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in the provinces of Colca and Larez. It also exists in various other parts of the country, but no serious attention appears to have been given to the matter as yet. The principal port of the department at Piura, is Paita, and it is said that iron works established there could easily provide all the Pacific coast with as much iron and steel material as at present is drawn from the United States and Europe. The lead mines have not been worked, up to the present, with any profit, but there is said to be an opening here for persons with capital, and well-provided with upto-date machinery to lessen the cost of production. Sulphur exists in good abundance in all the volcanoes of the Andes, and it presents itself in such dense layers that it is difficult to estimate the quantity that might be extracted, or form an idea of the thickness. It also occurs extensively near the sea, on the Peninsular of Aguja, near Paita. Many varieties of coal are produced in Peru, but as no records are kept, it is not possible to state the exact amount yielded in the country. From a carefully-prepared estimate, however, for a recent year, the amount appears to be about 55,000 tons. Salt is widely distributed in different parts of Peru, although the principal salt pits are on the coast, and are easily and cheaply worked. Owing to the dry atmosphere of the Peruvian coast, different classes of salt have accumulated as well as nitrate. The importation of salt in Peru is absolutely prohibited. The whole coast of the Department of Piura produces petroleum, and that is the only part of Peru in which it is worked.

marsh, invaded by weeds and scattered with inhabited islands, being scarcely ever navigable, while its topography cannot be established because the shores are constantly changing.

FRENCH MISSION TO LAKE TCHAD. Dr. Auguste Chevalier, director of the colonial laboratory at the Paris Natural History Museum, started in May, 1902, at the head of a scientific mission, to Chari and Lake Tchad, to study the native productions, collect specimens, and make topc. graphical observations of the unexplored portions. The Mission passed twenty-two months in Central Africa, traversed more than 20,000 kilométres (12,427 miles) and brought back 150 cases of specimens, without having fired a single shot.

Climbing plants that yield indiarubber abound in the Tchad basin, but the natives do not know how to cultivate them. The Mission discovered several species of dwarf climbers, very numerous in the Snoussi country, that are burnt every year by brush fires, so that they never grow to any great size; but the roots, which yield indiarubber, become, on the contrary, very large.

While the explorers found that cotton could be grown to great advantage, and to a large extent, in the Tchad region and Saras countries, they discovered several magnificent species of wild coffee plant. A giant variety, named coffea excelsa by Dr. Chevalier, that grows to an average height of 15 métres (49 ft.), yields excellent coffee.

The Tchad was found to be not a lake but a



May I be permitted to say that so far as I was able to gather the drift of last night's paper, it seemed to me that the main contention put forward by Mr. Digby as to the position of the iron and steel industry being now relatively more satisfactory than in the boom period of 1870-4 because of the cheapening of food supplies and other commodities, is somewhat irrelevant to the consideration of the causes which give rise to anxiety as to the future of our iron trade.

The new light which Mr. Digby appears to think he has thrown upon the question because of the increased purchasing power of a diminishing or stationary export margin, seems, however, to be based upon a misconception resulting from the omission to throw a similar illumination upon the great expansion of the trade of the United States and Germany which would thereby be greatly accentuated.

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Commerce by his explorations in Africa." He was chairman of the meeting of the Indian Section on May 19th, 1898, when Sir Alfred Lyall read a paper on "Colonies and Chartered Companies," and again, at a meeting of the Colonial Section on January 28th, 1902, when Commander Whitehouse read "To the Victoria Nyanza paper, by the Uganda Railway." He was also a speaker at other meetings when questions of explorations in Africa and elsewhere were considered. His last appearance at a meeting of the Society was March 3rd, 1903, when Mr. Herbert Samuel, M.P., read a paper on "The Uganda of To-day," and Sir Henry Stanley then made an important speech.


The particulars of Sir Henry's life and of his public services are so well known, and so fully related by the public press, that it is unnecessary to repeat

them here.



Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :

TUESDAY, MAY 31.-" The Economic and Industrial Progress and Condition of India." By J. E. O'CONOR, C.I.E., late Director-General of Statistics, India.


Tuesday evenings, 8 o'clock :

MAY 17.-" Pewter and the Revival of its Use." By LASENBY LIBERTY. SIR GEORGE BIRDWood, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., will preside.

MONDAY, MAY 16...Optical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8 p m.
Report of the Optical Standards Committee.
Surveyors, 12, Great George-street, S. W., 8 p.m.
Discussion on Mr. Thomas Blashill's paper,
"London Streets and Street Traffic."
Geographical, University of London, Burlington-
gardens, W., 3 p.m. Annual Meeting.

British Architects, 9, Conduit-street, W., 8 p.m.
Rev. J. B. Lock, "The Planning of Collegiate

Medical, 11, Chandos-street, W., 83 p.m. Annual Oration.

TUESDAY, MAY 17...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street, Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Applied Art Section.) Mr. Lasenby Liberty," Pewter, and the Revival of its Use."

Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m.
Mr. L. Fletcher, "Meteorites." (Lecture III.)
Statistical, 9, Adelphi-terrace, W.C., 5 p.m. Mr.
R. J. Thompson, "Local Expenditure and Local
Indebtedness in England and Wales.'
Pathological, 20 Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m.
Annual Meeting.

Zoological, 3, Hanover-square, W., 8 p.m.
1. Sir
Charles Eliot, "Some Nudibranchs from East
Africa and Zanzibar.-Part V." 2. Mr. G. A.
Boulenger, "Description of a new Tree-Frog of

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Genus Hyla, from British Guiana, carrying Eggs on the Back." 3. Mr. F. E. Beddard, "Notes upon the Anatomy of certain Boide."

WEDNESDAY, MAY 18...Meteorological, 70 Victoria-street, S.W., 41 p.m. 1. Discussion on Mr. W. L. Dallas's paper, "The Variation of the Population of India compared with the Variation of Rainfall, 1891Some of 1901." 2. Hon. F. A. Rollo Russell, the Causes of Rain." 3. Mr. William C. Nash, "Rainfall at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1815-1903."

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Chemical, Burlington-house, W., 5 p.m.

1. Prof. W. A. Tilden, "Action of Nitrosyl Chloride on Pynene." 2. Messrs. H. J. S. Sand and J. E. Hackford, "The Electrolytic Estimation of Minute Quantities of Arsenic." 3. Mr. C. E. Fawsitt, "The Decomposition of the Alhylureas." A Preliminary Note. 4. Messrs. J. E. Mackenzie and A. F. Joseph, "The Action of Sodium Methoxide and its Homologues on Benzophenone Chloride and Benzal Chloride." Part II. 5. Mr. H. M. Dawson and Miss E. E. Goodson, "The Formation of Periodides in Nitrobenzene Solution." II. "Periodides of the Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals."

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THURSDAY, MAY 17... Royal, Burlington-house, W., 41 p.m.
Antiquaries, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m.
Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 5 p.m.
Mr. Arthur Hassall, "Great Britain and Europe"
(1763-1793). (Lecture III)
Electrical Engineers (at the HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY
OF ARTS), John-street, Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m.
Discussion on Messrs. Parson, Stoney, and Mar-
tin's paper,
"The Steam Turbine as applied to
Electrical Engineering."
Historical, Clifford's-inn Hall, Fleet-street, E.C.,

5 p.m. Numismatic, 22, Albemarle-street, W., 7 p.m. Camera Club, Charing-cross-road, W.C., 8) p.m. Mr. J. D. Rees, "Domestic Life in India." Mining and Metallurgy, Geological Society's Rooms, Burlington-house, W., 8 p.m. 1. Dr. J. S. Haldane and Mr. K. Arthur Thomas. "Miners' Phthisis-its Causes and Prevention." 2. "Microscopic Demonstration of Ankylostomiasis Ova and Worms, &c."

FRIDAY, MAY 20... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W.,

9 p.m. Prof. E. Rutherford, "The Radiation and
Emanation of Radium,"
Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover-square,
W.C., 8 p.m.

SATURDAY, MAY 21... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W., 3 p.m. Mr. D. F. Tovey, "Sonata Style and the Sonata Forms," with Musical Illustrations. (Lecture III.)


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Journal of the Society of Arts. Proceedings of the Society.

No. 2,687.

FRIDAY, MAY 20, 1904.

All communications for the Society should be addressed to the Secretary, John-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.



Thursday afternoon, May 12, 1904; The Right Hon. Lord GEORGE HAMILTON, G.C.S.I., M.P., in the chair. The paper read was "British Grown Tea." By A. G. STANTON,

The paper and report of the discussion will be published in a future number of the Journal.


Tuesday evening, May 17, 1904; Sir GEORGE BIRDWOOD, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., in the chair. The paper read was "Pewter and the revival of its use." By ARTHUR LASENBY LIBERTY.

The paper and report of the discussion will be published in a future number of the Journal.


Some members have expressed a desire to be supplied with cases to hold the numbers of the Journal as they are issued and before a volume is completed for binding. The binders have prepared and lettered a box in book form (Stone's patent box) to match the cloth-bound volumes of the Journal, which will contain all the numbers forming a volume. These boxes can be supplied to members (at a charge of four shillings each) on application to the Secretary.


Tuesday afternoon, May 3, 1904; the Hon. Sir JOHN ALEXANDER COCKBURN, K.C.M.G., in the chair.

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Although facts relating to the great Dominion of Canada and its affairs are in these days being placed before the world in no unstinted quantity, still the deep sympathy which the British public unfailingly manifests towards "The Land of the Maple" has served to modify any diffidence I may feel in venturing to place before the members of this Society a paper on the subject of Canada. It is very satisfactory to observe the steady growth of goodwill between the peoples of Great Britain and Canada. A community of interest is being built up, perhaps more rapidly than is generally appreciated. Business connections and personal friendships have in late years been formed, the full effect of which has not yet been seen. The increase in Anglo-Canadian passenger traffic has been remarkable, and is undoubtedly significant of the formation of international bonds of friendship. It is also gratifying to observe that Canadians visiting this country uniformly speak in very warm terms of the pleasant reception accorded them in the old land; on the other hand, Englishmen who have visited Canada seem to be in

doubt as to which of the two outstanding features of their Canadian tour impressed them most, the vast resources of the Dominion, or the intense kindness meted out to them by their Canadian fellow citizens. The number of Canadians visiting Great Britian has of late years greatly increased. This has perhaps escaped the attention it would otherwise have attracted, from the fact that the Canadians are often confused with our friends from the United States of America. But however this may be, Canadians yearly come on business missions in increasing numbers, and at the same time they generally visit the historic spots in this great Old Country, in which they feel they are entitled to take a pride no less than those born in these islands. I am glad to say that they return to Canada with a much enhanced conception of John Bull's experience, capability and methods. These are some impressions the Canadian business-man who visits England never fails to refer to, and he never forgets the London policeman who regulates the traffic. I might, perhaps, here be permitted to mention some recent conversations I have had with several members of a small colony of young Canadian medical men who are in London pursuing post-graduate studies, in the course of which I was curious enough to ask them why they preferred to make the journey to England when they could so much more conveniently avail themselves of the facilities offered by the great centres of the United States of America. It would not be diplomatic to give the replies in too much detail, but it is, perhaps, sufficient to say that the principles and methods of the medical profession of Great Britain have made a profound impression on the flower of that fraternity in Canada, and students are coming to this country for instruction simply because they believe the masters of the profession here are sound, have a great reverence for human life, and are generally efficient. In these days of alleged British decadency this is cheerful testimony, and I think we may very reasonably hope that the present colony of Canadian medical students in London will steadily continue to increase in numbers and influence. I have heard it suggested that the phenomenal increase in the consumption of Scotch whiskey is attributable to the wide prevalence of Scotch physicians, who are said to commonly advise many of their patients something like this: "I advise you," they say, "to eschew spirits altogether, but if you must take some, let it be

a little good Scotch whiskey." Let us hope that the Canadian doctors, now in England, when they return to the Dominion will, be equally effective in helping to perpetuate and strengthen the goodwill which, at present, so happily exists between Great Britain and Canada.

We have been referring to Canadians visiting Great Britain. The number of Englishmen emigrating to Canada is, at present, of course very gratifying. English business-men are also beginning to visit Canada in some numbers in order to spy out the land. This is all very satisfactory as far as it goes, but I cannot help feeling that numbers of Englishmen who have never visited Canada might, with advantage to themselves, when dealing with the annually recurring problem of where to spend their vacations, consider the attractions of a trip to some part of Canada. Take, for instance, that not inconsiderable class-those who desire to seek the haunts of

fish and game. They leave England every season for Scandinavia, and Finland and elsewhere. They are willing to pay, and do pay large sums of money for fishing and shooting rights whereby to gratify their favourite pastimes. Yet in Canada, within seven or eight days' journey from Liverpool, is to be found a grand reserve for sportsmen, hundreds of thousands of miles of practically virgin territory, where will be found all the sport that the most ardent can desire. There is an unlimited territory abundantly stocked with game, together with vast expanses of water teeming with fish. If ample time is at the disposal of the sportsman, he can find virgin lands and waters where in seeking for fish or game he will secure such success as perhaps he has never dreamed of. To those whose leisure is more limited, there is a choice of conveniently accessible districts, where most satisfying sport may be indulged in, where trout and salmon can be landed in most gratifying profusion, and where game of many descriptions abound. I will not pursue this feature any further, but proceed to deal with the more serious aspects of our subject.

I have stated that information as to the resources of Canada has been placed before the public during late years in no unstinted quantity. The limits of this paper impose that I shall not enter into too much detail, but, with your permission, I should like to set forth some facts as to the recent development in Canada, and her prospects for the near future. Notwithstanding the many and continuous and

able efforts with which for many years the great wealth of the Dominion of Canada has been so well placed before this country, there still remains an unconverted and considerable minority, who are more or less sceptical as to the claims made on behalf of the Dominion in regard to the probable growth of her population in the near future, and in respect to her food-producing capacity.

The other day a letter was shown to me, written by a Professor in one of the great English universities, a gentleman who is deservedly honoured. On perusing this letter I was interested to find that he regarded the north-west of Canada as an overrated country, and altogether he took a quite hopeless view of the future of that great territory. I am bound to confess that he set forth his case with a wealth of apparently unanswerable contentions. He conclusively proved-at least to his own satisfaction-that it was impossible for Canada to become one of the greatest wheatgrowing countries in the world; and that it was very doubtful whether her great prairies would continue to produce a vigorous and strenuous population. I think the effect of that letter upon most persons who had not visited Western Canada would be to create serious doubt as to the much vaunted agricultural possibilities of the north-west territories. I will freely admit that as I read the Professor's letter I began to ask myself whether the impressions I had gathered during a residence of some twenty years in Manitoba were, after all, correct and sound. But as my mind travelled from the Professor's pessimistic suggestions to a consideration of the progress actually made in the West, I found it was possible to demonstrate the inaccuracy of almost all his contentions by citations of accomplished facts. I well remember in the summer of 1881 driving across country from the eastern to the western boundary of Manitoba. At that time the province was but sparsely settled. The settlers had to haul their produce great distances to market. Their buildings for the most part were primitive in the extreme. Land was to be had for the asking, and practically unlimited quantities could have been purchased at from 24 dols. to 31 dols. (10s. to 14s.) per acre, on easy terms of payment. Two or three years ago I again covered the same ground once more, and found it difficult to realise that it was the same country that I had traversed some twenty years previously. Railways intersected the land in every direction. Small towns had sprung up at short intervals

along all the lines of communication, affording profitable and convenient markets for the produce of the settlers. On every

hand were the unmistakable evidences of a prosperous community-tiny homesteads now appeared where a few years before had been the log or the sod shanty. The price of land had advanced from, say, three dollars (12s.) an acre to from £3 to £5 an acre, and in some cases to even higher figures. These increased values meant that in addition to making a good living and substantially adding to their working capital, all the early settlers at least had profited to the extent of from £500 to £1,000, according to the size of their holdings. In some instances the results had been more favourable, and in others possibly not quite so good. For instance, I know of one farm which was purchased in 1888 for 720 dols. (145), and the same place would now bring at least, so I am credibly informed, 15,000 dols. or £3,000. There is no reason to doubt that the lands which are being given away to-day to bona fide settlers by the Canadian Government, and offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Hudson's Bay Company, and other corporations, at nominal prices, will equally increase in value from precisely the same causes that have affected the lands to which reference has been made.

It is often asked why the growth of Canada's population has not proceeded at a more rapid pace than the official statistics show. Perhaps you will allow me to deal briefly with this point. Until recent years Eastern Canada-which may be roughly termed that portion east of Lake Superior-although possessing immense reserves of timber and minerals, and, in many branches, unrivalled facilities for manufacturing, was somewhat severely restricted in her outputs by the lack of profitable markets. Her natural outlet (the United States of America) was closed to her by a tariff which— with the exception of the period during which the Reciprocity Treaty was in operation-was practically prohibitive. All this, too, at the time of great expansion in the States, when the dazzling opportunities afforded by that country to all able-bodied Canadians resulted in great migration from the Dominion. If the state of things which existed in Canada at this juncture had remained, the outlook would have been very indifferent and perhaps far from encouraging. But in 1880 the inclusion of the north-west territories in the Confederation of Canada extended her limits

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