them that it was the ruffianly acts committed in Bulgaria by Bashi-Bazouks of the same class which had alienated the sympathy of the Christian Powers. His Excellency's remarks seem to have been well received by his audience, and he then proceeded to form a Special Commission, composed of members of both religious communities, at which his Excellency will preside in person, for the trial of those guilty of similar licence. The ringleaders of the attack on Galata have been arrested, and will be tried by the new Court. The total disarmament of these men the Vali hardly dares to attempt, but will leave that matter to be disposed of by Mchemet Ali Pasha, the new Military Governor.
The impression is everywhere gaining ground that some Christian Chiefs are meditating an attack on some detachments of troops in a very few days, if no answer to the demands of the Committee is returned within the week.
Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received February 20.)
Canea, Crete, February 11, 1878.
I LEARN that a large meeting of the leading Mussulmans of Canea, and of the refugees from the surrounding districts, was convened on the 9th instant, in the large school-room belonging to their community, and that a resolution was come to to telegraph to the Grand Vizier to the effect that the Moslems of Crete, who, though numerically inferior to the Christians, are individually the largest landowners and the principal merchants, strongly deprecate their country being formed into an autonomous State or a Principality. A telegram in this sense was accordingly dispatched.
Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received February 20.)
Canea, Crete, February 11, 1878. I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship of the arrival in Suda Bay on the 8th instant of a battalion of Nizam from Bengazé. They belong to the 7th Regiment of the 1st Army Corps, have been stationed in Bengazé for some years, and are on their way to Antivari. In consequence, however, of the conclusion of the armistice, this battalion, which is only 500 strong, will remain here until further orders.
I have, &c.
THOMAS B. SANDWITH.
Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received February 20.)
Canea, Crete, February 11, 1878.
I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that my Greek colleague received, on the 9th instant, a telegram from his Government, stating that, in deference to the Great Powers, the national troops had been withdrawn from Turkish soil, the right of Greece to representation in the coming Congress having been recognized. These Chiefs are constantly receiving accessions of strength in the shape of arms and munitions of war,
The steamer "Panhellenion," which frequently ran the blockade during the last insurrection, Landed a large quantity of arms last week on the Sphakian Coast, and she is expected to return on a similar errand in a few days.
An Ottoman war steamer fell in with two boats laden with arms on the 8th instant at a place called Phodele, near Candia, and succeeded in sinking one; but on approaching the coast to attack the other, hundreds of armed men on the rocks kept her at a distance with their rifles until they had secured its cargo.
I have just learned that the Delegates from the western districts of Selino, Kissamos, Canea, and Apokorona yesterday proceeded to vote for the annexation of the Island to Greece in opposition to the wishes of the other Delegates. The contention was so sharp between them, that the latter, who represent all the eastern and central districts as well as Sphakia, and who comprise two-thirds of the Delegates, separated themselves from their colleagues, and retired from Fré, in Apokorona, to a village further east, called Argyropolis. These adhere to the propositions presented to the Commissioners, and decline to renounce them until at least the arrival of to-morrow's steamer shall throw more light on the situation abroad.
A gentleman who has just come from Rethymo by the steamer says that the Moslems are robbing even the women of the clothes on their backs, and that a band of Christians from Apokorona are on their way to protect their brethren. At Rethymo order is still preserved.
In consequence of this intelligence, I am just dispatching a telegram to his Excellency Mr. Layard in these words:-"The presence of a man-of-war would be advisable here."
M. Delyanni to M. Gennadius.-(Communicated to the Earl of Derby by M. Gennadius,
Chrétiennes contre l'Administration Ottomane.
La conduite des autorités locales, notamment celle de Samich Pacha, qui avait remplacé pendant quelques jours le nouveau Gouverneur Civil de l'ile, durant l'absence de celui-ci à Fré (lieu de réunion de l'Assemblée Générale des Crétois), loin de calmer les esprits, les a aigris au contraire. Le Gouverneur provisoire ayant recruté un millier d'Ottomans fanatiques parmi la populace de l'île, en fît des gardiens de l'ordre public et les distribua aux alentours du fort de la Canée en leur confiant la sécurité du pays. Les Bachi-Bazouks de fabrication nouvelle occupèrent toutes les routes menant à la ville, et se mirent non-seulement à arrêter les passants pour les dévaliser, mais à commettre aussi tout acte de brigandage sur les malheureux Chrétiens qui leur tombaient sous la main.
Adossidès Pacha promet, après son retour, et sur les représentations du Consul Anglais, de faire désarmer cette bande de bandits officiels, mais rien n'en fut. Quelques jours même après les assurances du nouveau Gouvernement on vît une fraîche troupe d'Arabes se diriger vers l'arsenal pour s'y pourvoir d'armes.
Les actes de brigandage commis par les gardiens improvisés de la sécurité publique obligèrent les villageois des alentours de prendre le chemin des montagnes. Quelques uns d'entre eux voulurent transporter au moins leur mobilier de la ville, et l'y mettre en sûreté. L'administration défendit cette aménagement aux Chrétiens, tandis qu'elle le permettait dans les mêmes circonstances aux Ottomans.
Le Consul du Roi dût protester contre cette flagrante partialité de l'autorité; mais sa protestation n'eut aucun effet. Le Gouverneur de l'île répondit que la mesure prohibitoire était générale, et qu'il ne pouvait excepter personne. Il fit même l'étonné en entendant que la prohibition ne frappait en réalité que les populations Chrétiennes, et que les Ottomans aménagaient sans aucun empêchement.
M. Logothétis m'écrit que, vis-à-vis des mesures aussi arbitraires, il se trouve dans l'impossibilité de prêter aucun secours à la population Hellénique, qui implore sa protection.
Ce qui se passe à Rethyme est le pendant des actes de brigandage commis aux alentours de la Canée. Les Ottomans sortent de la ville, se mettent en embuscade sur les chemins et dévalisent les Chrétiens qui passent.
A Fotinou ils dévalisèrent la semaine passée sept paysans; un autre, nommé
Nicolas Vallegi, fut encore plus malheureux; après avoir été dévalisé il fut aussi blessé au cou. Le 24 Janvier un marchand fut dévalisé, il fut aussi blessé et maltraité dans les rues mêmes de la ville.
Ces faits ont dû naturellement accélérer l'explosion de l'insurrection, qui couvait dépuis longtemps, amener une prise d'armes générale et propager rapidement le mouvement insurrectionnel.
Ainsi la garnison de Sphakia, leur Gouverneur, et tous les autres fonctionnaires et employés du district, furent invités, la semaine passée, de quitter leur poste; embarqués sur un vaisseau de guerre ils furent transportés à la Canée.
A Cerilli, du district d'Alikiano, le vieux Chef de partisans Mavrogenni, a la têto de 600 hommes, proclama, il y a dix jours, l'union avec la Grèce.
Deux jours après il était suivi par le Chef de Kissamo, A. Scalidès, lequel, entouré de Pappadogamaki, de Parthénios, de Péridés, et 1,500 combattants, arbora le drapeau national, après une bénédiction d'armes solennelle, et occupa des positions favorables pour repousser toute attaque des Ottomans consignés dans les forts.
A Lakki des Cydonies les Chefs Hadji Michali, Crokidas, et autres procédèrent à une bénédiction d'armes pareille, et proclamèrent l'union avec la Grèce.
Vous trouverez ici-jointe, en traduction, la proclamation de Hadji Michali.
A Selino les Chefs Criari, Giorgakaki, et le reste, imitèrent l'exemple des Lakkiotes. Ils constituèrent un Comité Administratif, votèrent en même temps l'abolition du pouvoir Ottoman, et se proposent de communiquer leur décision aux Consuls Européens et à l'Assemblée Générale.
Le 30 Janvier tous les villages arborèrent le drapeau Hellénique. Une partie de leurs représentants se sont rendus à Argyroupolis, où ils seront bientôt rejoints par ceux qui restent à Fré, pour pourvoir de commun accord à l'administration des provinces.
M. Logothétis m'écrit que la conduite de toutes ces troupes armées, et des Chrétiens en générale vis-à-vis leurs concitoyens Ottomans, est exemplaire, et empreinte de sentiments humanitaires et conciliants. Tandis que, dernièrement encore, un des partisans du Chef Mylonaki, égaré à Apocorona et tombé entre les mains des soldats Ottomans, subit les martyrs les plus atroces, et expira dans les plus atroces souffrances, après avoir eu les mains, la langue, et le nez coupés, et les yeux arrachés; les insurgés, au contraire, au lieu d'user de représailles, se comportent vis-à-vis des Ottomans en véritables concitoyens.
Cette conduite exemplaire des Chrétiens est reconnue par les Ottomans même les plus notables, ainsi que par les Consuls étrangers.
Ce qui précède vous est communiqué à titre de renseignement. Vous pouvez en faire l'usage qui vous paraîtrait nécessaire.
P.S.-J'apprends à l'instant que l'artillerie Ottomane est sortie du fort de la Il paraît que les Chrétiens ont occupé des positions voisines et attaqué
T. P. D.
Sir, Athens, February, 1878. THE news which reaches me from the Island of Crete announces the spread of the insurrectionary movement which had commenced by the protest of the Christian population against the Ottoman Administration.
The conduct of the local authorities, notably that of Samih Pasha, who had taken the place for some days of the new Civil Governor of the island, during the absence of the latter at Fré (the place of meeting of the General Assembly of the Cretans), far from calming public feeling, had, on the contrary, embittered it. The provisional Governor, having recruited some thousand Ottoman fanatics among the riffraff of the island, made them guardians of public order, and distributed them in the vicinity of the port of Canea, entrusting to them the safety of the country. The newly-raised Bashi-Bazouks held all the roads leading to the town, and proceeded not only to stop and rob all the passers-by, but to commit also every possible act of brigandage on the unfortunate Christians who fell into their hands.
Adossides Pasha promised, after his return, and on the representations of the English Consul, to cause this band of official bandits to be disarmed, but nothing of the sort took place. Some days indeed after the assurances of the new Government a fresh troop of Arabs were seen going towards the arsenal for a supply of arms,
The acts of bridandage committed by the improvised guardians of the public safety forced the villagers in the neighbourhood to betake themselves to the mountains. Some among them wished to carry away at least their movables from the town and put them in a place of safety. The administration forbade this in the case of the Christians, while permitting it in the same circumstances to the Ottomans. The Consul of the King rightly protested against this flagrant partiality on the part of the authorities. But his protest was of no effect. The Governor of the island replied that the prohibitory measure was general, and that he could make no exceptions. He even feigned surprise at hearing that the prohibition only really told on the Christian population, and that the Ottomans removed their effects without any hindrance.
M. Logothetis writes me word that, in the face of such arbitrary measures, he finds it impossible to give any help to the Greek population, who beg his protection.
What is passing at Rethymo is a repetition of the acts of brigandage committed in the environs of Canea. The Ottomans leave the town, lie in ambush on the roads, and rob the passing Christians.
At Fotenou last week they robbed seven peasants; another, by name Nicolas Vallegi, was more unlucky still; after being robbed, he was also wounded in the neck. On the 24th January a merchant was robbed, he was also wounded and ill-treated in the very streets of the town.
These acts have naturally hastened the outbreak of the insurrection, which had long been brewing, have brought about a general call to arms, and have given a rapid extension to the insurrectionary movement.
Thus the garrison of Sphakia, their Governor, and all the other officials and employés of the district, were told last week to quit their posts; they were embarked on a man-of-war, and taken to Canea.
At Cerilli, in the district of Alikiano, the old Chief of partizans, Mavroyenni, at the head of 600 men, proclaimed, ten days ago, union with Greece.
Two days later his example was followed by the Chief of Kissamo, A. Scalidès, who, surrounded by Pappadogomaki, Parthenios, Péridés, and 1,500 combatants, displayed the national flag after a solemn benediction of arms, and occupied positions favourable for repulsing all attack of the Ottomans confined within the forts.
At Lakki, in the Cydonies, the Chiefs Hadji Michali, Crokidas, and others, proceeded to a similar benediction of arms, and proclaimed union with Greece.
At Selino, the Chiefs Criari, Giorgakaki, and the rest, imitated the example of the Lakkiots. They appointed an Administrative Committee, voted at the same time the abolition of the Ottoman Power, and propose to communicate their determination to the European Consuls and to the General Assembly.
On the 30th of January all the villages raised the Hellenic flag. Part of their representatives went to Argyroupolis, where they will soon be rejoined by those who remain at Fré to provide, by mutual agreement, for the administration of the provinces.
M. Logothetis writes me word that the conduct of all these armed troops, and of the Christians generally, towards their Ottoman fellow-citizens, is exemplary, and bears the stamp of humane and conciliatory feelings. While on the one hand, quite recently, one of the partisans of the Chief Mylonaki, who lost his way at Apocorona, and fell into the hands of the Ottoman soldiers, was subjected to the most atrocious martyrdom, and expired in most horrible pain, after having had his hands, tongue, and nose cut off, and his eyes torn out; the insurgents on the other, instead of committing reprisals, behave towards the Ottomans as true fellow-citizens.
This exemplary conduct of the Christians is acknowledged by the most prominent of the Ottomans even, as well as by the foreign Consuls.
The above is communicated to you for your information. You may use it as seems to you necessary.
THEODORE P. DELYANNI.
P.S.-I hear this moment that the Ottoman artillery has left the fort of Canea. It appears that the Christians have occupied the adjacent positions and attacked Vamos.
T. P. D.
Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby.-(Received March 1.)
Canea, Crete, February 14, 1878. I HAD the honour to give your Lordship, in a postscript to my last despatch, some account of the disorders committed in the neighbourhood of Rethymo.
Early on the morning of the 12th instant Costaki Pasha sent orders to ViceAdmiral Hussein Pasha, Commander-in-chief in the Archipelago, to proceed without a moment's delay to Rethymo in his flag-ship the "Orchanié," taking with him two companies of regular troops under the command of an energetic officer. This measure of the new Vali has had the happiest effect, the authorities having succeeded in arresting upwards of fifty of the rioters, who will be brought to trial before a special Commission composed of an equal number of Moslems and Christians. The assassins of the two Christians who were found murdered outside Rethymo have also been seized.
By a letter received from Mr. Trifilli, the Consular Agent, I have further particulars of these lamentable doings. Two of the Christian villages in the neighbourhood have been ransacked of everything they possessed, and have been left half ruined, the marauders even tearing down the doors and window-frames, and carrying off all to Rethymo, where they were sold in the streets. The village churches were also profaned.
There is the less excuse for these proceedings inasmuch as the Christians have scrupulously respected the property of the Moslems who had abandoned their homes in obedience to the orders of the Committee in Apokorona. The only plea they can urge in their defence is the pressure of want, by which they are being sorely pinched. The conduct of the Mutessarif Costaki Pasha considers most reprehensible, and he has demanded his recall.
The Consular Agent has not visited the scene of these disturbances, as since the attack lately made on him, it is not safe for him to venture outside the town. The fact of the Mutessarif having apologized for the bad usage he had then received, and his imprisoning two of his assailants, was entirely due to the arrival off Rethymo of Her Majesty's ship "Rupert." It is needless to say that the prisoners were released a few days afterwards.
At Candia the state of affairs is also admitted to be serious. The Vice-Consul there informs me that symptoms are again showing themselves of a movement of the Moslem peasantry towards the town. In order to prevent it, the Mutessarif called together the leading inhabitants of both communities, and they agreed that six companies of 100 men each should be enrolled, and placed under the orders of chiefs of good repute. These volunteers will be Mahomedans, and will serve without pay. They have formed, at the same time, a Commission of sixteen members, eight of either creed, who will accompany the volunteers to the districts south and east of Candia, where the bulk of the Mussulmans dwell, and it is hoped that partly by force and partly by persuasion, they will be induced to remain at home. The Moslems of those parts have a bad name for lawlessness and ferocity, and if they were crowded together inside the walls of Candia without the means of a livelihood, the consequences might be even more deplorable than those which have happened in Rethymo.
In this town and neighbourhood a greater feeling of security prevails since the adoption of the prudent measures devised by Costaki Pasha, as reported in my despatch No. 14. The mixed Commission formed by His Excellency seems to be acting with impartiality, as the Vali himself is its President, and some of the more disreputable characters whom Samih Pasha had permitted to be enrolled in the Civil Guard, as it is called, have been deprived of their arms. While one of the chiefs of these Moslem volunteers had behaved with ruffianly violence, it is but fair to state that another has gained the general goodwill and confidence by his justice and humanity.
The Vali is well seconded in his endeavours to preserve order by the leading Mussulmans of the town, who are nearly all possessed of extensive olive and orange groves in the neighbourhood, and who, should disorder gain the upper hand, would be the chief sufferers. The Christians complain, not without reason, of the damage done to their growing corn by the depredations committed by the cattle brought by Moslem emigrants from Selino.
The local authorities are doing what they can to prevent it, and they can hardly be blamed if the zaptiehs, whom they have not the means of paying, are remiss in the discharge of their duty.