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and mind, that they, possessing as they generally do judicial and executive ability, would be as highly respected in the new order as under capitalism, and they will certainly regard Socialism with less prejudice if not with open favor.

No success, no accumulation of capital, can yield happiness enough to offset the suffering and misery experienced in the struggle to acquire it.

3. Another reason why rich men should regard Socialism with favor is the personal danger and annoyance to which they are exposed on account of their possessions.

In monarchical or aristocratic governments, Dives may dwell in security beside Lazarus, but recent developments suggest the question whether under free institutions where Lazarus has the ballot and is guaranteed the right to the pursuit of happiness, he will consent to subsist on crumbs and allow Dives the unmolested enjoyment of his wealth. It is getting fashionable of late for the poor man to call on his rich neighbor and present his card for a few thousands, backed by threats of personal violence in case of refusal. There is not a rich man in the country who has not at times felt his life in danger from a tramp or crank or poor man on account his money.

The persons of the rich are also in danger from the intrigues and plots of covetous and wicked persons who, though not poor, want money. That the number of such persons is greater than ever before, and is sure to increase under the present system, cannot be doubted. Not a day passes that does not record the murder of the rich for their money. Thousands of rich men and women in this land live in constant fear of their lives. They lie down and rise up with trembling. Distrust, suspicion, and dread haunt them continually. Dionysius was a rich and powerful king. Damocles congratulated him on his happiness; whereupon Dionysius prepared a splendid banquet, at which he placed Damocles with a naked sword suspended by a single hair above his head in order to show him the kind of happiness his riches gave him. It is needless to say that under Socialism the fear and suffering experienced by the rich would disappear.

The rich are also subjected to great annoyance from solicitation and begging. We touch upon a subject here that is assuming serious proportions, Besides his regular charities, the rich man is besieged by an army of solicitors for all conceivable objects, good, bad, and indifferent. He must give respectful attention to each, which eats up a large portion of his time. If he refuses to consider any object he is discourteous if not unkind. If he declines to give he is stingy; if he gives he ought to have given more and has got to the next time. He cannot escape these solicitors; their name is legion and they are ubiquitous. If he flies from home for relief, he finds on reaching his destination a bushel of letters, papers, circulars, pamphlets, and perhaps several people who have anticipated his arrival, waiting to welcome him. He begins to ask himself if a rich man's life is worth living. Now, this annoyance is a burden of the magnitude of which the average citizen does not dream. Socialism would do away with this excrescence of capitalism.

4. Riches when secured do not afford the happiness they promise. Such is the uniform testimony of rich men, and the truth is founded upon reason and nature.

Riches enable their possessors to gratify their vanity and thus stir the envy of their fellow-men. But the happiness thus afforded is not worthy the name. It is transient, selfish, and unsatisfying; it leaves the soul made in the image of God hungry and naked. What is called fashionable society cannot satisfy any earnest, noble soul. No class save the extremely poor are more to be pitied than those whom fortune has made its victims. Emerson says,

"Fashionable society in our great towns is babyish. Wealth is made a toy." It is this failure of wealth to fulfil its flattering promises that led Christ to speak of "the deceitfulness of riches." Riches often bring a burden greater than they remove. Seneca said, "A great fortune is a great slavery." "Next to the hell of having nothing is the misery of having too much."

An American recently deceased, and reputed to have been the richest man in the world, said as he sat with his wife in their palatial home, "Well, mother, I don't believe we

are so happy with all these fixings as we used to be on the farm where we began life." But why multiply words to show that riches cannot satisfy? Shakespeare voices the experience of all mankind, when he says,

"If thou art rich, thou art but poor;

For like an ass whose back with ingots bows,
Thou bear'st thy riches but a journey,

And death unloads thee."

There is another piece of testimony bearing on this subject to which we shall not appeal in vain. It is contained in the oracles of God. "But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts which drown men in destruction and perdition." "Labor not to be rich." 2 "Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl over the miseries that shall come upon you." 8 "A man's life consisteth not in the abundance of


the things which he possesseth."

The Great Teacher spoke a parable wherein a certain rich man, the prototype of most rich men to-day, denied this truth; "but God said unto him, Thou fool."

Against these declarations of God capitalism swears eternal enmity. On the other hand, Socialism is in perfect accord with divine truth. It looks upon the corrupting, heart-hardening, dehumanizing, and soul-destroying power of riches precisely as does the Bible, and says with the Almighty, "How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of heaven! No candid man will deny that of all social reforms ever proposed Socialism is the only one that renders it probable or even possible that the divine law respecting riches can be realized on earth.

1 1 Tim. vi. 9.

3 James v. 1.

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2 Prov. xxiii. 4.
4 Luke xii. 15.

5 Mark x. 23.

III. Our Country should make haste slowly in the Accumulation of Wealth.

"The danger which threatens the uprooting of society, the demolition of civil institutions, the destruction of liberty, and the desolation of all, is that which comes from the rich and powerful classes in the community." - CHANCELLOR HOWARD CROSBY.

We are $60,000,000,000 strong with a daily increase of $7,000,000. Our country has only to continue this rate of accumulating national wealth to render its downfall certain. All history, philosophy, and religion teach that wealth breeds luxury, luxury breeds vice, vice breeds political corruption, and political corruption breeds national death.

Such is the disastrous influence of wealth under individualism, or where it is in the hands of the few. Is it not time therefore for the richest nation on earth either to distribute its wealth more equally, or to call a halt in its mad pursuit of riches?

At the commencement of this century we were few and poor. Our fathers adopted the policy of encouraging immigration. The need for it has ceased; but immigration with but little restriction continues. Our material resources, well-nigh unlimited, have had a prodigious development. The whole country, like a thriving Western town, has been booming for a century until we are to-day one of the biggest, richest, shoddiest, most boastful, hoggish, and mammon-crazed countries of the civilized world. We have also brains, muscle, Christianity, and moral and physical potentialities unsurpassed by any other country. But our mushroom growth is not a healthy sign; our rate of speed is dangerous.

When the mariner perceives a storm approaching he takes in sail. What this nation needs to do is to take in sail. We have received 5,250,000 foreigners in the last ten years. We ought to practically prohibit immigration for the next ten years. Not numbers, but character, not money, but manhood, are facts that need the emphasis of

dynamite. National strength and greatness depend on the quality fully as much as on the quantity of citizens. The Spartans were invincible in war because every man was a hero. Greece produced more illustrious men in two hundred years than all Europe in the last two thousand, because her institutions made her citizens intelligent.1 England is greater than India because one Englishman will do as much work in a day as thirty-two East Indians.2 Puritans made New England great. Not more but better men is what America needs to perpetuate her institutions.

Let us stop the glorification of railroads, mines, mills, and foundries; let us cease from the mad and maddening rush for material aggrandizement, as if riches rather than righteousness exalted a nation, and gold rather than Jehovah was God over all. With a millionnaire Congress, and more than one-half of our national wealth owned by one per cent of the population, who pay less than twenty-five per cent of the taxes, democracy may give way to a plutocracy, and instead of a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, we may have a government of gold, by gold, and for gold.

A conspiracy more dangerous than that of Catiline against Rome is being formed against our republic. It is the conspiracy of Plutus, against which we cry as did Cicero, "How long is that madness of yours still to mock us?" This conspiracy is receiving powerful support from principles which, though popular, are treasonable to free government. Our current philosophy of progress and civilization is opposed to reason, religion, and common sense. Take, for example, the theory that social progress depends upon the increasing of human wants. Hear this argument advanced in the name of political economy; give the laborer leisure, for leisure will increase social opportunity; social opportunity will increase economic wants; wants will increase demand; and demand will multiply mills, mines, machinery, railroads, in a word, wealth; and this constitutes social progress! Was there 'Heredity" (Cook), pp. 13, 14.

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2 As quoted in "The Wages Question" (Walker), p. 42.

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