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body. These glands are divinely planted within our bodies. Medical work was divinely planted in evangelism.

"The eye cannot say to the hand, I have no need of thee; nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you."

Does the medical hand cost too much ? What is our standard of cost-the value of a human soul ? Does the hand not reach enough hearts and lives? Why then not aid the hand as we do the hand of flesh? Why not give it more assistants, nurses, native physicians, native preachers, and Bible-women ? Why not put our own hands in once in a while and visit the wards and patients ? The degree of medical utility is what we inake it. It has been proved that selfsupport is the proper method of solving excessive cost.

It is not necessary to refer to results of medical work in the past. We have throughout this province monuments to our revered Dr. John G. Kerr which speak stronger than words. I quote from an editorial in the Medical Missions at Home and Abroad :

It used to be asserted-never by medical missionaries themselves, but by home workers who did not adequately recognize the peculiar conditions of a leathen field-that a mission hospital's work was done, and the peculiar value of a medical missionary's service was ended, so soon as a fair opening for the preaching of the Gospel had been obtained in the particular region in which the hospital was planted. It is now recognized that the hospital and the medical missionary's service are needed not only to break open the way into a territory, but to be in that territory a standing, visible, readily understood witness to the heathen of the spirit and purpose of all Gospel labor. Further, long after pioneering work in the ordinary sense of the word has been accomplished, there remains for the medical missionary through his hospital a continuous and extending sphere of practical usefulness to the bodies and souls of the heathen, the value of which it would be difficult to overestimate.”

Again I can say I am glad this question of present utility has been raised. I myself, looking narrowly at the “breaking the ice” idea, have partially failed to appreciate the future possibilities of this wonderful agent commanded by Christ two thousand years ago.

Dr. Thomas Gillison in the China Medical Missionary Journal, speaking of the unique relation of physician and patient says : “Perhaps the visiting in homes of women by lady missionaries is the nearest approach to it.”' He further says :

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"Hospitals give us the opportunity of lending a hand in the good work that has been begun outside, e.g., a person has heard the truth outside, but the seed has not quite taken root, or a relation is a Christian, but his own mind is prejudiced. He comes to hospital ill, is kindly treated, has the truth put to him in a new light, is convinced and goes home a believer. .... Our attitude, as representing the Christian religion, to such questions as opiumsmoking, vice, etc., also the value we put upon the salvation of the individual body and individual soul, the equal way in which we treat rich and poor, our regard for children, our dealing with Christians who may have fallen into the sin of opium-smoking or other vice,-all these help to give a truer idea of what Christianity really is. ... What an opportunity is afforded in a hospital of showing something of the true place God means suffering to play in His divine economy! How we can explain it and how they can understand !

It has been suggested that we turn over the medical work to native hands as has been done in Japan. I believe the missions in Japan have lost in not carrying on Christian medical work. They are missing the close contact of physician and patient and the convincing lessons of the sick-bed. What practical demonstration have they now of Christian love and works that appeals to the heathen who are not in the immediate vicinity of orphanages, blind schools, and other limited charities? I also believe the time is coming when medical work there will be re-opened either by foreign missions or by Japanese home missions. Indeed, where in the world do we find Christianity without some form of medical mission ? We have medical mission work in America. Witness the Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, and other hospitals, together with innumerable free dispensaries. See the medical class at the Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Boston. Is the ice not broken in New England ? Who do the work in these institutions and why? Are they not Christians ? Is it not to be "all things to all men” that we may “by all means save some?»

As mentioned in the first part of this paper, I believe there

some reasons for the assumption that medicial work is simply temporary philanthropy. We medical men ourselves have been so filled with the idea of “ice breaking" that we, in seeking to treat as many persons from as many regions as possible so as to open the way for the Gospel, have nearly lost sight of the paramount fact that we are here to illustrate Christian love and to save souls. I believe this question of present utility would not have arisen if we had progressed with

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the times and had impressed upon our clerical brethren the fact of the richness of the half sown fields in hospital and dispensary. Why are the wards and dispensary so neglected by our clerical brethren ? Here are richer fields than can be found in any village. I quote from Dr. D. W. Carr, of Julfa, Persia, who said at a meeting in London: “I believe it to be a point of view which there is a tendency in some slight degree to overlook. I say so advisedly, because in our own medical mission it has not been possible to make use of one quarter of the opportunities we have of preaching the Gospel and of showing Christ, for lack of men. I ask you, Is it possible for one man to have to look after two or three dispensaries and a hospital, to be surgeon and physician and secretary and treasurer and house committee and everything else, and to do all the work, and in any satisfactory way to look after the spiritual welfare of some 15,000 people as well? It is impossible."

Now that the ice has been broken in the community we still have anchor ice to remove from the heart of the individual. When will it all be melted ? If we have held the medical work to be simply pioneer it appears we shall have to revise our ideas.

I believe the time has come when the medical missionary need not exert himself in covering so much territory; he should pay rather more attention to quality of work. He should teach the native how to live. Public sanitation, personal and domestic hygiene should be taught from the Christian not from the heathen standpoint. The physician should itinerate occasionally to visit the more promising former patients at their homes in order to establish their faith and that which they have created amongst their people. No doubt he would be heartily welcomed and his influence would be incalculable.

China is essentially a country of starved souls. We have come to give them the bread of life. How can a starved soul overflow with grace and life for others ? Did you ever see a missionary—a medical missionary, with a starved soul ? I have. I myself have experienced it. How great an error therefore to fail to make provision for all the helpers necessary that the doctor may have left time and strength with which to participate actively in evangelism besides doing his part of the professional work.

These helpers should include the best, yes, the best native evangelist on the field, for his duties in tactfully crystallizing the good intentions of patients, both in ward and afterward

in their homes, would result in a great harvest.

I am sorry to say that, within my limited knowledge, there is no hospital with a resident native evangelist ! Again I quote from an editorial :

“Without such a man the evangelistic work is greatly handicapped, for it is impossible for the physician himself to give the requisite amount of time to instructing ordinary country patients, some of whom are extremely stupid, in the essentials of Christian doctrine, an understanding of which seems necessary in many cases in order to get a man to comprehend the simplest truths of the fatherhood of God and the love of Christ. We should try to get our clerical associates to realize that no man is too good to take the position of hospital evangelist, and then having secured a good man, should give him all the support in our power through practical sympathy and loving co-operation in his work."

I have barely mentioned medical teaching, nevertheless I believe it is our present duty as medical inissionaries to teach. We cannot begin to heal all the suffering, even in our immediate vicinity, but we can teach the Chinese. How much better is the Christian physician than one who has been educated by non-Christians and who has reduced the heaven-given art of healing to trade and barter !

Therefore, to recapitulate, we conclude :

That medical work is not simply to break the ice nor to relieve suffering, but to teach the truths of Christianity;

That the utility of medical missions has yet to be thoroughly developed ;

That the medical mission is practically the only one to the upper classes ;

That a healthy mind and body are essential to a healthy soul;

That the grain of faith required to induce patients to submit to the treatment of the Christian physician should be developed ;

That possibly some of us medical men in rolling up statistics are missing the point of medical missionary effort ;

That we should redouble our efforts to promote the development of evangelistic work in ward and dispensary, and in inviting our clerical brethren to share in it;

That it is our duty to help the Chinese to help themselves.

Finally, the medical missionary has not come to China to wash every ulcer which presents itself at the dispensary ; he

- ; has not come to China to heal their diseases per se, but he has come to preach the Gospel, to teach medicine, sanitation, hygiene, and to prove that cleanliness is next to Godliness. He has come on a Christ appointed mission to sick bodies and sick souls and his work cannot cease while there remains an unhealthy body impeding an unhealthy soul in its fight for life.


A Work for the Insane in China

The John G. Kerr Refuge for Insane, Fong Tsuen, Canton




These people are ill. If they act and speak unreasonably, it is not

their fault. This is a hospital, not a prison. 3. Though insane, these patients are yet men and women—not beasts.

TREATMENT 1. The power of persuasion, with—in the necessary cases-the minimum

of force. Freedom, with-in the necessary cases-the minimum of restraint. 3. Kindness mingled with firminess; rest, warm baths, out-of-door life,

exercise, employment, with-in the necessary cases—the minimum of medicine.



NSANITY is found among every people. Our Lord met

with it in the land of His earthly ministry. Observing

its existence in China, together with the fact that no provision was made by government or private individuals for its treatment, Dr. John G. Kerr, M.D., LL.D., of the American Presbyterian Mission, North, was led to establish in Canton the first hospital for insane Chinese in the empire.

In 1892 Dr. Kerr bought, with his own means, a well located piece of land about four English acres in size. In 1898 two buildings were erected with money handed Dr. Kerr by a medical missionary at work in another foreign country. They are capable of holding comfortably fifty-six patients, but they have had to be made to hold continually eighty-eight, besides giving up one large room for office and storeroom.

From that day until to-day, a little over eleven years, enough patients have been admitted to fill those buildings to their utmost capacity more than thirteen times over, that is, 1,198 patients have, for a longer or shorter time, been within its walls, where they have, with few exceptions, enjoyed better conditions for recovery than they would have had in their own homes. At present we have 194 inmates, of whom about twothirds are men and one-third women.

Since the great missionary conference of 1907, which met also in Shanghai, there has been more active interest taken in this line of work by the missionary body. And it is probable that before many years have passed, similar institutions will have been opened in various places throughout the empire.

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