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able and outstanding feature of the events of the year. They have been so fully described in our pages as to need no more than a passing mention, but the fact that delegates from the three Western provinces represented in this Conference enthusiastically adopted, after full consideration, the ideal of 'one Protestant church for West China' must be set on record in a review of the year's work. The delegates to the West China Conference in expressing themselves in cordial agreement with the principle of a free recognition of each other's church membership and standing made the high water mark of proposals for church union which have been so far adopted.
In accordance with the definite proposals for federation passed by Conference, the organization of the provinces has steadily advanced during the year. At the present time these proposals have been accepted and acted upon by representatives of almost the whole of the missions at work in the provinces of Chihli, Shantung, Shausi, Honan, Anhuei, Hunan, the West of China, Kiangsu and Chehkiang. The energy with which the Chinese have taken up these proposals is the most encouraging feature of the movement. That the Chinese Christians are little enough inclined to assist in perpetuating the unfortunate divisions of the Western church has been made increasingly clear. The readiness of the foreign missionary, in general, to stand aside and give the necessary freedom and power to the officers and pastors of the maturing Chinese church is an encouraging sign of the times. It may safely be said that during 1908 the development of the life of the Chinese church and the progress toward Christian union have proceeded in a manner never before witnessed in this land.
Another promising feature of advance, and one of the very last importance to the vitality of the church as an effective organization, is the concentration of attention upon provision for the needs of the ministry. If figures were available it is believed that a considerable increase would appear in the number of Chinese pastors ordained to the work of the ministry during the year. Undoubtedly more has been done in this time in the formation of plans for theological institutes, divinity schools and classes than at any other previons period of effort, while several important institutions have been opened for work. The progress of the scheme for holding Bible institutes in important missionary centres has been substantial. Under the name of summer' or winter' schools, as the case has been, much individual and
unrelated work has been attempted along these lines by some missions. The Bible Study Committee of the Centenary Conference has accomplished a good deal towards the enlargement of the Bible school ideal, and important 'Institutes' have been held during 1908. Some of the Provincial Federation Councils have incorporated this branch of work, and in many centres practical demonstrations of our essential unity' have been made by the co-operation of several missions in the carrying on of these Bible schools. Closely allied to this work is that for the promotion of Sunday school work and the training of Sunday school workers. How the old order of our missionary service changes may be viewed in the recent progress of the Sunday school movement in China. All missions are striving to enter into this form of work, which under the sway of old conditions and ideals had been set somewhat in the background. 1908 has done much to take away the reproach of neglect of Sunday schools as an evangelizing and educating factor of Christian service in China. This year has seen the work set upon a definite and comprehensive basis. It, too, cannot fail to do much for the linking up of the common activities of all the missions, for the extension of all forms of united service helps along the road to mutual understanding and singleness of aim.
No record of the inner progress of the church in China would be complete or adequate which omitted to draw attention to the scenes of spiritual revival which have been witnessed in the north of the empire. Following the wonderful outpouring of spiritual blessing of recent years in Korea, and more or less consequent upon it, a remarkable movement spread through the churches of Manchuria and passed over into Shansi and Honan. A deep and coercive conviction of sin was one of the chief features of this wonderful revival. "Men confessed openly to sins which yamên tortures would never have brought acknowl. edgment of.' The deep significance of this would seem to be in the demonstration of the responsiveness of the Chinese heart to the influence of the Gospel under the power of the Holy Spirit. The sanctifying nature of such a work as this and its influence upon the devotional and practical life of the church is self-evident. Of the lasting effect of this movement it is too early yet to speak ; the fact, however, is certain and must be recorded. It may be concluded, on the whole, that the edifica. tion, the necessary and successful upbuilding of the life of the Christian church as a spiritual organization, has proceeded more rapidly and more thoroughly in this last than in any other year.
The Progress of Christian Movements. — There are certain forms of service which are so closely and so naturally allied to Christian work as to be an almost integral part of missionary effort. Education and philanthropy are such. All forms of education-literary, scientific, and medical—have been kept very much in the forefront throughout 1908 owing to the interest which has been awakened all over the world in the development of the Chinese empire. The pressure of need as well as the development of the fraternal instinct among Christian bodies, has promoted the general cause of Christian education. It has been recognized that the time for a more comprehensive and statesmanlike policy has come and there have followed plans for co-ordinating and combining existing educational institutions. Efficiency has been the watchword constantly heard when plans for school development have been discussed. Educationists have agreed that Christian institutions of learning must lead the way in the new China. Hence university schemes of various kinds have been under consideration. The progress of events in the home lands has compelled attention to the needs and opportunities of China. In the United States the growth and influence of the laymen's movement, the remission of part of the Boxer indemnity, the interest aroused by the visit of President Taft, and later, the U. S. fleet, have aided in this. In Great Britain the unique Lambeth Conference of the Anglican churches, striking missionary exhibitions, the election by two important denominations of missionary leaders as chairmen of these respective bodies, and the activity of a very influential interdenominational committee working entirely for the good of missions in China, have brought China to the front of the foreign missionary question. Enquiry and interest in both lands has largely centered about the educational policy and the philanthropies of missions in this empire. Various centres of learning in both America and Great Britain are organizing support for special centres of work, such as the Peking Union Medical College, the educational work in Canton, Soochow University, Chentu, and others. Plans are also being discussed with a view to the foundation of a completely equipped Christian university, and it is stated that an influential representative from the ancient seats of learning in England is on his way to