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Hurl'd headlong flaming from th'ethereal sky, 45
With hideous ruin and combustion, down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In adamantin chains and penal fire,
Who durst defy th’Omnipotent to arms.
Nine times the space that measures day and night 50
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew
Lay vanquish’d, rolling in the fiery gulf,
Confounded though immortal: But his doom
Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought

Both

45. Hurld headlong flaming from 48. In adamantin cbains ] Æschy:

th' ethereal sky,] Hom. Iliad. lus Prometh. 6. J. 591.

Αδαμανλιναις σιδησιν. . “Pψε, σοδα τέήαγων, απο βηλε DecoTEO 1010.

50. Nine times. &c.] The nine

days aftonishment, in which the Hurl'd headlong downward from Angels lay intranced after their th'ethereal height. Pope,

dreadful overthrow and fall from

Heaven, before they could recover 46. With bideous ruin and com- either the use of thought or speech,

buftion,] Ruin is deriv'd from is a noble circumstance, and very ruo, and includes the idea of fal- finely imagined. "The divifion of ling with violence and precipita. Hell into seas of fire, and into tion, and combustion is more than firm ground impregnant with the flaming in the foregoing verse, it is same furious element, with that burning in a dreadful manner. So particular circumstance of the 'exthat he was not only burl'd head. clufion of hope from those infernal long flaming, but he was hurl'd regions, are instances of the fame headlong flaming with bideous ruin great and fruitful invention. and combustion ; and what occasion

Addison is there then for reading with 63. darkness visible] Milton Dr. Bentley confusion inftead of com- seems to have used these words to buftion?

fignify gloom : Abfolute darkness

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Both of lost happiness and lasting pain

55 Torments him; round he throws his baleful eyes, That witness’d huge affliction and dismay Mix'd with obdurate pride and stedfast hate : At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild;

60 A dungeon horrible on all sides round As one great furnace fam'd, yet from those flames No light, but rather darkness visible Serv'd only to discover fights of woe,

Regions

iş ftri&ly speaking invisible ; but “ where some dismal tapers afwhere there is a gloom only, there forded just light enough to see is so much light remaining as “the obscurity." See his Eftay ferves to show that there are ob- on Epic Poetry, p. 44. Euripides jects, and yet that those objects too expresses himself in the same cannot be distinctly feen: In this poetical manner. Bac. 510. fense Milton seems to use the strong and bold expresion, darkness visible. W6QY OMOTION HOOPOS XVeqas.

Pearce.

There is much the fame image in Seneca has a like expreffion, speak- Spenser, but not fo bold, Fairy ing of the Grotta of Paulilypo, Queen, B. 1. Cant. 1. St. 14. Senec. Epist. LVII. Nihil illo carcere longius, nihil illis faucibus ob A little glooming light, much like fcurius, quæ nobis præftant, non ut a shade. per tenebras videamus, fed ut ipfas. Or after all, the author might perAnd, as Monf. Voltaire observes, Antonio de Solis, in his excellent haps take the hint from himself in

his Il Penseroso, History of Mexico hath ventur'd on the same thought, when speak. Where glowing embers through ing of the place wherein Monte

the room zuma was wont to consult his Teach light to counterfeita Deities; “ 'Twas a large dark gloom. “ fubterraneous vault, lays he,

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72. In

Regions of forrow, doleful shades, where peace 65
And reft can never dwell, hope never comes ;7:
That comes to all;n but torture without end -
Still urges, and a fiery deluge, 'fed
With ever-burning sulphur unconsum'd:
Such place eternal Justice had prepar'd.. 70
For those rebellious, here their pris’on ordain'd
In utter darkness, and their portion set
As far remov'd from God and light of Heaven,
As from the center thrice to th' utmost pole.

O

.

Tbyer.

72. In utter darkness, į Dr. Bent Till to the bridge's utter gate I ley reads outer here and in many came. other places of this poem, because it is in Scripture, το σκοτ- το εξ. 74. As from the center thrice to mtepov : But my dictionaries tell

th' utmost pole.] Thrice as far me that utter and outer are both as it is from the center of the the fame word, differently spellid earth (which is the center of the and pronounc'd. Milton, in the world according to Milton's system, argument of this book, says in a IX. 103. and X. 671.) to the pole place of utter darkness, and no where of the world; for it is the pole of throughout the poem does the poet the universe, far beyond the pole use outer.

Pearce. of the earth, which is here calld Spenser justifies the present read that Homer makes the seat of

the utmost pole. It is observable ing by frequently using the word Hell as far beneath the deepest utter for outer, as in Fairy Queen, pit of earth, as the Heaven is B. 2. Cant, 2. St. 34.

above the earth, And inly grieve, as doth an hidden

Τοσσον ενερθ' αϊδεων, όσον κegν, The inner garment fret, not th’ut

ss' amo yarns. Iliad. VIII. 16.

Virgil makes it twice as far, And again, B. 4. Cant. 1o. St. 11.

Tum Tartarus ipfe

* moth

Puter touch.

O how unlike the place from whence they fell ! . -75
There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and welt'ring by his side
One next himself in pow'r, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd 80
Beëlzebub. To whom th’ Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid filence thus began.
If thou beeft he; but O how fall’n! how chang'd

From

1

11

Bis patet in præceps tantum ten- ferrea turris, and horrifono ftridentes ditque sub umbras,

cardine porta of Virgil, in compaQuantus ad æthereum cæli fufpe- rison with this description by Miletus Olympum. Æn. VI. 577. ton, concluding with that artful

contrast, And Milton thrice as far,

O how unlike the place from As far remov'd from God and

-whence they fell ! light of Heaven, As from the center thrice to th’ut 81. Beelzebub.] The lord of fies, most pole :

an idol worshipped at Ecron, a

city of the Philistines, 2 Kings I. 2. As if these three great poets had He is called prince of the Devils, fretched their utmoft genius, and Mat. XII. 24. therefore deservedly vied with cach other, who should here made fecond to Satan himself. extend his idea of the depth of

Hume. Hell fartheft. But Milton's whole

82. And thence in Heav'n calld description of Hell as much exceeds theirs, as in this fingle cir; in Hebrew fignifies an enemy: he

Satan, ] For the word Satan cumstance of the depth of it. And is the enemy by way of eminence, how cool and unaffecting is the the chief enemy of God and Man. ταρταρον Μερσενία, the σιδηραι

84. If thou beeft be; &c.] The Homer, and the lugentes campi, the thoughts in the first speech and

de

85

From him, who in the happy realms of light
Cloth'd with transcendent brightness didst outshine. I
Myriads though bright! If he whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
And hazard in the glorious enterprise,
Join'd with me once, now misery hath join’d

90 In equal ru’in: into what pit thou feeft

From

the poem.

description of Satan, who is one whom he speaks, and goes on to of the principal actors in this declare his proud unrelenting mind. poem, are wonderfully proper to

Richardfon. give us a full idea of him. His pride envy and revenge, obstinacy 84. — but o how falln! bow despair and impenitence, are all of chang’d them very artfully interwoven. In

From him,] He imitates Isaiah fort, his firft speech is a compli- and Virgil at the same time. Ifa. cation of all those pasions, which XIV. 12. How art thou fallen, &c. discover themselves separately in and Virgil's Æn. II. 274. several other of his speeches in Hei mihi qualis erat! quantum

Addison

mutatus ab illo ! The change and confusion of these

86. Cloth'd with transcendent enemies of God is most artfully express'd in the abruptness of the be

brightness didst outshine ginning of this speech : If thou art from Homer, Ody.VI. 110. where

Myriads though bright!) Imitated ħe, that Beelzebub - He stops, Diana excels all her nymphs in and falls into a bitter reflection on beauty, though all of them be their present condition, compared beautiful. with that in which they lately were. He attempts again to open 'Peta Midergrøtn TEAST, maadh his mind; cannot proceed on what

δε τε πασαι. .

Bentley. he intends to say, but returns to those fad thoughts; still doubting 91. In equal ruin:] So it is in all the whether 'tis really his associate in editions. And equal ruir is Dr. Bentthe revolt, as now in misery and ley's emendation, which Dr. Pearce ruin; by that time he had expa- allows (and I believe every body tiated on this (his heart was op- muft allow) to be just and proper ; pressd with it) he is assured to it being very easy to mistake one of

these

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