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plete without an explanation of significant social movements such as socialism, syndicalism, and feminism, that have profoundly influenced the ideals and lives of millions in every country. Therefore I have devoted considerable space to explain these movements.

Obviously the history of the World War cannot be written now. In my chapter on the War, I have merely described in brief general outline important campaigns without giving statistical details.

This book is based in part on original sources, but mainly on a wide and careful reading of many excellent books in the field, both general and special, and on a fair degree of familiarity gained from an affectionate study of the literature and art of modern and contemporary Europe.


June, 1918



THE teachers of history in America owe a great debt of gratitude to Professor James Harvey Robinson, of Columbia University, chief protagonist and brilliant interpreter of the New History. In his History of Western Europe, Professor Robinson produced a history textbook that is at the same time a work of original scholarship. This volume was the first of its kind to give coherence and viewpoint to complex historical material and to emphasize social and cultural elements. After Professor Robinson, no one may now write an old-style textbook, a compendium of dry facts, mainly political and military, hastily put together by hack writer or tired historian. The author of this book is proud and glad to acknowledge indebtedness to Professor Robinson, under whose suggestive guidance he began his graduate studies in history.

The author also gratefully acknowledges his debt to Professor James T. Shotwell, of Columbia University, his former teacher and the editor of this volume, whose wide range of scholarship has been at his ready disposal and whose fertile suggestions have greatly assisted him in preparing the book. Several specialists have rendered signal service in reading chapters that fall within their fields. The author, therefore, desires to express gratitude to Mr. George Louis Beer, who read the chapters on the British Empire and the Expansion of Europe; to his colleagues, Professor Stephen P. Duggan, who read the chapter on the Near Eastern Question; Mr. Alfonso Arbib-Costa, who read the chapters on Italy; Professor Joseph Vincent Crowne, who read the chapter on Ireland; and Professor Felix Grendon, who read the sections on English literature; to Professor Carlton H. J. Hayes, of Columbia University, who read the chapter on the World War; and to Mr. William English Walling, who read the chapters on Russia.

The author is deeply grateful to his colleague, Dr. Austin Baxter Keep, whose sense for the right word and correct expression has been manifest in his painstaking reading of page proofs. Above all, he wishes to acknowledge his debt to his dear friend, Mr. Jacob J. Shufro, who spent many weary hours revising the manuscript and reading the galley proofs. Whatever value the book may possess in clarity of expression is in no small degree due to the help of Mr. Shufro.

Nor can the author conclude without a word of tribute to the high scholarship and character of his valued teacher, Henry Phelps Johnston, now Emeritus Professor of History in The College of the City of New York, who graciously welcomed him as his colleague.

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