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trine is false and hateful. No college feel the attraction of the former plan. can live half-slave and yet half-free. We like to think of scholars as standing Professors have no right to freedom un- apart from common quarrels, as lookless the college as a whole is free. The ing deeper into life than common men, freedom of professors is a myth unless it as finding the principles that underlie lives within the freedom of the college. all common controversies. And so they

I think that in the large, with very do, and ought to do. And yet they do little reservation, the colleges are free, not by such study escape men's distrustees and presidents as well as teach- agreements; the superficial quarrels reers. Donors and legislators are eager to appear down in the lower levels of our give to institutions which no man can thought; scholars are not agreed rebuy; that is their reason for giving. But garding the issues of our human life. public confidence in such freedom is not They have their points of view, their so easy to secure. Men carry the no- attitudes of mind, their working theotions of property and ownership from ries, their own beliefs. Shall they be other fields into the college field; they advocates of those beliefs? They canmake a gift into a bargain, and so they not help it. But on the other hand, are fail to understand. The college must ex- there no limits to the forms their partiplain itself, must make its friends and sanship may take? I think there are. A foes alike perceive that it is one in pur- man who advocates a view as if there pose; honest in dealings, seeking to free were no other views, who finds the men from ignorance and self-interest, total truth in some mere fragment of an seeking to make for men knowledge and insight which has come to him, who self-criticism. It has no other purpose sees and formulates no underlying prinin any part or fragment of its being. ciples beneath the strife of parties, is

A harder relationship to understand no proper college teacher. A college is that of professors and propaganda. has a right to expect that every one who How shall men express opinions within serves its cause, whatever else he do, the classroom or outside, and yet not shall keep its faith, its partial insight if make the college seem to be a partisan you like, that truth is broader than a in public disputes. There are two very creed and deeper than the theories of different ways in which it might be any sect or class. done. We might arrange that no pro- Shall college teachers be advocates fessor should be a partisan on any pub- or critics? I do not think we are ready lic issue; he must remain a scholar, to choose as yet. We want both types seeing the principles beneath the popu- and are not ready to let either go.

Most lar disputes, impartially making all of our men prefer the impartial rôle; sides clear, and yet not advocating any some have the zeal of advocates. And one of them. Or on the other hand, if the scholars keep themselves alive to might make up a college faculty of human situations, and partisans hold many advocates, at least one advocate fast to academic faith, we need not infor every important line of popular terfere. We should not like to see our thought and impulse, trusting to each ‘ninety-three professors' declaring that to push his cause as strongly as he can. all our acts are right - right beyond In either case, the college as a whole question; nor do we wish our scholars would remain free and uncommitted. to retire to quiet places, reflecting sadWhich is the better plan? I wonder if ly on the weaknesses of fellow men. One we need to choose between them. thing we know — whatever individual

No one who loves a college can fail to professors do or think, the college must

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be impartial; it must not be an advo-. Nothing about them is more obvious cate; it must urge no cause but its own, than just their singularity. And when the cause of knowledge and self-criti- a president takes his place in sector cism.

party he takes the college with him as There are, however, two or three re- no professor can. I have no doubt that marks which may be made upon the is- in the public mind one president, ensue just considered.

gaging in propaganda as a partisan, can Should we, in choosing teachers, take do more harm in shaking confidence account of their opinions? If we are in academic fairness and impartiality well enough acquainted with their work than could a hundred teachers if they to pass on their appointments, we can- should storm and rave in every sect and not well help knowing what they think. party that the country knows. And if And yet we must not take account of it. it should appear that, on the whole, We might, if we had found ourselves by the college presidents are very much blind unconscious preference appoint- alike in mental attitude, are in most caing men of our own points of view, seek ses committed to a single point of view out opponents of ourselves to keep the regarding human problems, I think that balance. But on no other ground could very rightly the colleges would fail of we be justified in choosing a man be- influence upon the public mind, would cause of his beliefs.

lose the public confidence on which the May teachers be dismissed because doing of their work depends. they hold and advocate this view or that? Such action would contravene

III the very spirit and purpose of a college. Professors must be good men, must How shall we win and keep that constudy well, and teach successfully. If fidence? That is the urgent problem these requirements are met, no ques

for us and for the people we serve. How tion can be raised regarding their opin- shall we teach unless the people listen? ions. The college has no fear of any How shall they listen unless they know opinions. It takes them all and judges that we can teach and that we will? them. If this be true, the tenure of the Unless a people find, in colleges or teacher is not that of one who is paid to elsewhere, some place of criticism, some work as he is told, who may be sent place where truth is sought, where away if those who pay him do not like thought is free, there is no hope for the work he does. His tenure is rather freedom of the people. that of the judge who, by the very na- The college must teach, and, first of ture of the task assigned him, is placed all, must make the people understand beyond control or punishment by those what teaching is. How shall we let on whom his judgment must be made. them know that we are building know

I think there is a case against the al ledge for their use, that we are serving lowing of college presidents to play the every interest that they have and yet rôle of public advocate. So far as teach- are slaves to none of them, that we will ers are concerned, safety is found in listen to every thought they bring and numbers. No one of them can claim to yet will weigh and value them with represent the college as a whole. What- thoughts of other men in mind? ever one of them may say, a dozen There is no other way than this: to of his fellows will be found to take an- study and to teach. And teaching is other point of view. But presidents the attempt to make men free. are wont to speak each for his college. Physician, heal thyself!

SCIENCE AT THE FRONT

BY JOSEPH S. AMES

I

summed up the situation in a few words,

which I heard him say soon after his As one approaches the great battle- return to this country. The substance line of Europe, the most impressive fact of what he said was this: ‘There is not is the existence of order. Every man the least uncertainty as to how this war has his definite work to do; there is no will end. At its beginning, the German hurry, no confusion. At every cross

General Staff summoned the scientists roads there is a director of traffic, for of Germany into consultation on every all the world like Piccadilly Circus; step; each branch of the army called to every motor-truck, every field-gun, has its service professors from the univerits appointed road to follow. Chance is sities and scientific experts from its excluded as a factor. The same idea numerous factories; but, as the war controls the actual fighting - on the continued, the policy changed, the reg.

. land, in the water, in the air; every- ular officers of the army replaced the thing is regulated by knowledge, that scientific advisers, and now the latter is, by science. This does not mean mili- have little influence. In England, the tary science in its narrow sense far course of events has been the reverse: from it. It means that the general in the beginning the Staff officers had staffs realize the possibility of making their way; but, as the months passed, use of scientific knowledge and the de- more and more were the men of science sirability of consulting scientific men. called to help in advice and in actual

Other features of the Front are strik- field duty, until now every man of note ing: the magnitude of the preparations in the scientific life of England is at for battle, calling for the services of work for the country. No fact is more great business men; the attention paid striking in the history of the war; none to the social and physical well-being of will have consequences so far-reaching. the soldiers; and many other facts; but, I will add to this, that in France the the more one goes up and down the work of scientific laboratories has albattle-line, the more one is amazed at ways received due and proper recognithe vital part which science is playing; tion and does now.

and, the more closely one is allowed to This fact was realized more or less i enter into the councils of the staffs, the clearly in this country, and in the

more apparent it is that men of science spring of 1916 the National Academy have a field of usefulness never before of Sciences, at the request of President opened to them.

Wilson, organized a National Research A clear-seeing, clear-thinking Amer- Council, composed of engineers, uniican chemist, who was in Germany versity professors, and government and England for many months in the officials, to make a study of the relayear 1916, having unique opportuni- tion of science to war, and to be preties for observation in both countries, pared to help the government in all scientific matters. Immediately after and England know that they are at this country declared war, this Coun- war, and modern warfare does not recil decided to send to Europe a com- spect Sundays or festivals. mission of six, who should see with their All the scientific work of the country own eyes what the part of science in the is organized; there is no lost motion. war was. It was my privilege to be one There is complete coöperation between of these. We reached France toward the staff, the men of science, and the the end of April, and returned to manufacturers. The officer in the Army America early in July. We were wel. or Navy states his problem: he wishes comed by the French government, and to be able to locate the position of a later by the English, and were given battery of guns or a submarine; the every opportunity to ask questions and scientific advisers instantly set to work. to observe. M. Painlevé, the Minister A geologist thinks his science can be of of War, at our first official reception, use to the general at the front; he is said to us, 'Every door in France is at once given an opportunity of provopen to you'; and so we found. ing the correctness of his idea. An air

In what follows I shall confine myself plane pilot thinks he can improve his largely to my personal impressions and machine; a manufacturer, without a experiences; and I am sure that all of day's delay, makes the alteration demy associates could tell stories even sired. It is wonderful. A whole nation more interesting. I cannot speak with at war is an awe-inspiring sight. any clearness of the hospital and sanita- In Paris, which is now the centre of tion service, of the work of the differ- France, as never before, we received ent medical research committees, of the our theoretical instruction. We were scientific work in connection with food, interested in knowing about maps, for of the wonderful institutions for the instance. We called, by appointment, reëducation of the maimed and blind- to see the chief officer; he received us ed, although all these were studied by and at once gave us a lecture, with the some of us; but even I, a physicist, was clarity and breadth of view of a masconscious of the evidences of the as- ter, on the administration under his tounding progress made by the French charge, telling us of each stage in the and English doctors and scientists. process of acquiring knowledge of the

We were placed in contact at once, enemy's country and putting this on both in Paris and in London, with the the printed map. We asked for more men we wished to see, many of whom details, and all were explained. Then were, of course, friends of long stand- we were shown the actual working of ing. We were shown laboratories, man- the machinery; all the instruments, ufactories, testing-grounds, and given the organization of the personnel, the every imaginable help to get answers printing processes themselves. to questions and to see undreamed-of Or, we wished to know about airinvestigations. It was a most wonder- planes. We were shown the experiful experience, to see the mobilization mental laboratories and wind-tunnels, of a nation. There was no one, be he the manufactories, the new engines artist, merchant, scientist, or workman, undergoing their various tests, the aviwho was not giving his service to his ation fields; and finally, as an illustracountry. Office-hours and work-hours tion of how air-planes were used, we were from seven o'clock on; they had a were shown the system for the defense beginning, but I never saw their end. of Paris against raids through the air. Each week had seven days; for France So it was with respect to every subject. Nowhere were we more impress- he would have considered it a form of ed than in Paris by the fact that the boasting, of 'side'; but the minute I French are a serious people. Each man asked questions, he was free of all reis keen in his profession, earnest in his sponsibility. One can easily see that work, eager to talk about it to any one this quality of an Englishman makes it like himself, anxious to be of help in necessary for the visitor to know beany way, and frank in describing de- forehand what he wishes to see. The fects or lack of perfection. The French latter is helped, though, by the intense army officer is the most wonderful man frankness of an Englishman after his I met in Europe.

confidence is once secured, and by his In England, too, our experiences deep pleasure in the fact that his brethwere similar, only different in ways one ren, the American people, are at war expected, knowing the English people. by his side, and share his ideals. In that country we visited individuals, After several weeks of preparation rather than departments. The atti- we were taken to the actual battletude of an Englishman toward his work front, and shown how, in real hourly is so different from that of a French- conflict, the methods and apparatus man; on the face of things, he is not of science are applied. In Paris and

. proud of his achievements, he would London we learned the theory; at the rather show you a series of failures than front we saw the practice. Each conthe final success.

firmed the other. I was for five days One incident among many will illus- the guest of a French army, passing trate this. We wished to see the great from Rheims to Verdun; and for five aviation field at St. Omer; and, on our days at the British headquarters, bearrival, the officer in charge asked me ing taken along the line from Arras what I would like to see. I said, among nearly to Ypres. I can truly say that other things, air-plane instruments. His the excitement, the mental stimulus, reply was, ‘Right-o. Come over here. of seeing what the various applications In this shed I have all of our broken- of science to war meant rendered me down instruments. What do you think unconscious of everything else. Shells

. of a government which would send us often fell near us, they were nearly alsuch things?' Finally, after due effort ways passing over us eastward; we on my part, we were shown the instru- would fall and stumble into and out of ments with which he was satisfied. shell-holes; we were in the midst of the

After we had been taken all over the horrors of a recent battlefield; none of field, we were about to leave, when I these things made any real impression. saw, a hundred feet away, what looked No one, who has not had a similar exlike a new type of air-plane; and I perience, can picture the way in which asked what it was. He was delighted one's senses are all deadened except to show it to me; it was the

very latest those being used for the purpose in machine. He told me what a surprise hand. it had been for the Germans, and what

II a great success. It was the machine actually used by Captain Ball in run- It is difficult to make a beginning ning up his record of destroyed Ger- in telling of what I saw of the uses of man machines to over forty. Now, this science. It must not be thought that young officer simply could not have I can in one article, or even a dozen, shown me that machine on his own tell the whole story. I think it safe to initiative; he was so proud of it that say that there is no branch of science

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