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not be decided on English grounds, or by English people, but by the Government in Calcutta, in the interests of India alone. No attempt has been made to foster trade between India and the mother country, or the colonies, by the interchange of concessions which would be mutually advantageous. Capital will not flow to those countries in which its operations are checked, and its struggling industries swamped, by unlimited foreign competition. Sir Charles Elliott, formerly Public Works' Minister in India, wrote in the Empire Review of last May:"It seems to be clearly established that it is possible to introduce a preferential treatment of all British dutiable goods imported into India, and of certain dutiable goods imported into England with great mutual advantage," and Lord Curzon lately remarked:-" Whatever the merits of Free Trade as a system suited to these or those national circumstances, it probably carries with it a defect of its qualities in inducing too great apathy towards the exertion of Governmental action in trade matters. Non-interference, laissez faire,' may easily degenerate into an indolent attitude of mind, and then it is politically vicious."
The imports into India now amount in value to £54,000,oco annually, and a moderate duty on these imports would not be felt by the masses, but would raise a revenue which would afford material relief where most needed in reducing the land taxes. I cannot quite agree with Mr. O'Conor that there is no field for the export of Indian industries. There can be no doubt that India has every requisite for manufacturing at a low rate of cost, and there is no reason why, with a well-considered system of customs duties, she should not supply both England and the Colonies with those things which they cannot produce. As regards internal consumption, the statistics of our imports show that there is a large and increasing demand. Take, for example, sugar, which India is in a position to manufacture as cheaply as any country in the world, yet sugar, probably bounty-fed, to the value of about £4000,000 sterling is imported into India annually. Take again cotton, which India can grow in such abundance that in 1901-02 she exported it, in its raw state, to the value of about £9,000,000 sterling; yet the value of manufactured cotton goods imported into India during the same period amounted to more than £20,000,000. India formerly produced excellent cotton, but it has degenerated, and is of short staple. The InspectorGeneral of Agriculture declares that our know. ledge of indigenous cotton is incomplete, and although it has deteriorated, its degeneration is not due to inferior cultivation or to exhausted soil, for the black cotton soil is very fertile; but he attributes the deterioration to the "continuous use of the same strain of unselected seed." Others also say that the short staple is due to a great extent to careless and improper cropping. Be this as it may, there is very little doubt that if the cotton-growing
industry in India had been fostered, the quality would have been improved, and the quantity ncreased, and Lancashire would not have been dependent on the speculations of American cotton rings for its supply. Again, taking the question of the demand for iron and steel. The London and North Western Railway Company, with its 300 or 400 miles of railway, manufactures its own steel rails, chairs, permanent way material, bridges, locomotives, and carriages, and surely India, with its 27,000 miles of railway, ought to be sufficient to support a demand for internal consumption. It has been said that Lord Kitchener intends that India in its army supplies shall be made self-supporting, and independent of other countries; and it is to be hoped that if such a policy is to be carried out it will be a step towards the development of India's great but undeveloped industrial wealth.
COTTON GROWING.-Reports from the Colony of the Gambia, from Lagos, and Mozambique respecting experiments in cotton-growing are quoted in the Board of Trade Journal. It is stated that the experiments in the Colony of the Gambia, begun in 1902, have proved encouraging, especially in the Upper River Districts. About 150 tons of unginned cotton grown during 1903 have been received by the cotton expert this year, and it is hoped that the area under cultivation will be greatly extended this season. The experiments in cotton cultivation in the territories of the Mozambique Company have been fully success ful. The fact that the climate and soil are admirably adapted to the production of long staple cotton of the best quality seems now definitely established.
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. IJESDAY, JUNE 21. Statistical. 9, Adelphi terrace, W.C.
I. "The Third Report from the Society s Committee on Meat and Milk Production." 2. Mr. R. Henry Rew, "Observations on the Production of Meat and Dairy Products in the United Kingdom." WEDNESDAY, JUNE 22...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,
Adelphi, W.C., 5 p.m. Colonel Viktor Balck, "The Northern Games in Stockholm and Sweden, and its People."
Geological, Burlington-house, W.. 8 p m. Royal Society of Literature, 20, Hanover square, W., 83 p.m. THURSDAY, JUNE 23... Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m.
FRIDAY, JUNE 24...Society of Women Journalists (at the HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS). John-street, Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. Mr. Spencer Leigh Hughes, "The Ethics of Journalism."
East India Association, Westminster Palace Hotel, S.W., 4 p.m. Mr. J. B. Pennington, "A Suggestion for the Abolition of the Salt Monopoly." Physical, Royal College of Science, South Kensington, S.W., 5 pm.
Amount to cover accumulated Interest on Trust
133 6 8
388 I 4
54 18 O
562 2 2
220 2 3
By Society's Accumu-
FUNDS HELD IN TRUST BY THE SOCIETY.
HENRY TRUEMAN WOOD, Secretary. Society's House, Adelphi, 20th June, 1904.
South Australia 4
264 15 0
217 O 0 1,500
O 1,560 0 0
Natal 4 per Cent.
O 0 560 0 0
Share (New)........ 100 O 0
Property of the Society (Books, Pictures, &c.)
,, Cash in hands of Messrs. Coutts and Co.,
1,976 5 7 1,793 9 5
505 0 0
500 0 0 500
510 0 0
525 3 10
Metropolitan Railway 4 per Cent. Perpetual Preference Stock
South Australia 4 per Cent. Stock
New South Wales 33 per Cent. Stock..
New South Wales 4 per Cent. Stock
Great Indian Peninsula Railway 4 per Cent. Guaranteed Debenture Stock
Natal. 4 per Cent. Stock...
New River Company Share (New).
National War Loan
Cash on Deposit with Messrs. Coutts and Co.
Society's Accumulated Funds.
Trust Funds held by Society
£4,477 10 o Ground-rents, chargeable with a sum of £200 once in five years. 100 O o Consols, chargeable with the Award of a Medal.
31st May, 1904
on Deposit (against interest on Trusts).
£ s. d. £ s. d. Worth on 31st May,
chargeable with the Award of a Prize.
o Metropolitan Railway 4 per Cent. Perpetual Preference Stock,
988 18 o 2,000 0 O
204 15 0
20.392 19 61
2,326 13 7 400 0 O
of Interest as a Money Prize.
of a Medal.
South Australia 4 per Cent. Stock, the Interest to be applied to keeping Monument in repair and occasional Prizes to Art Students.
o Great Indian Peninsula Railway 4 per Cent. Guaranteed Debenture Stock. Interest at the disposal of the Council for promoting the objects of the Society.
On Deposit with Messrs. Coutts and Co.
400 O O
TOTAL OF INVESTMENTS &c., STANDING IN THE NAME OF THE SOCIETY (INCLUDING SOCIETY'S
£35,048 9 3
The Assets, represented by Stock at the Bank of England, and Securities, Cash on Deposit, and Cash balance in hands of Messrs. Coutts and Co., as above set forth, have been duly verified.
500 O O
100 0 O
3-573 I I
400 O O
KNOX, CROPPER, AND CO., Auditors.
The reception by Sir William Abney, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Chairman, and other Members of the Council, will be held at the entrance of the Conservatory, near the Broad Walk, from 9 to 10 o'clock.
Each member is entitled to a card for himself (which will not be transferable), and a card for a lady. The cards are now issued. In addition to this, a limited number of tickets will be sold to members of the Society, or to persons introduced by a member, at the price of 5s. each, if purchased before the date of the Conversazione. On that day the price will be raised to 7s. 6d.
Members can purchase these additional tickets by personal application, or by letter addressed to the Secretary. In all cases of application by letter a remittance must be enclosed. Each ticket will admit one person, either lady or gentleman.
Tickets will only be supplied to non-members on presentation of a letter of introduction from a member.
Light refreshments (tea, coffee, ices, claret cup, &c.) will be supplied.
The following is a list of the Viva Voce Examinations which have been held since the last announcement in the Journal for May 15, 1903:
Place of Examination.
Chiswick Acton and Polytechnic (Middlesex Education Committee)
May 29, 1903.
Board Crouch end School (Middlesex Education Committee) March 28, 1904 29 Acton and Chiswick Polytechnic (Middlesex Education Committee) Regent street technic Manchester Education Committee Birkbeck College (Candidates from London Polytechnics) Mansfield-road School. Gospel Oak (L.C.C.) Education Committee) June 8, 1904.
Portuguese :Manchester Education Committee
June 30, 1903.
May 13, 1904.
June 9, 1904.
City of London College (Candidates from Lon.
don Polytechnics)..... May 30, 1904.
March 29, 1904 36
March 30, 1904 35
May 10, 1904. 15
May 11, 1904.
May 12, 1904.
2 July 9 and 10, 47 [1903
July 14, 1903.
April 18, 1904. 24
May 13, 1904. II
5 16 2
3 4 4
2 7 9
55 283 138
The Examiners were Mr. E. L. Naftel for . French, Professor H. G. Atkins, M.A., for German, Professor Ramirez for Spanish, and Mr. J. d'Oliveira e Silva for Portuguese.
Proceedings of the Society.
Wednesday afternoon, June 22nd, 1904; The LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, G.C.M.G., VicePresident, in the chair.
THE NORTHERN GAMES IN STOCKHOLM AND SWEDEN, AND ITS PEOPLE.
BY COL. VIKTOR BALCK.
In connection with the London meeting of the International Olympic Games Committee, a lecture on the "Northern Games of Stockholm," illustrated by a series of lantern slides, was delivered by Colonel Viktor Balck, President of the Northern Games Committee.
Colonel Balck said he had the honour, before commencing his lecture, of presenting to Lord Alverstone, on behalf of the Central Union of Sweden for Promoting Sports, a token of their esteem, and thanks for his kindness in presiding at the meeting. The token consisted of the silver badge of Northern Games.
The lecturer said he proposed to take the company on an imaginary visit to Sweden, and to call their attention to the winter sports of that country. The Swedes prided themselves on those sports, just as the English prided themselves on the numerous games and pastimes which were carried on in the British Isles. The Swedes, like the people of other countries, looked upon the English as the most sport-loving people in the world, and he hoped to interest the audience in the sports of Scandinavia which the Scandinavians valued as especially their own. He proposed to show the audience with the help of the lantern how the great winter contest called the Northern Games were carried on. These games were instituted by Swedish sportsmen with the object of bringing together at regular intervals those persons who practised winter sports and took part in matches requiring strength and skill. The games in question took place in Stockholm every four years, and there was an intention to repeat them in Norway in the intervals between the four year period. They would thus be always taking place during the winter in the Scandinavian cities which were most suitable for such proceedings. Many persons who excelled in the games were to be found
in Sweden and Norway. The Scandinavian countries and the Scandinavian climate afforded numerous opportunities of sports of great interest during the winter. Nature was exceedingly beautiful during that period, and these countries possessed excellent means of communications and all the advantages of civilisation. The Northern Games began in Stockholm in February, 1901. The idea was a daring one, and the difficulties were many, but the success was complete. ' The games met with the most cordial reception. All these sports were of a genuinely national character, and the weather favoured the games. They were presented in the midst of unique surroundings. Cold snowstorms on one or two occasions only served to heighten the effect of the feats of strength and endurance. There was not a single instance of anyone absenting himself, though once or twice the cold reached from twenty to thirty degrees Centigrade below the freezing point. The games would be repeated in February, 1905.
The lecturer exhibited on the screen representations of the various events of the successive days on which the sports were held. These included ordinary skating, figure skating, riding races on horseback, cross country riding, tobogganing, sleighing, curling, ski-running, ice-boat sailing, and sailing on skates. As to the last-mentioned exercises, the speed, said the lecturer, was limitless if only the skater could keep on his feet. Some of the sail-skaters maintained that under certain circumstances they could travel a little faster than the wind. Several pictures were given representing the sport of ski-ing down the declivities of hills, and some photographs of the competitors making those startling and enormous leaps which had drawn so much attention to this specially Swedish sport. It was difficult to believe, but it was nevertheless a fact, that a skilful ski-runner could, after sufficient impetus had been gained by the descent of a slope, cover a distance of 80 or 90 feet, with a drop of 50 or 60. Ski matches took place all over Sweden.
A series of views illustrating the picturesque inland scenery of Norway and Sweden was also exhibited. Here and there were to be seen examples of the sporting huts built by the Swedish Tourists' Association as night shelters for travellers. The lecturer drew attention to the resemblance of some of the sports of Sweden to those of Scotland. Diving and swimming were assiduously prac