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of the most peaceable in Alsace. The heard but patriotic hymns and warlieutenant, whenever he went out, was songs, which the mob of German immifollowed by a crowd, mostly of young grants sang with fervor. In the public men, who hooted at him and hissed him halls there were noisy all-night manias soon as he appeared. Being recog- festations on the part of the same class nized one day in the village of Dettweil- of the inhabitants. er, as he passed through with his com- At Colmar it was observed that the pany, he ordered his men to charge the families of officers and public functioncrowd, which was expressing its anti- aries were preparing to move. pathy to him, and finally displayed his courage on the person of an unlucky lame cobbler, who could not run away, by striking him over the head with his On July 31, going to the mayor's sword.

office about four o'clock, I heard the At Saverne, Colonel von Reuter had newsboys crying out the declaration of at once taken the lieutenant's side, and the imminence of war. I had no sooner began by treating the town as if it reached my office than I received a call were in a state of siege, arresting with- from several soldiers who brought plaout discrimination everybody who hap cards from the general commanding the pened to be on the street, including district, in which it was said that the even German officials, among others a Emperor had proclaimed the immijudge and a prosecuting attorney, and nence of war. The military authorities confining them in the cellar under the claimed to exercise civil powers. There barracks.

followed a series of instructions for the There was a trial, acquittal of the mayors, conceived in a domineering guilty officers, interpellation in the tone to which we were not accustomed Reichstag, and censure of the govern- from the civil authorities, although ment; but, as always happens, the they were not distinguished for the Reichstag, after an outburst of inde- amenity of their methods. Among othpendence, ended by submitting, by a er things, it was said that no one was majority, to the militaristic caste, and allowed to ride in a motor-car, and I the result was that the despised Ger- was ordered, as my most urgent presman civilians and soldiers combined to ent duty, to see to it that all the pigdeal the Alsatians still harder blows. eons in Colmar were killed, and to be

In the last fortnight of July, 1914, present in person at their execution. the excitement in Alsace-Lorraine was I ordered the proclamations to be intense. There were unusual move- placarded and devoted myself to setments of troops - summonings of re- tling the most important current matservists, and strange manoeuvres in ters, being frequently interrupted by the neighborhood of Strasburg. The members of the Municipal Council and authorities published unofficial notes, by friends seeking information and my seeking to create a belief that they were opinion on the state of affairs. simply military manœuvres of the sort While I was thus engaged I received that are regularly held at that season a message from the prefect, informing

me that Geheimer Justizrat Diefenbach, At Strasburg, it was customary, counsellor of the Court of Appeal of after guard-mounting, for the band to Colmar, had been appointed Mayor of play on Place Kléber. Contrary to all the city by Staathalter von Dallwitz. precedent, there was nothing now to be I at once sent for him and turned every

of the year.

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thing over to him. He expressed a de- kilometres from Colmar. There we sire to have a talk with me the next day, were stopped by a sentry, who informso that he might speedily be posted as ed us that nobody was allowed to pass to municipal affairs.

in motors. I took leave of some of the officials of After a brief consultation with my the mayoralty and of several friends, daughters, we decided that I should try saying that I should probably see them to make my way through the Grand the next morning. Then I went out, Duchy of Baden while they endeavorwith my two daughters, and walked to- ed to reach the rendezvous by way of ward the railway station along the main Alsace. street of the city. At that time, we I walked into Neubreisach, while my were occupying a villa at Les Trois Épis daughters turned back toward Colmar in the Valley of Munster, and we in- in the motor. tended to return thither.

I had taken but a few steps, when I On the way we saw anxious faces on was overtaken by a soldier from the every side, and I could read on the fea

guard-post, who informed me that his tures of many of my compatriots this chief had ordered him to take me before significant question, 'What are you do- the officer commanding the place being here still?' I knew - indeed, it was cause my having tried to drive through notorious — that I was at the head of in a motor-car had a suspicious look. the famous blacklist of suspicious per- On the way back, one of my acquainsons who were to be arrested in the tances in Neubreisach said to me that, event of mobilization. Now, mobiliza- if it was a matter of establishing my tion was imminent. The Germans were identity, he would gladly put himself standing about in groups and seemed at my disposal as a witness. I thanked decidedly uneasy. The way in which him and begged him not to think of they looked at me was wholly unsym- anything of the sort. pathetic.

Arrived at the post, I was shown inMy children and I decided to try to to a room where an elderly general was reach Switzerland, and we agreed to glued to a telephone which rang incesmeet at the Hotel de l'Univers at Bâle santly. Holding the receiver in his in case we should be separated en route. hand, being greatly agitated by his unI sent for railway tickets for Bâle, but I foreseen task, — the manifold demands

, soon learned that the next train would of the service due to the imminence of not start for several hours and that we war, --- he ordered everybody out of could not be sure of its reaching Bâle. his office. Thereupon the soldier who

The order forbidding riding in motor- had brought me in took me to a guardcars was not as yet known throughout room where there were numerous solthe city, so that I was able to use that diers and a row of camp-beds. I had means of locomotion without attract- been there above an hour when I heard ing attention. I set out, with my two a subaltern say to my keeper, ‘Why, daughters, and ordered the chauffeur you ought to tell the general that this to drive us to the woodland inn of Le gentleman is still here.' Neuland, an unfrequented neighbor- The soldier did not seem overjoyed hood. Before we reached that point I by the prospect of confronting anew the told the chauffeur to drive on toward general's ill-humor. But still he had no the Rhine. We arrived after an un- choice but to carry out the order, and eventful journey at the gates of the after a few moments he took me before town of Neubreisach, about seventeen the general, stating as the cause of my






arrest the fact that I had tried to pass When we reached the station I learnthrough the town in a motor-car. ed that the departure of trains for Fri

Thereupon ensued a scene which, to bourg was uncertain; whereupon I said day, looked at from a distance, seems to my companion in a tone of comto me genuinely farcical. The follow- mand, 'The general ordered you to esing colloquy took place between the cort me to the station; the train will not general and myself:

start for several hours; I have all the ‘Don't you know that it is n't per- information I need, and you can go.' missible to pass in a motor-car without And he went. a special permit from the proper au- As I knew that there would be no thority?'

train for Fribourg for a long while, I 'Why, general, I have no desire to gave my friend time to disappear, then pass in a motor-car.'

left the station myself and set out on Thereupon the general looked at the foot for Altbreisach, a few kilometres soldier with a questioning expression from Neubreisach, on the other side of The soldier, evidently frightened and the Rhine, in the Grand Duchy of unaccustomed to come in direct contact Baden. On the way I witnessed again with a general, stood open-mouthed. and again the pitiful spectacle of the re

Where do you wish to go?' asked quisition of horses, which were unharthe general.

nessed from the carts of the peasants ‘To Fribourg.'

who stood by in despair at the loss of ‘What are you going there for?' their beasts. Automobiles without num'To look after my business.'

ber, carrying officers of the General 'But you

can't in a motor-car.' Staff, passed us at full speed. 'Why, general, I have no motor-car.' On the bridge over the Rhine I was

Again the general looked at the sol- stopped by a patrol who demanded my dier, who continued to hold his mouth identification papers. I offered a visitopen without uttering a word. This ing-card printed in German type, which same thing was repeated at least ten mentioned only the fact that I was a times. The general kept on asking ques- lawyer. The head of the patrol saluted tions of one sort or another, which in- me courteously and let me pass unmoevitably ended with, ‘But you can't lested. go in a motor-car,' and my reply, ‘But Arrived at Altbreisach, I sought I don't want to go in a motor-car.' shelter in a small inn, to await the time

At last the general shouted at me in when the next train was supposed to an excited tone, almost in a passion, — start. After another long wait at the

‘But what do you want then?' station, I finally took a train for Fri

“To go to the railway station,' I re- bourg. In the compartment that I set plied.

out to enter in the first place, I saw With that, he turned to the soldier some officers' wives from Colmar who and ordered him to escort me to the knew me well. I drew back instantly station.

and took my seat in a third-class com

a “Thanks, general,' I said; and I went partment, where, mingled with reservout with the soldier.

ists, I finally arrived at the station at Amid the numberless questions that Fribourg. Thanks to the delay in the that excellent commandant at Neu- running of trains, I was in time to breisach asked me, obsessed as he was secure a seat there in the last train by the motor-car question, he had for- from Berlin to Bâle. gotten to ask who I was.

We had barely started when the


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trainmen announced that the train

away, a young man from Bâle on his would not go as far as Bâle, but cer- way to Leopoldshöhe, who said, tainly would go as far as Leopoldshöhe, *You would do better to go back to a station on the Baden frontier. There, Leopoldshöhe, for they would n't let me in the middle of the night and in very enter Bâle after six o'clock.' bad weather, everybody had to leave The party went forward, none the the train; the travelers' baggage — of less, but we were soon stopped again by which I had none whatever

a sentry. We halted, but the women, thrown out onto the platform, and it who were not accustomed to the manwas announced that no one could cross ual of arms, continued to move about. the frontier without a special permit Thereupon the soldier exclaimed, word from the military officer in command at for word, “If any one moves again, he'll the station.

get a bullet in his belly. With that the The travelers, notably a number of pretended Austrian said to him, “You women, remonstrated vigorously, for don't understand your instructions at there are no hotels in Leopoldshöhe - all; the least you can do is to send for not even a sizable inn. As I walked

an officer.' about I noticed a group of people speak- The soldier followed his advice; he ing the dialect of Bâle. I heard a wom- went away and returned a moment an exclaim, 'I must go home, I have a later with a subaltern who took us to a

a sick child!' and another lament, 'What small house which, I afterwards learnwill my husband


if I don't come ed, was the custom-house, and which home!' At last a voice shouted, 'I know sits almost astride the German-Swiss the way to Bâle and I am going. I frontier. joined this group, without a word, and Access to the house was gained by we started, guided by the Bâle people. two staircases going up to a platform;

After walking about half a kilometre on one side was Germany, on the other we were halted by a patrol consisting of Switzerland. On the platform stood a a sub-lieutenant and a subaltern, who, young lieutenant, with a cigarette berevolver in hand, called out, 'Halt!' tween his lips, smiling and contemThey declared that we must go back, plating with satisfaction some twothat no one could pass without a spe- score men who were encamped before cial permit.

the house. A tall fellow claiming to be an Aus- No one could cross the frontier extrian exhibited some papers, but the cept by going up one staircase and officer replied that he was not talking down the other, after passing across the of papers of that sort, but of a special platform, because a wire fence barred permit issued by the military com- the way everywhere else. mandant of the station of Leopolds- Everybody began to talk at once, höhe.

and I made out little more than that The women began to remonstrate, there was small chance of getting and the lieutenant, who was very ner- through. While I was standing in front vous, perhaps not feeling very sure of of the little house, a soldier from Colhis ground, finally went his way with mar accosted me. I pressed his hand his companion, saying, 'Go on, for and put my finger to my lip. He unheaven's sake! but you won't get very derstood and carried the conversation far all the same, for you'll run foul of no further. the advanced posts.'

Thereupon I determined, in order to We kept on and met, a short distance clear up the situation, to enter into a


parley. I went up on the platform and Trois-Epis. There they found my son, said to the officer, in good German, - who, by a truly providential chance,

You can readily understand, lieu- had returned that very evening from tenant, that

persons who left Bâle this the department of Le Bas-Rhin where morning to attend to their affairs at the school that he attended had been Fribourg could not know that they closed a few days before the regular would have to have permits in order to holidays on account

holidays on account of the disturbed return at six o'clock in the evening.' condition of affairs. They hastily put

The lieutenant said, very courteous- together some few effects, found by ly, “Why, that is plain enough,' and great good fortune a second chauffeur, motioned for us to pass.

and started for Bâle by way of Alsace. The rest of the party came behind The young man was dressed so that he me. While I was going down the stairs, might pass for a girl. another soldier - not the one I just They arrived without accident, if not mentioned — said to those nearest him, without incident, at St. Louis, where 'I say, there's the Mayor of Colmar.' travel by motor was still forbidden, but

I do not know whether the lieutenant where many persons crossed the fronheard this remark, or whether, even if tier that evening without papers. The he did, it meant anything to him; but I motor was stopped several times on felt tremendously relieved when I saw, the road, but the travelers were taken a few steps away, a Swiss customs offi- for members of officers' families incer, who directed us to a place near at tending to take refuge in Switzerland. hand where we should find a tramway While I was waiting for my children running to Bâle.

at the hotel, I was much diverted by About one o'clock in the morning, I the conversation of a gentleman who arrived safe and sound at the Hôtel came and told me his grievances. de l'Univers, where I saw at least five ‘Don't you suppose,' he said to me, hundred persons denied admission. I trembling with excitement, 'that it's found a little corner in the hall, and possible to find an automobile here to I recognized many people from Mul- cross the frontier? I am a colonel on hausen and its neighborhood.

the retired list, but I am named as I was worrying over the fate of my commandant at Altona in case of mochildren, when, about two in the morn- bilization; and if I'm not there the secing, I heard my older daughter's voice ond day after the promulgation of the in front of the hotel. I rushed out and order of mobilization, I don't know found both of my daughters and my what will happen to me.' young son -- who is to-day a volunteer I pretended to sympathize with him in the French army - overseeing the in his perilous plight. But after all,

“ unloading of their baggage which some colonel,' I said, 'you have a right to be men from Saint-Louis (a German fron- in Switzerland, and if you are kept tier station) had brought in barrows. away by the physical impossibility of

After I had installed my little fam- being on the spot at the appointed ily in such quarters as I could find, I time, your superiors will understand perhad them tell me of their exodus from fectly that it's not your fault.' Alsace.

"Ah, mein Herr,' he exclaimed,',

'you On leaving the gates of Neubreisach don't know the military men!' my daughters had returned at full speed Oh, yes, I do know them!' I replied.

‘ to Colmar, and had driven thence, ‘Besides, I beg you to believe that in the same motor, to our villa at Les there are some people who, as a conse


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