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they must take advantage of this action of of treatment, and open markets for their America and Germany. It is the ironmasters products. Preferential rates within the Empire and the home-labour class that suffer. How were favourably considered. The next confar a change in our fiscal system will check gress was held in London in 1896 under the dumping is not clear, for it is evidently a tem- presidency of Mr. Chamberlain. The principal porary and exceptional proceeding, but that subjects discussed were the closer union of the all manufactured articles of iron and steel im | Empire through commercial co-operation, and ported here should contribute something to the the exclusion of the idea of taxing food and revenue of the country must, I think, be evident goods with any view of raising prices. In 1897 to the business man who carefully considers Canada passed an Act giving the United the facts.
Kingdom a 25 per cent. preference on all
imported goods; it is now 33 per cent. THE EMPIRE.
New Zealand has followed suit. In 1901 The South African war showed that there a meeting of Colonial Premiers took place was a true ring of patriotism in the British in London, again under the presidency of Empire, but the parochial squabbles of British Mr. Chamberlain, and the present great fiscal statesmen in party warfare, “must give us political turmoil is a consequence of the pause." Cecil Rhodes, the broadest minded discussions that then took place. man I ever met, had visions of a great empire.
What will be the end of it? Let us hope He wrote: “The whole thing lies in the ques- a more scientific fiscal policy at home, an tion, can we invent some tie with our mother elastic revenue, greater credit, continuous country that will prevent separation ? It employment for our working men, reducmust be a practical one. The curse is that tion of poor rates, a united, self-supportEnglish politicians cannot see the future.” ing self-contained, impregnable Empire,
Mr. Chamberlain is desirous to restore pre- which, with the aid of the United States, ferential tariffs with our colonies, to knit to- will eventually make the Anglo-Celtic race the gether more solidly by commercial links the dominant and controlling power of the world, patriotism of our race. A firm fiscal system
fulfilling the first object of the great mission means the unification of the British Empire. “Peace on Earth." What would Greece have been if all her colonies had been connected together by such
DISCUSSION. ties as even now bind the British Empire ? or what would it have been if it had anticipated
Sir GUILFORD MOLESWORTH, K.C.I.E., said that the dream of Cobden of co-operation in busi
he thought that the chief objection to the proposed ness, and of amity in trade ? She failed because
fiscal policy lay in the fallacious assumption that the she committed upon herself
duties would involve an increased price to the con upon herself an unhappy
Experience showed the contrary. Prices, despatch. Her existence was meteoric. Having all the elements of a magnificent Empire
especially those of corn, were determined by the
world's level of prices, and that level was determined numbers, valour, strength, physique, climate, by all sorts of conditions, such as currency, probrains, knowledge, undying literature, inim!.
duction, and transport. It might be laid down as a table art; her states, her colonies, and her
grand axiom that when an article was of home proheroes destroyed each other, and she was duction a duty which was not prohibitive would not obliterated as a nation by Rome. Had Pericles raise the price. It stimulated home production, been allowed to have his way there would have and as a rule the burden of the duty sell upon the been a great Grecian Empire.
foreigner. When the article could not be produced Spain lost her colonies, and where is
at home, the burden of the duty fell upon the conshe ? Our colonies are coming to our help
To unthinking persons or shallow thinkers and there is sunshine through clouds.
this appeared very paradoxical ; but many facts Several colonial congresses have been held
influenced the question. The duty on wheat in France
in 1884 was is. In 1885 it was raised to 55. 3d., but where this important question has been dis
the price of wheat did not rise. When, however, the cussed. The first took place in London in 1887,
duty was raised to the prohibitive rate of 125. 2 d., when the feasibility of promoting closer union
the price rose. The same thing was true as to Gerbetween the various parts of the Empire by
many and Italy. A committee of the Belgian House means of an imperial customs tariff was the
of Representatives reported in 1891 that when duties main subject considered The next congress were imposed on wheat the price fell. In the Colony took place in Ottawa in 1894. The expressed of Victoria, where there was an export duty of gs. 8d. desire of the colonies was to secure reciprocity a quarter on wheat, bread was cheaper than in New
South Wales, where wheat was admitted duty free. The reason was that the Victorian farmer, being protected against foreign wheat, was able to grow corn with confidence, and he went in for growing it more than he would have done under other circumstances. The history of the Corn Laws in the latter part of the 18th century showed similar results. The abolition of the Corn Laws in 1765 was followed by a rise in wbeat from an average of 335. 3d., to an average of 428. 2d. In 1801 or 1802, when there were practically free imports, the price rose to 1195. 6d. a quarter. Select committees reported, in 1813 and 1814, that the high prices which then existed, when there was virtually free trade, were due to undue dependence on foreign supplies, and they advised that the Com Laws should be re-enacted. In 1835, the price fell to 39s. 4d. under a strict Corn Law. It was generally supposed that Com Laws kept up prices to the limits of free imports, but that was not the case. Free import into England naturally caused a demand of the foreign supplies, and there was a tendency for the foreign supplies to rise. The paper stated that Adam Smith was the father of free trade, and he was ; but the free trade of Adam Smith was very different from the free trade of the present day. Adam Smith argued against monopolies, prohibitions, and high prices, which amounted to a prohibition. It was absolutely against his principles that we should have manufactured articles free; and he said that, if there was free import for manufactured articles, English manufacturers would, to a certain extent, be ruined. Adam Smith never contemplated such changes as had now taken place, and he would never have advocated the free import of corn if he had known that it would have amounted to 1,800 times the amount which he had fixed as the extent to which corn might be imported without damaging the farmer.
quoting in part from the words of Scripture, and adapting them to meet the case, said, “If a nation smites you on one cheek by a protective policy, and you imitate them, and have a protective policy because they have one, you will smite yourself upon the other cheek.” That is just what would happen. If we kept our own markets open we should be open to compete with all the world in every market of the world. It was a mistake to suppose that the price of corn was not increased by an import duty. Of course, in the main, the price went up and down according to the yearly production, independently of the amount of duty. The great controlling influence in price was the amount of production and the demand for the produce. The duty was a percentage added to the market price. Another element in the reduction of the prices of foreign wheat was the reduced cost of transport from the other end of the world. In 1849, when the abolition of the corn duty took effect, there was a fall in the price of wheat equivalent to the exact amount of the duty which was then taken off, namely, 6s. a quarter. In 1850, the price fell further, and, in 1851, it was lower sti TH came the Crimean War, and the price immediately went up. In 1855, it reached 745. 8d. But that rise was independent of any question of duty. The differences between the prices of corn in England, and the prices in France and in Germany were as nearly as possible in correspondence with the amount of the duty of the latter countries. This fact was shown by official figures. Duty was an increase in cost price. It was all nonsense to say that the duty was paid by the foreign importer and not by the consumer. Duties of 5 or 6 or 10 per cent. could not be imposed without the consumer paying them. There were cross currents which tended to affect the exact degree in which the consumer seemed to bear the impost, but fact was that the cost of the duty was borne by consumers living in the country which imposed it.
Mr. J. W. WILLANS said that they had in the paper a political discussion, and he did not know whether the meeting could return to scientific lines. In 1872 and 1873, the whole course of prices was inflated by the Franco-German war, and Scotch pig iron, which had been generally from 50s. to bos. a ton, went up to 105s. or 106s. Cotton, which in 1900 was as low as 4 d., stood at 10/1. in 1873. In the same year, a recognised quality of English wool rose from the normal price of od. or iod. a pound to about 2s. 2d. These high prices were due to the war, and when the war was over there was a great collapse of prices. In 1885 and 1886 there was a Royal Commission on the Depression of Trade ; but when that Commission reported they did not say that the depression was due to foreign tariffs, and the great disadvantage which England suffered in allowing foreign productions to have a free market, while foreign markets were protected against English goods. On the contrary, the Commission said that England had better go on as it was, and keep its markets free, whether other countries kept theirs free or not. Mr. Gladstone,
Mr. L. GASTER, without wishing to discuss the fiscal side of the question, emphasised the fact that in order to enhance the welfare of the working classes and the industrial development of this country, it was .very essential that more encouragement should be given to the free development of the individual effort
the workmen, and not to hamper them by the limitation of the day's work or the restriction of out
In order to reduce the cost of labour more liberal employment should be made of automatic machinery and the adaptation of more perfect and newer methods of production, and where possible a greater use should be made of the now unutilised by. products, as, for instance, the blast furnace gases, &c., which would contribute to reduce the cost of many manufactures. If in some of the trades a home demand were created, bigger than we are prepared to supply at present, advantage should be taken of the experience gained by the other nations in
these trades, and he believed that a harmonious home buyer would go down to the docks to meet the co-operation of the foreign experience in these foreign merchant, and would put to him this plain trades, with British capital and labour, would question, “What is the price of your wheat with the be beneficial to the development of these industries duty, and what is the price without the duty ?" He in this country, avoiding to a large extent the im. was sure that the price, without the duty, would be portation of those goods at present manufactured exactly as. less than the price with the duty. Of abroad.
course the dealer would not pay the duty out of his
own pocket, but would get it back ultimately from the The CHAIRMAN moved a vote of thanks to Sir
That seemed to be the common sense of William Preece for his paper, coupling with it an
the question, and there was no necessity to reason the expression of sympathy with Sir William in the matter out at great length. Some of the discussions illness which prevented bis being present at the meet
to the possible incidence of the duty upon ing. He did not think that he could agree generally the foreign taxpayer, really involved most diffi
cult questions with Sir William in wbat he had written, but it
and of statistical
economical would not become bim as the chairman to criticise the reasoning, and they belonged to the category paper. But he believed, emphatically that, as the
of history. If we wanted to study not merely writer had said, they must not ascribe the prosperity
the immediate effect, but the ultimate effect, of any or adversity of a country entirely to its fiscal policy.
particular economic measures which we adopted, Nothing could be more ridiculous then to take such a
whether for increasing the cost of production or for view. Prosperity was due to industry, to inventions diminishing it, and to trace the various indirect effects of all kinds, and to the diminution in the cost of pro
of the action which we took, the investigation in which duction and other matters of the same class, for
we engaged for the purpose would be a very interesting which we were indebted to men of science. The
one, but it would be no part of practical business. scientific man was the enemy of the protectionist by
The practical business man certainly tried to get the helping to reduce the cost of production, and, when
duty out of the person to whom he sold the articles the people were deriving benefit from that cause, the
on which the duty was imposed. politician came along and said, “ You shall not enjoy this benefit, and you shall be charged so much
The vote of thanks was carried unanimously. more for the goods you buy." There was an impression that the trade of this country had been injured by the tariffs of foreign countries. It was true that those tariffs had done our trade some harm, but they had done
Miscellaneous. more harm to the countries which had imposed them. No protectionist country was out and out protectionist, and no tariff that had ever been devised could
THE AUSTRIAN COTTON INDUSTRY. keep English goods altogether out, for every country Owing to the prevailing uncertainty and appremust admit those goods for its own purposes. It hensions of a tariff separation between Austria and would be found, for instance, that half the goods which Hungary, the Hungarian market, upon which the went into the United States, the leading protectionist Austrian cotton mills greatly depend, continues in a nation, went in free of duty. It was very im. very bad condition. Hungary had, up to a few years portant to remember this fact. In other cases where ago, no textile industry of its own, and it has been foreign countries imposed duties, the duties were supplied almost entirely by the Austrian manufacoften not protective but were analogous to such turers. The bulk of the cotton used in Austria is duties as we ourselves had on tea-revenue duties. imported from the United States, while only a small It was not the case, therefore, that the trade
percentage of East Indian and Egyptian cotton finds of this country was being destroyed by the tariff a way to the Austrian market. During 1902 the walls which other countries set up against them. total consumption of cotton in Austria amounted to If foreign countries chose to establish a tariff to 318,644,000 pounds, of which fully 220,460,000 tax articles which their people must have, that was pounds were American. The cotton is shipped their affair. The goods must go in. The tariffs might, from the United States to Bremen or Hamburg, perhaps, be inconvenient, but they were no worse and thence forwarded by rail, or on the River Elbe, than the duty which England imposed upon tea to its destination. No cotton is grown in Austria, for the purpose of the revenue. That duty
all attempts to cultivate it, including recent experiwas practically 100 per cent., but it did not ments in Hungary, having signally failed. As exclude the article. England had a much better regards the cotton mills, Bohemia, according to
prospect for its foreign trade than some people led Consul Watts, counts the greatest number of
us to suppose. With regard to what Sir Guilford Molesworth had said, he would remark that the country which put on a duty could not expect that the consumers would escape from paying it. Suppose that a 25. duty was put on wheat to-morrow, the
spindles, so that the largest portion of cotton imported remains in Bohemia. The mills manufacture chiefly the coarser number of yarns. The official returns for 1902 give the following number of spindles in operation :- Bohemia, 1,750,000 ; total
for Austria-Hungary, 3,128,000. The import and export of yarns is comparatively of little importance, excepting of the finest numbers, which are regularly imported. The weaving establishments turn out ordinary calicoes, jacquard, and fancy tissues, and other coloured goods, which are fully up to the modern standard. The number of looms is about 110,000, of which about one-half are in Bohemia. Respecting the finishing industry, the bleaching and laundry establishments, and in connection therewith the shirt and collar factories, are in a state of great efficiency, and the last-named industry is extending its trade into all parts of the world. Dyeing and printing works are also fitted up with modern appliances, and if the export of their goods is not of any importance it is due to the unfavourable tariffs, which increase the cost of dyeing material, &c. The number of printing machines in operation is estimated at about 150, of which about one-half are in Bohemfa. The daily working hours vary between ten and a-balf and eleven and a half. Some of the printing establishments in Eastern Bohemia run their works day and night. Wages paid to regular hands in the cotton mills vary from 2s. 6d. to 45. 3d. per day. The wages of weavers are comparatively less ; even in districts where the highest wages are paid they will hardly earn 2s. 6d. per day, while in the calico establishments in Eastern Bohemia they get scarcely more than is. 8d. per day. Of course, in cases where a weaver serves four looms, or where particularly skilled hands are required—as for instance for Jacquard looms, &c. – the pay is considerably higher.
Nos. 2793-England, south coast ; Cowes harbour. 2076-Scotland, north coast ; Loch Eriboll. 3158— Norway; Nevlunghavn to Torbiornskier. 3159– Norway; Torbiornskier to Jælöen. 3160-Norway, Torbiornskier to Rauö. 2298- Baltic sea, Gulf of Bothnia ; Nystad light to Stor färd, 2299 -Baltic, Gulf of Bothnia ; Hornslandet to Stiernö point. 2368 — Germany, north coast; Jershöft light to Rixböft light. 201 - Adriatic sea; the coasts of the Gulfs of Venice and Trieste. 1986–Gulf and River St. Lawrence; Buctouche river. 2892-East coast of United States ; Narragansett Bay. 1325– Chile; Gulf of Penas to the Guaytecas Islands. 2248-British Columbia ; Haro Strait and Middle channel. 584–British Columbia; Clayoquot and Barkley Sounds. 20—Persian Gulf; Bahrein Harbour. 1750-Australia, south coast ; Port Adelaide. 1070-Australia, east coast; Port Stephens. 214– Solomon Islands.
These charts are issued by Mr. J. D. Potter, 145, Minories.
ADMIRALTY CHARTS. The following is the official list of charts issued by the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty, in September and October last :
New Charts.- No. 2167—Scotland, north coast ; Firth of Cromarty. 1596—Harbours and anchorages on the coast of Italy; Salerno bay ; Port Salerno; Port Torre del Greco; Port of Naples. 168;—Sicily; Messina harbour. 3351—Greece, south coast; Port Skutari. 3379- Mexico, south-west coast; Pichilinque harbour. 3380—Persian gulf; Bahrein barbour. 3349–China sea; approach to Kwang chau wan. 3280—China, east coast; Hongkong waters, west. 3294–China ; Yang tse Kiang. Hupeh province :-Hankau. 3378—China, north coast; Rocky point to Temple head. 3352—Tasmania, west coast. Port Davey :-Bramble and schooner coves.
3322—South America, north-east coast ; Orinoco river; plan added :-Cano Imataca (Rio Corosimo).
Charts that have received additions or corrections too large to be conveniently inserted by hand, and in most cases other than those referred to in the Admiralty Notices to Mariners :
THE GERJAN TOY INDUSTRY. The manufacture of toys in Germany is an industry which gives employment to fully 50,000 people. The total value of the annual exports amounts to £2,640,000. The prosperity of the industry, like a great many other important branches of manufacture in the German Empire, is dependent upon the importation of certain raw materials, such as lead, coloured glass, rubber, nickel, porcelain, hair lace, tin, leather, &c., from abroad. Many of the articles used are produced in Germany, while others are imported in part or entirely from foreign countries. The manufacture of toys in Germany has been centred chiefly in the cities of Nuremberg and Sonneberg, while many domestic branches of manufacture which are mainly associated with the industry, have sprung up in the surrounding country hamlets. These two cities have become famed for the quantity of their products, and the important place which they hold in the commerce of the world to-day, is due chiefly to the fact
hat they supply fully 80 per cent. of all the toys exported from the Empire. According to Consul Harris, of Eibenstock, the manufacture of toys has become important as a domestic or house industry among the people in the little principality of Meiningen, and the small villages in the country about Sonneberg contain many skilled wood carvers and cabinetmakers. In the vilfage of Hämmern, toy ships, large and small, are carved by persons who have never seen a sea or a navigable river. Judenbach and Neuenbau furnish pictures, mirror frames, and fancy boxes. Eisfeld has two factories which make hobby horses. Schalkau and Ehnes produce wooden guns of every size and variety, while in Mengersgereuth, Schichbsböhn, Fichtoch, and Effeldere such playthings as rattles, waggons, trum
pets, whistles, and toy animals are manufactured in interest, as not only is it a presentation copy from the large quantities. The making of doll's clothing is author to his friend Lancelot Browne, but it also conconfined chiefly to Sonneberg and is almost entirely tains a correction of one of the diagrams and a long the work of women and girls. Carnival masks are note on the back of another diagram in the handwriting prepared in Heinersdorf, while animals and fowls are of the author. The inscription on the title page in fitted up with furs and feathers in the little village of Gilbert's autograph is rather difficult to decipher, but Neufang. These country villages are clustered about appears to be as follows :—“Sum Lanceloti Bruni Sonneberg and form one of the chief supports to the Medici Reg mei ex dono authoris, 1600 Aprilis 6o." more highly developed industries in that city. The Dr. Browne, the latinised form of whose name appears Sonneberg toy industry consists in the main of papier in this inscription, succeeded Gilbert as President of maché goods, which are gradually pushing wax the Royal College of Physieians in 1603; he was at dolls out of the market. This is due in part to the the date of the publication Physician to Queen Elizadifficulty of producing a wax doll which is not fragile beth. A medical certificate, addressed to Sir Francis in structure and sensitive to touch and climate. Walsingham by Dr. Gylberde (sic) and Lancelot Sonneberg produces dolls of almost every imaginable Browne, discovered by Dr. Silvanus Thompson in the variety. They cost from sixpence a dozen to fifteen Public Record Office, is printed in the Journal for shillings each. There are more than 30,000 people April ith, 1902 (see vol. 1., p. 487). There is a preengaged in making toys in Sonneberg and in the sentation copy of the book to Thomas Langton, in villages of the Thuringian forest, while fully 75 per the library of the Royal Institution, which is also cent. of this number work in their own homes. The dated April 6th. main difference between the industry of Sonneberg and that of Nuremberg lies in the fact that the former consists principally of the manufacture of hand-made toys supported by a highly developed house or
WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF RUBBER. domestic industry, while the latter manufactures toys with machinery, in factories équipped with all modem
The following table showing the World's proappliances. Another marked difference between the
duction of rubber in 1902, with comparative figures two industries is that the products of Nuremberg are
for 1900, taken from the Board of Trade Journal, principally of metal-tin soldiers, swords, railway
has been compiled from estimates published in trains, Aeets, models of machinery and other toys
“ Industrie et Commerce de Caoutchouc":intended for boys, while Sonneberg uses almost exclusively wood, porcelain, glass and paper in the
Quantity Produced. production of toys best suited to girls. During the past
Country of Production. seven years the home demand for German toys has been on the increase. The German trade generally speaking calls for toys of the cheaper sort, and the stores
Tons. Tons. which have been established in many of the large Brazil, Peru and Bolivia
25,000 cities during the past few years, buy large quantities
Other States of South America .. of them for advertising purposes.
3,500 1,000 The future
Central America and Mexico prosperity of the industry will depend very largely
2,500 upon the ability of German statesmen to secure
Straits Settlements and Depen.
dencies favourable commercial treaties and foreign countries.
East and West Africa and the In the present commercial treaty, negotiations with
24,000 Switzerland and Russia, toys are playing an important
20,000 Java, Borneo, &c.
Madagascar and Mauritius
1,000 India, Burma, and Ceylon
WILLIAM GILBERT"S AUTOGRAPH. At a meeting of the Society of Electrical Engineers on Thursday, 1oth inst., in commemoration of the tercentenary of Dr. William Gilbert's death, a picture representing “the father of electricity” in the act of showing his electrical experiments to Queen Elizabeth and her Court, was presented to the borough of Col. chester, in which place Gilbert was born in 1544. At this meeting, Dr. Silvanus Thompson, F.R.S., exhibited the copy of the first edition of Gilbert's great work, entitled “De Magnete," 1600, which is in the possession of the Society of Arts. This is of peculiar