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can be identified; of the younger brother, Samuel, there fortunately exist enough to prove how much the glory of English art is due to his genius. Walpole, in continuing the paragraph from which I took the text of this discourse, says: "If his portrait of Cromwell could be so enlarged (that is by a magnifying glass) I don't know but Vandyck would appear less great by comparison." This portrait of Cromwell is now preserved in the magnificent collection of the Duke of Buccleuch, at Montagu-house. Walpole continues: "His works are too many to be enumerated; seven or eight are in Queen Caroline's closet at Kensington; one of them, a head of Monk is capital, but unfinished. Lord Oxford had a head of Archbishop Sheldon"this last is still preserved in its old filagree frame at Welbeck.
The head of Monk is now shown upon the screen. It deserves, I think, fully as much praise as that bestowed on the head of Cromwell. Most of the portraits of Monk have a coarse expression, like that of a butcher, but beneath the rugged features, Cooper has given to the head a determination and a nobility of character which make this the finest representation of the great General of
The skill of Cooper was confined to the head, his painting of feature and of hair cannot be surpassed; but in the hands and general pose of figure he was never at home.
Of his remarkable power in delineating the head, the present slide is an admirable example. It is the face of James, Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II., and gives exactly that nameless grace which attracted all hearts to this illfated noble in his youth.
Of his father, Charles II., we have here a portrait as flattering as any of that hard featured monarch can be. It is exceedingly delicate in finish, and in this as in all other examples of Cooper's work the masterly treatment of the hair is particularly distinguishable.
Of his brother and successor James II. as Duke of York no finer portrait can be found than this. Regular as it is in feature, and at first sight attractive, it yet on examination betrays all the qualities which history tells us united in this most deservedly unpopular of kings. Arrogance, weakness, cruelty, and sensuality, are all portrayed here with a skill as masterly as is the painting of the peruke.
Of the younger sister of the king and the
Duke of York, the Princess Elizabeth, who died at Carisbrooke, Cooper has left a pathetic and beautiful picture. She died when 16, but sickness and sorrow have aged her face-the eyes are sunken in their sockets, the nostrils contracted, the lips pinched and pale, the eyelashes and brows have gone, and the figure fallen away. A look of premature old age has so settled upon her features that many will not believe that this can be the face of a young girl, but rather esteem it that of a woman of middle age.
In succession and in contrast with this, we can see the figure of one of the most famous beauties of the voluptuous court of Charles II. This is Frances, "La belle Stewart," of the Grammont Memoirs, who married the Duke of Richmond. Here she is represented in a sort of page's dress, for she was not remarkably particular as to the the fashion, quality, or quantity of her raiments. Her face and figure are better and more widely known and circulated than those of any other person. For over two centuries they have been seen on the reverse of the copper coinage of the realm in the figure of Britannia, for which she sat as model.
We shall close the series of the works of Cooper with one of the painter Walker, who so often painted Cromwell. This is not inferior to any of those already exhibited, nor do I know any which is its superior; and being highly finished in every part it shows, in perfection, the great power of this extraordinary man. It is dated in front 1645, and on the back also is scratched by Cooper himself, "Feb. 1644, old stile." This scratching is on the peculiar enamel-like surface, which Cooper used as a ground for his work. Up to this date and till the close of the century, all miniatures were painted in body colour or gouache. It was not till after 1700 that ivory was used. The earliest specimen of its use with which I am acquainted is a portrait of herself by Rosalba Carriera, the well-known pastellist. This she painted in 1704, and greatly excited the admiration of Carlo Maratta, the President of the Academy of St. Luke, at Rome, to which body she was in consequence admitted. This miniature is painted in gouache, except in the face and arms, which are painted in transparent tints to show the texture of the ivoryit remained unknown in a cupboard in Rome, and was only described and photographed within the last few years. A replica of the miniature had long remained unidentified in the Cabinet at Windsor, ever since it came
into the possession of George III. by the purchase of the collection of Consul Smith, of Venice, who was a great friend of the artist.
No account of miniature painting in this country would be complete without a reference to the greatest master of the art in modern times, Richard Cosway. He was a Devonian and was born in 1740. To illustrate the qualities of his work I have had these slides prepared, by which you will be able to see how thoroughly his work deserves the great reputation in which it has always been held.
The first is a small but very delicately finished head of George IV. as Prince Regent. Here, as in all good portraiture from the time of the Greek head artists till now, the treatment of the hair is a sure test of the power of the artist and Cosway is no exception to this rule. He never relied on force or strong contrast of colour, but entirely on the delicate precision of his drawing, which enabled him to seize the features, and to exhibit the character of his sitters. Genuine examples of his work are, as you know, of great value, but he had many pupils, and followers without number, whose works are pretentiously put forward under his name, and with many seriously damage the proper estimate of his place in art. Most of the members of the Royal Family were painted by him, and you may see in this slide how thoroughly he was a master in the art of painting female beauty. This is the Princess Mary, daughter of George III., who married her first cousin, William, second Duke of Gloucester, and who left her well-known house in Piccadilly to the late Duke of Cambridge. Princess Sophia, her sister, died unmarried in 1848.
Ozias Humphry, also of Devon, was born in 1742. He painted a miniature of Maria, Duchess of Gloucester, in 1769, when she was just thirty years old.
I must ask your kind indulgence for this very imperfect survey of a great subject. It has been in a large measure an experiment, and I regret that the difficulties of reproduction have caused me to omit half a dozen of the slides which had been prepared. The process of reproduction is one that demands the greatest skill and accuracy, and in some cases there has been slight failure. I would not exhibit any but specimens of the highest class, as my object has been to vindicate for miniature painting a larger appreciation and a higher estimate of the place which may be claimed for the masters of the art. Nor would I encumber this paper by biographical or his
torical detail as I wished the miniatures to speak for themselves.
Till now, no means existed by which this result could be obtained. Made, as Hillyard says, to be viewed in the hand, they could never be placed in comparison with the portraits by the great masters which look down upon us from the walls of national galleries or of the ancestral halls where they themselves worked when they lived; but I hope the time will come when by permanent facsimiles in colour, such as you have seen this evening, they will be admitted to take that place which only their size has debarred them from obtaining already.
Mr. HUMPHREY WARD said that their thanks were due to Mr. Holmes, for having made such admirable use of the magnificent treasure-house of which he was custodian. In every way the paper had been instructive; it had been a lesson in history; it had been a lesson in art; and last, but not least, it had been a lesson in practical science. All sorts of historical considerations must have passed through the minds of the listeners as they contemplated the pathetic features of that unfortunate young man, Henry Prince of Wales, whose early death was perhaps the most important single event that ever occurred in the history of England. If he had lived there might have been no Civil War, and the whole course of our history might have been changed. However, perhaps those were not the primary reflections that should be suggested by a paper on art. One reflection was how admirable were the works of those miniaturists; and he wondered, as he looked at them, whether their perfection, as compared with the work-he would not say of to-day, because he thought the work of to-day was very greatly improving-but the work of yesterday, was not due to the absence of photographic assistance. He was afraid that at the present time a good many miniature painters, instead of making that precise, exact, and penetrating study of the face of their sitter that they saw in Holbein and Cooper, depended far too much on the camera. The camera itself had given them a most admirable lesson that night. If it could speak, he thought it would say, "Leave me alone until after you have finished your miniature, and then I will do everything for you." Thanks to the process in which Sir William Abney and his friends had had so great a share, that wonderful three-colour process, they were able to see miniatures like other pictures translated, and by the aid of the lantern magnified in a way that their fathers, thirty years ago, may have dreamed of, but certainly could not have foreseen. It was now an accomplished fact, and showed what photography could really do to help the
miniature painter; but they must let the photographic work come after and not before.
Mr. HOWARD INCE said that there was one hint which the early miniature painters gave us, and that was the position of the head on the discs in relation to the top of the oval. That might be seen by reference to the portrait of the Duke of Monmouth. In that case the head practically touched the top of the oval. In later instances, and as one got down to modern photography, it would be noticed that the frame got larger and larger, and this happened to the great loss of decorative art.
The CHAIRMAN said that he thought they were greatly indebted to Mr. Holmes for having brought forward this beautiful series of pictures. It was quite impossible for him (the Chairman) to criticise the paper from an artistic point of view. He might be able to criticise it perhaps from the scientific point of view which, in this instance, would be the photographic. The beautiful pictures which had been exhibited had been produced by Mr. Sanger Shepherd's process. Anyone who was acquainted with the work that Mr. Sanger Shepherd had done must know the amount of labour which it cost him to bring the process to such perfection as he had brought it up to the present time. His was not a ruleof-thumb photography. It could not be done by pressing a button and then leaving somebody else to do the rest. It must be a work of extreme accuracy of measurement, and of thought and artistic care. All these points Mr. Sanger Shepherd had devoted to the process, and consequently he had been able to bring a knowledge of the necessities of the case to bear on the reproduction of the miniatures under the supervision of Mr. Holmes, who was a critic of the first order. They might congratulate themselves that the reproduction of miniatures, at all events by three-coloured photography, was an accomplished fact. The gradations which Mr. Holmes had shown on the screen were gradations which were vouched for as true by Mr. Holmes himself. Mr. Holmes had justly valued the reproductions which had been shown, and he had wisely withheld those reproductions which did not satisfy his fastidious eye. If only other people who produced three-coloured photographs would be equally fastidious, and not allow such abominations to appear as were occasionally seen as productions of the threecoloured photography, the three-colour process would not have the bad name which it had at the present time. He would ask the meeting to pass a very hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Holmes for his interesting paper, not only on account of its historical value and its art value, but also for its scientific value.
Mr. HOLMES thanked the meeting for their appreciation. The present paper was entirely an experiment. Some of the slides, which he had shown, he had not seen until that afternoon. What
the Chairman had said about the care and trouble which had been bestowed by Mr. Sanger Shepherd upon the pictures was well deserved. The process was, he would not say in its infancy, for it was full grown, but was one which would doubtless develop. He had never seen anything finer than some of the details of the pictures and the way in which the various subtle tones of the miniatures had been reproduced. He did not think that they could have been treated in a better way than they had been. He might state that all of the pictures exhibited were photographed from miniatures which were under his charge in the Royal Library at Windsor. If he was allowed the privilege of addressing the Society on a future occasion he might be able to reproduce some of the fine work which existed in other collections.
In reply to questions from the audience,
Mr. HOLMES said that the carnations and carmines had a tendency to fade. Miniatures were generally kept in the dark as they could not stand much light. Strong sunlight would destroy the carnation colours immediately. Ultramarine would stand even fire. Carmine had a tendency to turn yellow. All the early miniatures were painted with what was called body colour on card. No portrait was painted on ivory until after the year 1700. The first ivory portrait that he knew with a date was about 1704. At that time the ivory was only shown in the flesh tints. The background and all the dresses were still painted in thick body colour.
THE MINERAL WEALTH OF PERU. In Peru, the main production of silver and copper is obtained at Cerro de Pasco. For several centuries this famous mineral centre overflowed the world with its silver, although the working of the mines was merely superficial, and the system of amalgamation entirely deficient. The depth of the mines very seldom exceeds 150 feet. It is only in recent times that the existence of copper in enormous quantities was discovered at Cerro de Pasco, which has become one of the largest deposits of copper in the world. In the case of gold it is rather difficult to estimate the annual production, as the mine owners do not issue any complete statistics. The mercury or quicksilver of Huancavelica will, it is stated in a recent report by the United States Vice-Consul at Callao, become, in in the near future, a rival of the famous mines of Almaden in Spain, and of New Almaden in California. The exploitation of iron is at present of no great importance in Peru. A considerable quantity of this metal is found at Tambogrande (Piura); also
in the provinces of Colca and Larez. It also exists in various other parts of the country, but no serious attention appears to have been given to the matter as yet. The principal port of the department at Piura, is Paita, and it is said that iron works established there could easily provide all the Pacific coast with as much iron and steel material as at present is drawn from the United States and Europe. The lead mines have not been worked, up to the present, with any profit, but there is said to be an opening here for persons with capital, and well-provided with upto-date machinery to lessen the cost of production. Sulphur exists in good abundance in all the volcanoes of the Andes, and it presents itself in such dense layers that it is difficult to estimate the quantity that might be extracted, or form an idea of the thickness. It also occurs extensively near the sea, on the Peninsular of Aguja, near Paita. Many varieties of coal are produced in Peru, but as no records are kept, it is not possible to state the exact amount yielded in the country. From a carefully-prepared estimate, however, for a recent year, the amount appears to be about 55,000 tons. Salt is widely distributed in different parts of Peru, although the principal salt pits are on the coast, and are easily and cheaply worked. Owing to the dry atmosphere of the Peruvian coast, different classes of salt have accumulated as well as nitrate. The importation of salt in Peru is absolutely prohibited. The whole coast of the Department of Piura produces petroleum, and that is the only part of Peru in which it is worked.
FRENCH MISSION TO LAKE TCHAD. Dr. Auguste Chevalier, director of the colonial laboratory at the Paris Natural History Museum, started in May, 1902, at the head of a scientific mission, to Chari and Lake Tchad, to study the native productions, collect specimens, and make topc. graphical observations of the unexplored portions. The Mission passed twenty-two months in Central Africa, traversed more than 20,000 kilométres (12,427 miles) and brought back 150 cases of specimens, without having fired a single shot.
Climbing plants that yield indiarubber abound in the Tchad basin, but the natives do not know how to cultivate them. The Mission discovered several species of dwarf climbers, very numerous in the Snoussi country, that are burnt every year by brush fires, so that they never grow to any great size; but the roots, which yield indiarubber, become, on the contrary, very large.
While the explorers found that cotton could be grown to great advantage, and to a large extent, in the Tchad region and Saras countries, they discovered several magnificent species of wild coffee plant. A giant variety, named coffea excelsa by Dr. Chevalier, that grows to an average height of 15 métres (49 ft.), yields excellent coffee.
The Tchad was found to be not a lake but a
marsh, invaded by weeds and scattered with inhabited islands, being scarcely ever navigable, while its topography cannot be established because the shores are constantly changing.
STATISTICS OF THE WORLD'S IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES.
May I be permitted to say that so far as I was able to gather the drift of last night's paper, it seemed to me that the main contention put forward by Mr. Digby as to the position of the iron and steel industry being now relatively more satisfactory than in the boom period of 1870-4 because of the cheapening of food supplies and other commodities, is somewhat irrelevant to the consideration of the causes which give rise to anxiety as to the future of our iron trade. The new light which Mr. Digby appears to think he has thrown upon the question because of the increased purchasing power of a diminishing or stationary export margin, seems, however, to be based upon a misconception resulting from the omission to throw a similar illumination upon the great expansion of the trade of the United States and Germany which would thereby be greatly accentuated.
Thus Mr. Digby's point does not remove the disparity between the tremendous growth of the iron industry in the United States and Germany as compared with its stationary or diminishing character in this country, but so far as it is fairly applicable to a comparison, would probably emphasise such disparity, because the cheapening of commodities has also been very considerable in those countries.
The calculation, though perhaps not necessarily relevant, is interesting, and should desirably be completed, but it is a little unfortunate that what is no doubt a conscientious attempt to remove anxiety as to the future of our great iron and steel industry, by its apparently incomplete and one-sided view, should have somewhat laid Mr. Digby open to the criticism of having discovered a "mare's nest." GEORGE S. BURT, F.S.S.
4, Lothbury, E.C.,
5th May, 1904.
SIR HENRY STANLEY, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D' -Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the great African explorer, whose death occurred at his town residence in Richmond-terrace, Whitehall, at six o'clock, on the morning of Tuesday, 10th inst., had been a life member of the Society of Arts since 1878, when he was elected by the Council "in consideration of the services to
Commerce by his explorations in Africa." He was chairman of the meeting of the Indian Section on May 19th, 1898, when Sir Alfred Lyall read a paper on "Colonies and Chartered Companies," and again, at a meeting of the Colonial Section on January 28th, 1902, when Commander Whitehouse read "To the Victoria Nyanza by the a paper, Uganda Railway." He was also a speaker at other meetings when questions of explorations in Africa and elsewhere were considered. His last appearance at a meeting of the Society was March 3rd, 1903, when Mr. Herbert Samuel, M.P., read a paper on "The Uganda of To-day," and Sir Henry Stanley then made an important speech.
The particulars of Sir Henry's life and of his public services are so well known, and so fully related by the public press, that it is unnecessary to repeat them here.
TUESDAY, MAY 17...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m.
Genus Hyla, from British Guiana, carrying Eggs on the Back." 3. Mr. F. E. Beddard, "Notes upon the Anatomy of certain Boide."
WEDNESDAY, MAY 18...Meteorological, 70 Victoria-street,
S.W., 4 p.m. 1. Discussion on Mr. W. L. Dallas's paper, "The Variation of the Population of India compared with the Variation of Rainfall, 18911901." 2. Hon. F. A. Rollo Russell, Some of the Causes of Rain." 3. Mr. William C. Nash, "Rainfall at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1815-1903."
Chemical, Burlington-house, W., 5 p.m.
1. Prof. W. A. Tilden, "Action of Nitrosyl Chloride on Pynene." 2. Messrs. H. J. S. Sand and J. E. Hackford, "The Electrolytic Estimation of Minute Quantities of Arsenic." 3. Mr. C. E. Fawsitt, "The Decomposition of the Alhylureas." A Preliminary Note. 4. Messrs. J. E. Mackenzie and A. F. Joseph, "The Action of Sodium Methoxide and its Homologues on Benzophenone Chloride and Benzal Chloride." Part II. 5. Mr. H. M. Dawson and Miss E. E. Goodson, "The Formation of Periodides in Nitrobenzene Solution." II. "Periodides of the Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals." Microscopical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m. 1. Mr. E. M. Nelson, Grayson's Rulings." Mr. C. Beck, "Exhibition of Flower Seeds under Microscopes."
North East Coast Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 7 p.m. Discussion on Engineer-Lieut. E. F. Baker's paper, "The Management of Belleville Boilers at Sea." Pharmaceutical, 17, Bloomsbury-square, W.C. Annual Meeting.
East India Association, Westminster Palace Hotel,
S.W., 4 p.m. Mr. Frank Birdwood, **The Empire's Greatest Commercial Asset." British Archæological Association, 32, Sackvillestreet, W., 8 p.m.
Ambidextral Culture Society, 11, Chandos-street, W., 5 p.m. Dr. J. Shaw, Ambidexterity from the Medical Point of View."
THURSDAY, MAY 17... Royal, Burlington-house, W., 41 p.m.
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m.
Historical, Clifford's-inn Hall, Fleet-street, E.C.,
Numismatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 7 p.m.
FRIDAY, MAY 20... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 9 p.m. Prof. E. Rutherford, "The Radiation and Emanation of Radium."
Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover-square,
SATURDAY, MAY 21... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 3 p.m. Mr. D. F. Tovey, "Sonata Style and the Sonata Forms," with Musical Illustrations. (Lecture III.)