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ministrations of Whitfield, vital religion had nearly perished in the land; but by them, and the faithful few within the Church itself, “the glorious gospel of the Blessed God” was preached, and a goodly remnant, who had not bowed the knee to Baal, were preserved amid the general declension; the later visits of Whitfield had also this good fruit resulting from them, that numbers of the clergy were induced from curiosity to hear him; indeed, on one occasion, they were so numerous that in the application of his discourse he addressed them particularly, and with such power that many were awakened, and from that day forth consorted with the Pauls and Silases, whom they had previously ridiculed and maligned.

In this way the strength of the moderate party was weakened, and that of the “wild men” proportionally increased, until on the great revival, wrought under God's blessing, by the itinerating labors of James A. Haldane, John Aikman, John Campbell, Rowland IIill, and many other devoted and zealous preachers, in the close of last century and the beginning of this, it was so extended, that ere long it first neutralized, and at last destroyed that of the Moderates.

For years thereafter the Evangelical ministers and elders in the Church controlled its affairs, but in their zeal for a reformation of long established abuses, and in eager haste to accomplish it, they came into contact with the civil power. This infused new life into the “Moderate" minority, who appealed to the power of the civil magistrate in the disputed cases; the struggle continued for ten years, and at length issued in the disruption of the Church by the withdrawal of about four hundred ministers from its coinmunion, and the organization of the Free Church. That great event, though it paralyzed the remanent members from the difficulty of filling up so many deserted parishes, has been overruled for good,—for a different style of preaching is now heard in its pulpits, and, in the generality of cases, a most decided stand has been inade in seeking to stem prevailing ungodliness in the Establishment, by the inculcation of the pure morality and saving truths of the Gospel.

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Indeed, with such men as Drs. Norman McLeod, Caird, and others, the Church is again exerting a powerful influence in the land, and Moderatism can be charged upon only the lingering remains of Carlyle's party; it cannot justly be laid against the major part of its ministers.

To conclude this desultory Article, we have seen that Carlyle's professed aim in patronizing the theatre, balls, dancing assemblies, card-playing in rooms with unlocked doors, was, to give such a liberal aspect to the discipline of the Church, as should induce young scholars of good birth and condition to enter into it and redeem it from those narrow and ignorant prejudices, which many low born men brought with them into it. What effects his and his friends' liberal policy had in elevating the Church became very palpable, especially in those Presbyteries where the Moderates were happy in having no “wild men” amongst them; there things went on like

» clock-work, all roughnesses in “ Acts of Assembly” and “Statutes of Parliament” were smoothed down, all difficulties in the way of interpreting them had been got over,-a pleasant uniformity in procedure became established, and use and wont constituted the rule by which their deliberations and decisions were guided.

One or two master spirits took the lead, and the residue of the Court, the Vis inertice, placidly following, gave to each decision its legal momentum. All being thus of one mind, their unanimity was beautiful in its way, aptly illustrating that verse of their quaint version of the 133d Psalm:

“Behold, how good a thing it is,

And how becoming well,
Together such as brethren are

In unity to dwell.” In nothing was this simple, considerate, harmonious mode of procedure more observable in some Presbyteries, than in the tender manner probationers were dealt with, when they came before them to be examined on application for license. The young men were not excruciated by any searching examination, their erudition was not severely tested, and many who came quaking with apprehension, because of conscious leanness, went away, wondering in themselves at that which had come to pass; for lo! instead of a fiery trial, they found it a thing of nought-in fact, a pompons, heroical, public assertion of attention to the letter, qualified by a compassionate ignoring of the spirit of the “form prescribed for trial of probationers."

The writer once asked the then incumbent of a parish, a few miles to the west of Edinburgh, how his Presbytery conducted the examination of those applying for license. Ou,” replied he, “we long ago agreed that we would ask no questions on Hebrew, and in the Greek restrict ourselves to a few questions on the first verses of the first Chapter of John's Gospel, and we find it to work very pleasantly; we have never any trouble wi' our young men."

Matters were managed in a similar spirit and manner in the L'niversities, of which a clerical friend, now of high standing in the Congregational body, gave the writer an inkling. He was studying in the ancient seat of learning in that kingdom which, in Scotland, is an imperium in imperio ;—had gone through the prescribed curriculum, and the full term of attendance, and had notified his desire to be examined for the degree of M. A.

As the day of examination drew nigh, he became nervous and anxious, and being of a highly excitable temperament, his dread of the formidable tribunal before which he was to appear, and the trying ordeal through which he was to pass, waxed more and more painful, until in the extremity of his distressing apprehensions, he determined to call on one of the Professors, whose kindness he had more than once experienced, (the late Rev. Dr. T— G-, of facetious memory), and get from him, if possible, some idea of the course the examinations might take. He accordingly did so, made known his fears, and besought counsel how he should prepare, (technically cram), so as to pass through the scrutiny safely. The Dr. heard this recital of his cares and fears, and laughing heartily, said, “Ah! You do not know how easy a matter it is to pass through these examinations; yon run no risk, I assure you, keep up your heart, you have no need to fear, there is nothing very searching in them ; you are a novice yet in these matters. Did I ever tell you how I got my license from the Presbytery of D-?” “ No, you never did.” “Well, I'll tell you now, and it will show you how very little reason you have for being anxious.

“ When I attended the classes here, I was a sorry student indeed. I paid far more attention to golfing than to learning. My club (for golfing) was far more attractive than either Latin or Greek; as to llebrew, the look of the letters was enough, I never grappled with it.

“Well, time ran on; I was an expert golfer; could tee, strike, and hole my ball with the best, but woe's me for my studies. I had made little progress in them, and my course was nearly through, when I would have to apply to the Presbytery for license,--then my idleness and love of sport rose up as accusing spirits, and I was miserable from the consciousnes that I was not fit to pass through an examination. I was scantily furnished in every branch which I had ostensibly studied; I had a very slight acquaintance with Greek, of Hebrew I knew not a letter, and I was aware that there were some IIebrew scholars in the Presbytery. You may judge how I felt. I assure you my feelings were not enviable. I had to meet these inquisitors, was satisfied I should be rejected, my negligence exposed, and how was I to answer to my father for my abuse of his self-denying exertions to bear me through my college course? After much rueful cogitation, I at last determined, so soon as I got home, to go to Dr. San old friend of my father's, who had always taken an interest in me, and make a full confession of my delinquency,-make a clean breast of it, and cast myself on his compassion, for counsel, guidance, and help.

Well, I did, and he heard me patiently to an end. “Shaking his grave head very solemnly at me, he said, 'ah! T--, T-, ye've been a bad boy,—does your father ken ?' No, he does not, he has no suspicion how matters stand with

Let me

me.' 'A weel,-aweel, it's better he should na.

' sec-hum-how on airth could you do, as ye've done, T--? But it canna be helpit now, and we mauna let ye stick, for your father's sake.?

“He sat ruminating for a few minutes, and then began again, 'I daur say I'll can manage the business :--there's just anither besides mysel in the Presbytery that kens oucht op Hebrew, and he reads without the points, and I read wi' them, and that makes a fell difference in the sound. So, sit down at my desk, and write in English letters, the words, just as I read them. I'll take your examination in IIebrew on mysel, and propose to examine you on the first five verses of the 110th Psalm. Noo, write in plain letters as I read; make

I it plain.' I did so, and every word as written was repeated

, until I had caught the exact pronunciation. When the five verses were thus committed to paper, they were again read and I was ordered to make myself so familiar with them, that on the day of trial, I might without hesitation go through them seriatim.

“Well, I did make myself master of them, but I had sore misgivings when I met the Presbytery on the appointed day. Oh! how my heart beat in spite of my natural effrontery; and how I quaked when my turn for examination came; it was the penalty I had incurred by my own folly.

“Well, my old friend Dr. S--— rose, and with more than wonted gravity, said, “Mr. Moderator, I propose that Mr. G-- read to the Presbytery the first five verses in the Hebrew of the 110th Psalm, as his exercise in that tongue.' This was of course agreed to, and I began, and was going fluently on, when the other Hebraist, who had been sitting with his chin leaning on the top of his cane, lifted his head, and asked, Mr.

“ G--, do you read with the points?' 'Yes, sir, with the points.' 'Weel, weel, go on.' I did so, and soon got to the end of my tether; but what was my consternation, when the old gentleman desired me to go on to the end of the Psalm! Here was a poser,- I looked at Dr. S--, who was fidgetting, and for a moment I was dumb-founded; but the devil, I be

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