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145.
Ericsson, John, 51.

Ethics and Socialism, 157, 166;
Christian, 438; the new and
Socialism, 445-453; progress of,
ibid.

Evolution of society, 86, 88; 139;
industrial, 243; 440; social, ibid.,
456.

its gradual adoption, ibid.; its Equity and state ownership, 140-
economic effects, 218; on wages,
220; on profits, 222; historical
precedents, 219; its inadequacy,
218; not applicable to all indus-
tries, or laborers, 223, 224.
Egyptian Therapeutæ, 147.
Ely, R. T., on over-production,
29; on child labor, 37; on the
apostasy of the church, 47, 79;
on land monopoly, 84, 85; 91,
105; on St. Simon, 148; 150; 205,
207; on money, 248; on waste,
285; on public management of
business, 288, 308; on insurance,
316, 320; on an equal division of
property, 331, 332, 333, 339, 374;
on monopolies, 426, 435, 436.
Election, presidential, 262.
Ellison, 159.

Emmerson, Ralph Waldo, 461.
Embezzlement, 280; waste from,
299; extent of, 300.
Employers, relation of to employ-
ees, 18; attitude toward employ-

ees, 445.
Employees, 183.

Encyclical, papal, on the misery
of the poor, 456.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 442.
Enforced idleness, 34; waste from,
291-293; in England, ibid.; in
Massachusetts, ibid.; inherent
in capitalism, 293; removed by
Socialism, ibid.
Engel, 438.

England, poor law of, 109.
Englishmen, capacity for labor,
464.

Entrepreneur function, 194, 195.
Environment, social, 273, 308.
Equality, and Socialism, 6; 19; 82;
119; 151; 165; 166; 328, 468; of
chances, 329; of rights, ibid.;
of conditions, ibid.; required by
Christianity, 330; of property,
331; in the United States, 422.

Exchange of commodities, 245.
Exertion, impairment of motives
to, 365; 368.

Expediency, nature of, 166; rela-
tion of, to justice, 388.
Exploitation, 89; of labor, 123,
139, 156, 157; 238; of laborers,
252.
by money-wages, 251,

F

Fabian society, 406.
Factory acts, 432.
Factories, unhealthy, 99.
Failures, 185, 459.

Faith, 282; in France and Ger-
many, 322, 325.

Families, number of, in England
115.

Family, under Socialism, 340; as
affected by inheritance, 342; af-
fection of, 345, 346, 349; not
the unit of society, 352.
Farmer's Alliance, 431.
Fashion, waste from, 301; change
in, 302; distresses labor, ibid. ;
391.
Fatalism, 283.
Fatherhood of God, 446.
Fawcett, Henry, on value of land
in England, 80; on food of la-
borers, 101; 331; on the growth
of Socialism, 425.
Feudalism, 2; 73; laborers under,
93; 454.

Fichté, 154; his Socialism, ibid.
Folwell, William W., 252.
Food, poor, of laborers, 101.

Franklin, Benjamin, 215, 375.
Fraternity, 119; in government,
140; 150; of the State, 163; 446;
new conception of, 447.
Free competition, 90.
Freedom, 172; of work denied
laborers, 311, 312; under Social-
ism, 375, 376, 379, 380; natural,
380.

Freedom of contract, failure of,
28; 90; Anti-Christian, 239; a
misnomer, ibid., 241 ; opposed by
the New Testament, 467.
French revolution, 152; 457.
Freuder, Samuel, 449.
Frugality of laborers, 230.
Fourier, Charles, 149, 277.
Fulton, Robert, 389.

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examined, 236; on charities,
305; on competition, 394; lais-
sez-faire, 425; 451; 466.
Gladstone, 90, 91; on machinery,
136; on the liquor traffic, 255;
456.
Godin, M. 149.
Golden Rule, 79; 238.
Gold, 246, 247.

Gompers, Samuel, 218.
Gospel, adulteration of, 469.
Gould, Jay, 96; 97; 240.
Government, relation of, to the
State, 168; increased expendi-
tures of, 419, 423.
Greece, 373; 464.
Greeley, Horace, 149.

Gridlestone, Canon, on housing
of laborers, 102.

Grönlund, Laurence, on crises, 31;
on disproportionate increase of
wages and products in the
United States, 124; in England,
ibid., 294; 331; 334, 336; on
the home under Socialism, 349,
350, 351; 443.

Guizot, on feudalism, 73.
Gunton, George, on an eight-hour-
day, 214, 218; his position ex-
amined, ibid. ; 251; his erro-
neous assumptions, 224; on
wages and standard of living,
225.

H

Hadley, Arthur T., on railroads,
285.

Hale, Edward Everett, 451.
Hale, Nathan, 174.

Hamilton, on justice, the end of
government, 171.

Happiness, relation of, to land, 85;
as affected by riches, 461, 462.
Harcourt, Sir William, 419.
Hardships of laborers, 90.
Harmonies, economic, 432, 437.
Harrison, Frederick, on classes,
382.

Hawthorne and the Brook Farm Individualism, 2; 119; 139; against

movement, 129.

Hayes, Rutherford B., on business
as the cause of crime, 272, 276.
Hearn, William H., on liberty and
property, 177.

Hegel, his philosophy, 322.
Hermann, 438.

Hildebrand, 438.

Hinkley, Frederick A., 449.
History, on land and liberty, 82.

Hoar, George F., favors an eight-
hour-day, 217.

the gospel, 145; contrasted
with Socialism, ibid.; and lib-
erty, 173; and Christianity, 237;
identity with anarchism, 327;
effects of, on the family and
children, 357; in America, 434,
447; maxims of, 274.
Industrial justice, 390.
Industrial partnerships, 183.
Industrial schools, 227-230; in
America, 227; cannot solve the
social question, 227-230; 439.

Holyoake, on co-operation, 189, Industrial systems, 2.
193.

Industrialism, 352.

Home, under Socialism, 339, 343, Inefficiency of labor from igno-

348.

Hopkins, W. J. 450.

Howell, George, on conciliation
and arbitration, 198, 199.
Hughes, Thomas, 159.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von, on nature
of the state, 175.
Huntington, James, 450.
Huxley, 180.

rance, indifference, want of adap-
tation, waste from, 309–311.
Inequality, between laborers and
capitalists, 96, 104; of endow-
ment, 97; 143, 144; 234; of con-
ditions, unjust, 258, 427.
Infidelity, cannot be charged
against Socialism, 324; in the
United States, ibid.

Hyndman, H. H., on confiscation, Inheritance, 69;340; 344; effect of

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of laborers, 230;
enemy of capitalism, 231.

Inadequacy of means proposed for Intemperance, waste from, 300,

social reform, 182-243.

Incentive to labor, not diminished

under Socialism, 250, 365-375.

Indifference of laborers, 309.
Individuals and the state, 168.

301; number engaged in the
liquor traffic, 300; capital in-
vested, 301; consumption of
liquors, ibid.; and pauperism,
308.

Interest on money, 202, 203, 204,
212, 246; history and evils of,
ibid.

Interest, economic,

maintained
under Socialism, 367; 369, 370.
International Society, 324.
International Workingmen's As-
sociation on monopoly, 27; on
pauperism, 34; 139; 336; 410; 411.
International Socialist Congress,
328.

Inventions, 11.

Irish, loyalty of, to marriage, 346.
Israelites, 83; 373.

Italy, land monopoly in, 81, 84.

J

Janson, Kristofer, 449.
Jefferson, Thomas, on govern-
ment, 175.

Jerome, St., on riches, 83, 470.
Jevons, W. Stanley, on class le-
gislation, 36; on the rights of
property, 138; 433.
Jewish Essenes, 147.
Jews, 446.

Joint stock enterprise, 427.
Joubert, Joseph, on the duty of
society to diminish inequalities,
328.

Jubilee, year of,

Judaism, 468.

83.

Jukes, pauper family of, 306.
Justice, social, a demand of So-

cialism, 7, 141, 151, 165, 166;
relation of, to freedom of con-
tract, 240; 455; as a principle of
Socialism, 468; the end of gov-
ernment, 171; 196.

K

Kingsley, Charles, 159; on free-
dom, 375.
Knies, 438.

Knights of Labor, 216.
Knowledge, the dissemination of,
a cause of Socialism, 42-45; in
Russia, Italy, and Germany, 42;
in France, Great Britain, Spain,
and the United States, 43.

L

Labor, the duty of all, 7; long
hours of, 25; the source of all
value, 50-66; includes manual,
mental, and moral exertion, 50;
manual labor oppressed, 52;
abstract or social labor distin-
guished from concrete, 59; quan-
tity of social labor the measure
of value, 60; quantity of labor
determined by time, 61; reduc-
tion of concrete labor to abstract
labor time, 61; its value in use
greater than its exchange value,
67; as a commodity, 94; produc-
tion of, and wages, 133; by the
hour, 216; aversion to, 227; the
fortune of all, 249-251; honora-
ble under Socialism, 249; dispar-
agement of, 288, 259; of differ-
ent values, 356; its exchange and
use values, 251; socially neces-
sary, the measure of value, 361;
dignity of, 431.

Laborers, regard capitalism as un-
just, 92; condition in England,
93; dependence of, 94; loss of
life of, 100; do not own their
homes, 132; and public office,
263; organized, 431.

Kant, on the nature of the State, Labor Unions, 429, 430.

175.

Keene, James R., 96.
Kent, Alexander, 450.
Ketteler, Bishop, on the labor
question, 161.

Kettle, Rupert, on arbitration, 198.

Laissez-faire, 20, 141, 142, 143,
157, 179, 327, 412, 432.
Land, monopoly of, 79-82, 88;
value of, in England, 80; rela-
tion to liberty, 82; common prop-
erty, 83; danger from monopoly

in United States, 87; public, in
the United States nearly ex-
hausted, 81; nationalization of,
201-214; value of, 209; a form
of capital, 213.

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 86; on the
iron law of wages, 120, 155, 156,
157; 332; 335.
Laveleye, Emile de, on the iden-
tity of Socialism with Christian-
ity, 1; 4; on the oppression of
labor, 11; on the effect of edu-
cation, 42; 81; 83; on Lassalle,
156; 230; on Socialism and
equality, 322; 354; 404; 438; 454.
Lawler, Frank, 217.
Lawsuits, 297.

Lawyers in the United States, 297;
in France and Germany, ibid.
Lee, Ann, 150.

Leeds, laborers in, 132.
Legislation, against labor, 37; cor-
rupt, 179; 390; socialistic ten-
dency, 419.

Legislature of California, 261.
Leisure, 215; necessary for labor-
ers, 224; 350.

Length of day's labor, 215; in the
United States, England, France,
Germany, ibid.

Lester Brothers, 187.

Liquor traffic, 243; under Social-
ism, 254-258; its present mag-
nitude, 255; capital in, ibid.;
source of corruption, 256.
List, 438.

Litigation, waste from, 297.
Livermore, Mary A., 451.
Living, standard of, among labor-
ers, 112.

Livy, on luxury, 465.
Lobby, corrupting influence of,
263.

Lock-outs, 199, 318; waste from,
ibid.; loss from, ibid.
London, density of population, 95.
Longden, Samuel, 449.
"Looking Backward," 244, 250,
396, 442, 443, 444.
Lorenzstein, 438.
Lottery, the Louisiana, 280.
Love, a principle of Socialism,
468.

Lowe, Seth, on the mammonism
of the church, 47.
Ludlow, 159.
Lueder, 438.
Luther, 252.

Luxury, waste from, 303-305; de-
fined, 303; relation of, to utility,
304; a menace,
465.
Lying, 280.

Levy, Leone, statistician of Eng- Lycurgus, 84.
land, 215.

Lewis, Carleton T., of Prison As-
sociation of New York, 274.
Liberty, and land, 82; 119; 165;

166; individual, 169, 170, 172;
abuses of, 177; not impaired un-
der Socialism, 375; and choice
of work, 380; industrial, need
of restraint, ibid.; civil, a prin-
ciple of Socialism, 468.
Libraries, increase of, 44.
Life, human, 114.
Lighting, electric, 288.

Lincoln, Abraham, on office seek-
ing, 264.

M

Machinery, a cause of Socialism,
11-14; capacity of, 11, 12; de-
plorable effect on laborers, 12,
13; does not lighten labor, 13;
not a source of value, 55; 136;
speed of, 215.

Madison, on public good as su-

preme object of State, 171; on
ursurpations, 172.
Malthus, Thomas R., on principle
of population, 125; on the weak,
128; 302.

Malthusianism, 125, 126, 127, 432.

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