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and responsibilities. Habits should be those low planes which commonplace acquired of effective expression of con- life everywhere suggests. siderateness and goodwill, and of the elimination of social friction through
III the medium of courtesy, good manners, and good form, this 'good form' to In the end it is the mastery of all consist of consummate skill in living these arts of life, and not Greek and the Golden Rule, not of proficiency Latin, algebra and geometry, that is in the mannerisms of an exclusive, so education. As we bear this fact clearly cial class.
in mind, the relative importance of Independence, originality, and ini- subjects begins to change, to become tiative are mighty factors in human greater or less, as they contribute to progress, but they find little oppor- the final result. To-day American tunity for development in obedient education is breaking free from its imporing over the prescribed daily lesson pediments, and is groping its way back in the classroom. In many individual to the ages-old method of learning by cases these high qualities actually sur- practicing the arts of life. vive eight or twelve years of routine The following description is of inciplodding in our conventional schools dents that have come within my experi– eloquent testimony as to how near- ence, all during the last few months, ly ineradicable they are. The spirit though not all in the same school. They of adventure, so nearly universal in do not portray a system, but only casyouth, commonly is thwarted at every ual intimations of a new day. turn. Yet this is one of its finest gifts; In a certain primary school I found when it has gone, life's greatest prom- many of the little children keeping ise is past. An educational system chickens and selling eggs. With eggs should nurture and direct this spirit, selling for fifty cents a dozen, even the bringing it to expression in a daring to younger children had learned all the aim at high standards, in adventures common divisions of fifty. As they into new fields of action, thought, and had not yet mastered the intricacies knowledge; in a desire for the hard, of pounds and bushels, the youngest strenuous things which temper and bought feed in small quantities, a few stabilize character. The sporting in- cents' worth at a time. The older chilstinct of youth demands these difficult dren, who were able to calculate the tasks, and life is stale when they can- cost, took the part of dealers. A boy not be found.
of high-school age was wholesaler, buyWhile youth has these fine qualities ing feed by the ton for all chickens and so strongly rooted, it frequently lacks cattle, and selling it in lots of twenty the wisdom or outlook to define the pounds or less. They bụilt playobjects of its enthusiasms, and com- houses, made and decorated holiday monly adopts those of surrounding dresses, and made crude pottery. Defigroups or individuals. To the father nite comparison of these children with or teacher these qualities are treasures children in conventional schools indihanded over to his keeping, for him to cated, not only superior development direct toward whatever ends he will. of hand and eye and better developed If he fails to direct them at all, or en- initiative, but also that they were deavors to suppress them because they further advanced in the subject-matter do not fit a routine programme, they of the conventional school. At a bank find objects for themselves, often on administered by pupils in the school building, checks were cashed in pay- apportioning of taxes among such , ment for purchases and for labor or interests as education, police protecother services. Every pupil had money tion, and sanitation, and then planned
, on deposit. Standard accounting meth- houses to be built on them. The doods were used, and a daily balance was mestic science teacher helped in plankept of each pupil's account.
ning the arrangement and in furnishDuring the past winter the main ing the rooms. school building, formerly used as a On looking into the classwork I hotel, had burned down. In erecting found a great variety of progress. In the new building the boys of high grammar-school subjects, such as arithschool age had done about sixty per metic, spelling, and grammar, each cent of the work outside of school hours, pupil progressed as his own abilities this labor having a value of about fifa
determined. Pupils who had done good teen thousand dollars. In printing, in work were 'on self-reliance.' Stopping editing the school newspaper, and in one boy at his work, I asked him what gardening, the same enterprise was that meant, and he replied, “You see, apparent.
when you are on self-reliance you can Some of the day pupils, who are do as you please. I had graduated children of foreign laborers and soon from the seventh grade in history and will drop out of school, receive credit geography, but I was only in the sixth for progress in the manner of making grade in arithmetic. Now that I am beds, caring for baby, and sweeping on self-reliance, I can spend all the the house. Under the teaching of a time I want to on arithmetic, and can competent doctor and a nurse, the girls catch up.' take care of babies in various families In a class which seemed proof in the town, this work being designated against any interest in literature two as mother-craft. Arrangements are boys who were caring for the cows made for the boys and girls to be asked if they might, as their work in guests of educated people of moderate English, read government bulletins on means, getting glimpses of refined liv. Holstein cattle. Starting with this, ing conditions. These people have not their attention was attracted to parts forgotten that to the immigrant child which might have been written better. the interior of a well-to-do American Comparison was made with the style home is as unfamiliar as a Chinese of classic authors, stories of keen intertemple.
est to boys being taken as examples, The headmaster and his wife live on and before the season was half over the campus in a carefully furnished they found themselves reading good house. Pupils who are to meet the literature with the beginnings of appremaster find him there in the living- ciation. I found much reading of good
' room before a fireplace, and for the books, and much effort at original time being are his guests. A class in composition. domestic science was combined with All this and much more I have seen one in commercial arithmetic. In during recent months. In many schools groups of two the young people of high- over the United States one meets school age chose building lots in vari- flashes of sanity as expressed in devices ous parts of the city, made deals for for modernizing school methods and purchasing the lots, worked out prob- aims, and these are now leading to an lems of taxes and special assessments orderly presentation of fundamental as applied to them, determining the principles. Life's activities, whether
social, industrial, creative, or cultural, that in the doing of it these qualities are made up of a few great funda- will be developed. A child might take mental arts or occupations. Whether for a project making a garden, buildor not life as a whole is a success de- ing a boat, or preparing for college. pends on whether or not these activi- Several pupils may work upon a groupties are pursued successfully. The aim project; or they may have more than of education is to prepare for and bring one at a time. Through the pupil's about their successful following. Cer- interest in such projects, related subtain acquirements, such as skill in ject-matter will be introduced. The reading, writing, and numbers, and the choice of an adventure is of prime possession of the fundamental facts in importance only as it furnishes for a any field of knowledge, constitute the longer or shorter time the best instrutools of life without which men cannot mentality for the child's development. function effectively. Every well-con- Drill and routine cannot be elimisidered action and every sound deduc- nated and leave training normal or tion of reason must be dependent upon complete. But generally they can be the possession of skill and knowledge, given value in the pupil's estimation. . or, to use a more formal expression, Pupils learn most effectively and with upon the possession of the necessary the minimum loss of time if taught technic and of the pertinent data. This through, rather than in opposition to, underlying preparation must be se- their interests. Boys and girls do not cured, if not by interesting adventures, always rebel against drudgery, — inthen by patient drill and drudgery. deed, what could exceed in routine and Yet we should value such accomplish- drudgery pulling a sled up hill, over and ment somewhat as we do money, con- over again, for half a day? — but they sidering it not as valuable in itself, but do object when it has no obvious conas an almost indispensable medium of nection with that which they value. If accomplishment.
we find a final residuum of drill which Just as money when possessed for its cannot be made incidental to a project, own sake is a burden, so any knowledge such as drill in the rudiments of arithis a useless impediment, which cannot, metic or in spelling, we still can take when occasion offers, function in some away the deadliness of the drudgery if normal activity or appreciation, or in we will use the resources of human some sound deduction. The educa- nature. tional process should consist, not pri- Recently the colored man who mows marily in gaining this information, but my lawn changed his basis from timein the practice of the arts or occupa- work to piece-work. When I came to tions of life. Obviously, then, the school pay him at his old rate for work done must enable the arts of life to be prac- in a surprisingly short time, he proticed. It should furnish the inspira- tested, ‘Boss, I thought I was working tion and the occasion for each child by the job, and you know nobody to undertake adventures in which he works by the hour like he does by the is or can be interested, and by means job.' Few of us can work with keen of which he will acquire some of the zest at a task of endless repetition, necessary habits, skill, knowledge, and where the degree of excellence of the initiative which will fit him to live. It work done has no bearing on the comshould be the business of the teacher pensation. Only a fool would enjoy so to inspire the choice of projects or spending his life in sweeping back the adventures and so to direct the work tide.
Sane men and sane boys —
demand results commensurate with practice of those arts. Subject matter the investment. We give a boy his and technic will furnish the tools spelling lesson, an hour a day, month needed in acquiring and exercising this after month and year after year. He mastery. Projects will furnish the knows that no excellence of service will occasion to awaken and maintain the relieve that drudgery, and he has not interest and the incentive for effort in the experience or capacity necessary acquiring subject matter and technic, for a vital appreciation of final profit in and in practicing the occupations of the far-off years. Suppose that, in case life. By recognizing the inherent sponwe must teach.spelling by the book, we taneity of the interests and aspirations give him a list of a hundred or two of childhood, the greatest of educahundred words which he must master tional assets will be commanded. The during the month, and tell him that school of the future will be protean. It when they are learned, his spelling peri- will overflow into all parts of the comod during the remainder of the month munity, utilizing farm, home, factory, will be free for his own pleasures, or store, and office. There will be time for work he likes? So can even the re- for team-work, for group-play, for siduum of drudgery be made lighter, class-work, but much of the time will and the keenness of life maintained. be spent singly or in groups, with the
In the school of the future the mas- teachers' guidance, in working out the tery of the arts or occupations of life project, with its ramifications into litwill be the end and aim of education. erature, mathematics, science, history, The method of education will be the physical labor, and business dealings.
ONE OF THEM. III
BY ELIZABETH HASANOVITZ
arrests of pickets by brutal policemen,
and workhouse sentences given by Now, as I had to look for another judges to young girls who tried to betjob, I made up my mind to get a place ter their condition to save themselves in a union shop only. Since the year from turning to the 'White Way' for 1900, the Union, consisting of a few their bread and butter. members, had tried very earnestly to For years, these few heroic, intelliorganize the workers and uplift the gent workers had fearlessly carried on trade. The strikes that had been called the agitation for conditions that would had never been very successful because make possible a more human life among only a minority of the workers had re- their ranks. Until at last, in 1912, the sponded. The heroic struggle of the great big mass of down-trodden workfew resulted in long weeks of starva- ers raised their heads and responded to tion among the strikers, broken heads, the bell-ringing that had been calling them for years, and began preparations of establishing a scientific basis for the for a big demonstration during the fixing of prices of week- and piece-work coming year.
throughout the industry, which would The Manufacturers' Association in ensure a minimum wage and at the the dress and waist-industry was the same time permit reward for increased controlling element in that trade. For efficiency. That board was empowered two months previous to the strike, the to make an immediate and thorough association, realizing the widespread investigation into the existing rates agitation and foreseeing a strike as the paid for labor, the earnings of the operresult of the growing strength of the ators, and the classification of garments Union, feared to repeat the experience in the industry. of past strikes. The protocol agree- Subcontracting was to be abolished. ment adopted by the cloak industry The term subcontracting is used when in 1910, made the members desirous of one skilled worker in a shop has under having a similar agreement. As early his control from one to ten unskilled as November, 1912, the Manufactur- workers. He is responsible for the work ers' Association began to confer with and is paid for all of it, paying to his the Waist- and Dress-Makers' Union helpers what he deems necessary. Subconcerning an agreement that would contracting was very ruinous to the prevent strikes in future. On January industry as far as the workers are con18, 1913, a protocol agreement was cerned; as the subcontractor's earnconsummated between the Manufac- ings depend on the output of his turers' Association and the Union. It assistants, he tries to make as much as aimed to enlist both parties in an effort he can. The labor of a garment was to raise the conditions and to obtain extensively subdivided; each worker in the equalization of standards through the set was given only one part of the out the industry by peaceful and hon- garment to make, so that she quickly orable means. They agreed to create a specialized in that part and increased joint board of sanitary control, to en- her speed. But the subdivision of the sure sanitary conditions in the factory, work gave no chance to the worker to sufficient light and ventilation, safety learn the whole trade sufficiently to from fire and overcrowding members; change her place for a better one; thus a board of grievances — five members they were always dependent on the representing the Union and five the
man for whom they worked, receiving manufacturers - to adjust disputes from him from three to six dollars a and determine controversies; and a week. The speed with which he drove board of arbitration to settle all dis- them injured their health. They were putes that the board of grievances were also the cause of lowering the prices for unable to settle. They agreed that no the individual skilled workers. strike or lockout should take place un- A minimum wage for week-workers til these two boards had had an oppor
was fixed. tunity to try to adjust matters between Operators were to be paid by the the disputants.
piece; they were given an increase, so A wage-scale board was provided that no average operator would earn on which both the manufacturers and less than thirty cents an hour on piecethe Union were represented, to stand- work. The standard price per hour was ardize the prices to be paid for piece- to be finally fixed after investigations and week-work. The board was to pre- by the wage-scale board in the followserve data and statistics, with the hope ing six months.