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Butter
Margarine
Cacao Butter
Oleomargarine
Lard
Imitation Lard
Oils

Fish, Train or Blubber....
Sperm
Animal
Castor.
Cocoanut
Olive
Palm

Seed
Oil Cake

Linseed
Cottonseed..

Other sorts.
Seeds

Cotton...
Linseed
Rape

Other Seeds
Tallow and Stearine
Candles
Soap and Soap Powder
Soap (transparent)
Linoleum
Varnish

323,194 26,154 62,704 172,091 344,108 608,122 975,427 689.934

332,703

14,293 74,531 156,571 545,642

553,286 1,037,265

879,171

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Butter.....
Margarine and all artificial Butters
Oleomargarine
Oils :-

Linseed
Cottonseed.

Other Seed Oils
Oil Cake .....
Grease, Tallow, and Animal Fats
Candlest
Soap
Oil and Floorcloth

377,307 323,191 67,645

? 759,516 329,167

476,110 217,890 64,657

? 850,892 412,181

588,866
428,404

98,014 200,336* 758,563 3,8,138 939,510 1,312,833

661,448 386,407 109,813 237,162* 820,778 432,714

655,082 660,695 114,06 145,523 778,336

829,610 1,000,447

941,575 1,164,267

999,524 1,298,007

433,549 1,126,102 1,465,845

3,785,002

4,215,227

4,804,370

5,032,143

5,501,008

• These figures include sweetened food. + Contain paraffin.

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Butter
Margarine and all artificial Butters
Cacao Butter
Oleomargarine
Lard ....
Imitation Lard....
Oils-

Fish, Train, Blubber, Sperm....
Animal
Castor
Cocoanut
Olive
Palm

Seed
Oil Cake-

Linseed
Cotton seed

Other sorts
Seeds-

Cotton
Linseed
Rape

Other sorts
Tallow and Stearine
Candles .....
Soap and Soap Powder .
Soap (transparent)
Floorcloth
Vamish*

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49,372,223

57,719,558

from Egypt, and more recently from Bombay to foster this industry. We would do well and the Levant, to yield edible cotton seed oil, to imitate the example of Germany who, soapmaking oil, and cotton seed cake. Here since she entered into the possession of coloalso is imported the rape seed from India, the nies on the West Coast of Africa, has taken castor seed, and in smaller quantities some the most energetic interest in promoting the other seeds, that have helped to create the vast cultivation of the palm tree, which yields one seed-crushing industry which has reached, of the chief exports of the Guinea Coast. through the inventions of two Englishmen, We may confidently expect that our Imperial Bramah and Armstrong, a completeness of Institute will, like similar institutions in mechanical detail which has maintained the France, Germany, and Holland, help in aroussupremacy of our country in this industry. ing the interest of the manufacturer; and place

Enormous as are the quantities that are thus before him the treasures that are still lying imported and worked up in this country, still unused in our Colonies. they represent only a small quantity of the [Here a large collection of oil and fatoleaginous seeds that nature offers us. Thus, yielding seeds was shown. Most of the Indian India, China, and Japan possess vast stores of specimens had been contributed by the Imseeds, yielding safflower oil, bean oil, tung oil perial Institute through the kindness of Prof. (Japanese or Chinese wood oil), and other oils, Dunstan.] which are awaiting industrial application. All With respect to the marine animal oils, it is that appears to be required is better com- but natural that they should be produced in munication to stimulate the cultivation of this country on a very extensive scale. The oleaginous seeds.

industry of medicinal cod oil is naturally Vaster still are the stores of hard vegetable small in extent, whereas the industry of comfats which tropical countries such as India, mercial cod oil and fish oils has received an the Sunda Islands, South America, and enormous impetus during recent years, through tropical Africa are able to furnish. Hitherto the replacement of the old sailing craft, which only two or three kinds of vegetable fats have had to keep out at sea for some days before a found extensive use in this country, namely, sufficient amount of livers were collected, by cocoanut oil and the two oils obtained from the fast steamers which bring in their nettings palm tree-palm oil and palm kernel oil. within one day: Smaller quantities only of other fats, such as Thus we obtain large quantities of oil ; Mowrah seed oil and Mahwah butter, reach and yet these do not seem to suffice, for this country, whereas the Continent of Europe very considerable quantities of cod oil are seems to be less conservative in the choice of imported from Newfoundland, as also fish its raw materials. Thus, Chinese vegetable oil from Japan. The large representative tallow and shea butter are chiefly worked collection of seal, whale, and allied oils up in Marseilles and in the North of Europe, which I place before you will give an idea as whereas only comparatively small quantities to the extent this branch of the oil industry reach this country. The vast stores which occupies in this country. the Malayan Archipelago alone could furnish Turning to the solid fats of the animal kingseem to be practically unknown to the majority dom, the production of lard, of tallow, and of of manufacturers.

butter in this country is but an insignificant This is not the place to examine whether one as compared with the quantities we imthis feature is due to the want of communica- port. The changes in the source of supply tion in India, or to the want of enterprise and that have occurred during the last 20 years the indolence of the natives. In the case do not appear to be well-known. The name of palm oil, at least, which could certainly be of “Petersburg yellow candle tallow," once employed in much larger quantities, it is a household word with the tallow chandler and owing to the deadly climate and to the soapmaker, has passed into the limbo of things laziness of the negro that one of the most that were. Russia, instead of exporting tallow, admirable raw materials of our staple in- has become a large importer of Australian dustries cannot be obtained at a price which tallow. Up till a few years ago, the United should be much lower than that at which it is States of America have been supplying this supplied at present.

market with a large amount of its requireNor does it appear that those who are most ments; but it seems as if America will in a interested in the shipping trade of the West few years drop out of the rank of those counCoast of Africa take such steps as are required tries which can spare any supplies for us. Australia and New Zealand, in conjunction pines, and of the Chinese bean oil in Manchuria, ' with the Argentine, are now our chief sources with the methods in vogue in this country. of supply of this indispensable raw material The modern processes divide themselves for our industries. The high prices that were naturally into two classes, the result of the long-lasting drought in Aus

I. Recovery of oils by expression. tralia are bound to stimulate an increased pro- II. Recovery of oils by extraction with duction, and it may be hoped that under the

volatile solvents. beneficent rule that has recently gained its pre- Common to both processes is the machinery dominance in South Africa, the Transvaal and required for the preliminary treatment of the Orange Colony will become great cattle- fruit or seeds. raising centres. Owing to the large consumption of meat in

1.-RECOVERY OF OILS BY EXPRESSION. this country, the amount of “ home tallow" The recovery of oils by expression has (home-rendered tallow) is very considerable. reached the very complete system in vogue It seems, however, impossible to state even nowadays in the best equipped establishments approximately the amount so produced, as the through the invention of the hydraulic press most experienced dealers are at a loss to know and the accumulator, to which reference has at what figure to place the home production. been made already.

From the first table given above may be Since the machinery required for the pregathered the enormous amount of butter that liminary treatment of the fruit or seeds must is imported into this country. Not only are vary with each particular kind of fruit or seed, Holland, Denmark, and Sweden competitors the preparatory operations for laying bare the in this market, but even Siberia and Australia fat-containing cells of, e.g., cocoanuts, will have entered the lists, and it must be expected naturally differ from those necessary in the that, under the stimulus of the expanding case of linseed. I will therefore illustrate, by consumption, improvements in cold storage means of a series of lantern slides, the premethods will permit the products of the An- liminary treatment of a few kinds of fruits and tipodes to reach us in the same state of fresh- seeds, such as palm kernels, copra (dried ness as they arrive from neighbouring cocoanut kernels), arachis nuts, castor seeds, countries.

cotton seed, linseed, and safflower seed. A few words only can be said about lard. It [The following lantern slides were shown :is well known that our chief supplies come Screen and magnetic separator for palm kernels from the United States, where as many as and copra; palm kernel and copra breaking 10,000 hogs are killed per day in some of the mills, breaking rollers for copra, arachis nut enormous packing houses, and worked up on decorticator, separator for decorticated arachis the same day into all the products that can be nuts, decorticator for castor seed, cotton seed obtained from them. Owing to the desire on the delinting machine, cotton seed decorticapart of the manufacturer to produce the largest tors (different types; American and English mapossible quantity of lard, the word “lard” has chines), linseed screen, and plants illustrating ceased to have its old meaning, i.e., “ fat from the working of the various machines described. the leaf," and in the majority of cases it must Samples of the different seeds and various be understood to mean the fat that is derived kinds thereof (especially various kinds of linseed from any part or all parts of the hog.

and cotton seed) were also shown.] The methods of producing fatty oils date The immense quantities in which smaller back to the remotest times in the history of seeds such as cotton seed or linseed are mankind. It is therefore obvious that the crushed, necessitated the construction of special technical appliances used even at the present warehouses or silos, where the seeds are stored day range from the simplest contrivances con- in a similar manner as grain is warehoused, structed by the natives of Asia and Africa up to the seed being frequently turned so as not to heat the most elaborate machinery employed in this spontaneously, since heating acts detrimentcountry.

ally on the quality of the oil. Time does not permit me to present here the The seed entering the oil mill from the silos development of this industry from the early is reduced to “meal” on passing through dawn of civilisation, and I must content myself crushing machinery of the kind I show with contrasting by means of a few slides in the lantern slide representing the Anglo(shown on the screen) the present-day manufac- American five-roller machine. The commiture of palm oil in West Africa and the Philip- nuted seed is either expressed in this state

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(production of oils for edible purposes) or con- of perforations. These presses, generally veyed by means of an elevator into a ket:le in worked in sets of two, or three, or more, which the seed is warmed (production of oils have a seed kettle fixed on the top of the for manufacturing purposes) by means of press (see Figs. 1, 2); the kettle is provided steam, which causes the cells to burst rapidly, with an opening or openings, corresponding to renders the oil more fluid, and perhaps also the chamber or chambers in the heads of the helps to coagulate some albuminoid matter, all press or presses. These chambers can be these operations combining to facilitate the closed at the top and bottom by slides, subsequent moulding of the meal into cakes. actuated by levers, and are designed to con

An exactly-measured quantity of heated tain so much meal as is required to form one seed then falls out, on opening a slide, and cake. The measured charge of meal is then drops into a measuring-box. On being drawn

FIG. 1. forward, this allows the seed to fall on to a press-cloth of the desired shape of the oil-cake. By a preliminary pressing sufficient consistence is given to the cake so that it can be carried, wrapped in the cloth, to the hydraulic press. This consists, in the Anglo-American system of seed-crushing, of an open press, fitted with about 16 iron press plates, between which the cakes are inserted by workmen. The press is packed with cakes until full; the ram is then driven up by machinery, at first with the help of an accumulator, and finally by hydraulic pumps. The oil exudes from the meal, drains off, and is collected in tanks below the press or set of presses which are generally arranged in the

TAO Anglo-American system in a battery of four presses. After releasing the pressure the cakes are taken out, and the edges, which are soft and oily, are trimmed off in a cake-paring machine. Obviously, the cakes retain a certain quantity of oil, and in the case of those seeds which contain a large amount of oil, such as castor seed, a second expression is required.

The hard cakes are, therefore, broken up in a cake-breaking machine, whilst the softer cake-parings are triturated in a special machine. In some cases an edge-runner mill is used for the same purpose.

(All the machines mentioned, as also an ensemble of an oil mill plant, were shown in lantern slides.) allowed to fall into the press box, and covered

The first expression of seeds that are with a circular metal plate. This operation is rich in oil, such as those containing more repeated until the press is full, when hydraulic than 40 per cent., leads to some diffi.

pressure is applied, and a ram forces the box culties in the open hydraulic press, since against the sliding block at the head of the the oily meal causes “spueing," i.e., the press. The oil exudes, and the meal, pressed soft mass is apt to exude through the into circular cakes, is ready for the second cloth. Hence, in modern installations, seeds expression. After releasing the pressure and of this kind are frequently expressed in a removing the sliding block, the cakes are “clodding press," i.e. a hydraulic press pro- forced out by the hydraulic ram. They are vided with a circular box or cage into which then broken into meal, and subjected to a the material is filled. The box is either con. second expression in the Anglo-American hy. structed of metal staves (vertical steel bars), draulic press, described already. held together by a number of steel rings, or Modern improvements in the mechanical consists of a cylinder having a large number part of the process dispense even for the

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