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precept and example the baleful sort, only the collapse of de-
the murderess of Marius PlaThe worst crime of the de- teau, a gallant soldier, would mocracy, clearly demonstrated by this time be a legislator. in the French elections, is that M. Caillaux alone is excluded. it willingly chooses the traitor Though he escaped from proin preference to the hero. By secution with his life, he is not what impulse of the crowd yet permitted to visit Paris, this crime is forced upon a or to take part in the governstupid electorate—and all elec- ment of the country which torates are stupid—we do not he has dishonoured.
he has dishonoured. He has know. We do know that not been prevented from using France, having rejected the his influence in his own departgreat soldier, General de Castel- ment to return his chosen nau, has sent M. Malvy to the candidates to Parliament. M. Palais Bourbon. Now M. Malvy Caillaux is, indeed, a far greater has but recently returned to enemy to France than any France after five years of ban- other Frenchman. Whatever ishment, a sentence inflicted he does seems to be forgiven upon him for treason. While or forgotten by those of his his brave fellow - countrymen countrymen who think with were dying on the field of him. His spokesmen are in battle for the honour and safety the Chamber which as yet he of France, he was doing his cannot enter.
cannot enter. But some day best to aid the enemy. And
And the privilege will be given he is now not only free to go him, and then the fortune of and come as he chooses ; he Germany will be made. Mean. is a highly paid member of a while it seems clear that, though popular Chamber, and is once hostile leaders may express more in a position to do his their just indignation, the country an injury. It is diff. electors of France cling, as cult to explain this gross ex- by habit, to the malefactors ample of cynicism or short who have won their respect. memory. We can see in it, and There was once a deputy, M. other examples of the same Wilson by name, the son-in
law of President Grèvy, who, then the only security possible being involved in the scandal against revolution and conof his father-in-law, was still fiscation is that the weakness returned to the Chamber with of the ministry should keep it the acclamations of his con- out of mischief. In Sweden, stituents. Nothing availed to we believe, the problem was dislodge him. The Chamber for many years solved by a sent him to coventry. On the simpler method. The Socialoccasions when the deputies ists were in a majority, and, met at Versailles and break- conscious of their own incapafasted at the celebrated Reser- city to govern or to adminisvoirs, M. Wilson was forced to trate, left the responsibilities sit apart, a solitary man; of office to the Conservatives. nobody had a word to throw Not much harm was done. The at him, and at election after king's Government was decently election the town of Loches carried on, and the Conservaset him at the head of the poll. tives, knowing themselves tenNow that M. Malvy, a far ants and not freeholders, abworse miscreant than M. Wilson, stained cheerfully, according to is returned to Parliament, their wont, from the superwill he too be outlawed by fluous business of legislation. his fellows ? We fear not. In France, we fear, this good The judgments of men are example will not be followed ; easier now than they were but, though she may go through twenty years ago, and it is a period of unsettled governthe habit of democracies to ment, her Radical Socialists forgive all but the honest will not be strong enough to patriot.
do much harm; and there can However, there is one ray of be little sting in the tail of hope for France in her sad twenty-nine Communists. election. The Left Bloc, the Radical Socialists and Radicals, It is pleasant to turn from who, having a majority, may the confusion of politics to a be in office, will not be in power. book that is so remote from The situation, briefly, differs the present as the late Mr A. H. not very much from our own. Bullen’s ‘Elizabethans' (Lon. Mr Ramsay MacDonald is not don : Chapman and Hall). The in power, though he holds book is remote from the present office, and, fortunately for us, of most of us ; it was not cannot give full expression to remote from the present of his opinions. MM. Briand and A. H. Bullen. Bullen, indeed, Herriot, should they be asked was an Elizabethan born out to form a government, will be of due date. He moved most compelled for lack of strength to easily among the men of the accommodate their critics. If sixteenth century. They were a Socialist ministry be a neces- his intimates and friends. He sity in a wise and old country understood their speech as famlike France (or like England), iliarly as he knew their minds.
As Mr Masefield once said, you have added a name to the “He talked of Elizabethan roll of English poets, and one books and people much as that can never be overlooked. though they were alive in the certainly his long - neglected streets outside, like the time ghost ought now to be rejoiccome back.” For him the time ing in Elysium.” If Campion's had not come back : it was ghost rejoiced, Bullen characalways there ; and by a natural teristically uttered a note of sympathy he lived where the warning. He presently foresaw Elizabethans themselves would that Campion, lately recovered, have (and had) been at home. “now ran the risk of uncritical It was Stratford which shel- adulation," and he thought it tered him, in the heart of right that he, his only begetter, Shakespeare's own country ; should thus moderate the enand Bullen had not far to go thusiasm of his readers. Moderif he would encounter the ation is, indeed, the mark of shades of Shakespeare and all Bullen's criticism. He was Drayton and other unforgotten too sound a scholar, he knew worthies of Warwickshire. And too well the drudgery of makwhen he visited London, in- ing a fair text, to lose himself frequently, it was natural that in a mist of vague admiration. he should take up his abode He gathers together the few in Southwark, which might facts that can be found of remind him at once of Chau- Campion's life and character, cer's pilgrims and of Shake- and then lets him speak for speare's theatre. Nor was there himself. He was a physician ; the slightest suspicion of pose he wrote a volume of Latin in this choice of abode. Bullen verse, a treatise on versificawas incapable of pose or affec- tion, in which he condemns tation, and he visited South- the practise of rhyming, which wark not as a curious tourist, he had always followed, and indulging a whim, but as a an essay on counterpoint. For ue Elizabethan, who could the rest, says
the rest, says Bullen, he “tells not be asked to care for a in one of his epigrams that he London which had grown up was lean, and that he envied after his time.
fat men; he tells us, too, the He writes of the Elizabethans names of a few of his friends." out of the fulness of knowledge Though his fame stood high in and sympathy. Thomas Cam- his own time, “his poetry was pion, one of the poets cele- quickly forgotten, being hidden brated in this admirable book, away in music-books that no- . he brought back from oblivion. body opened.”
body opened.” Thus writes “I must congratulate you as Bullen, and he praises especially cordially as I thank you," Campion's sureness of touch wrote Swinburne to Bullen and variety. . Whatever he when he had completed his essayed,” 80
essayed,” 80 he brings his discovery. “In issuing this
“In issuing this chapter to an end, “he did first edition of Campion's works, well :
well: he always found the
true inevitable words, whether forgotten them. The rest of for a love-song or a hymn. his portraits are of ElizaHe was at once a born singer bethans whose names are and a consummate artist.” familiar to us all-Drayton
Another of Bullen's dis- and Daniel, Chapman and Dekcoveries is William Bullein, ker. For Drayton, Bullen has, of whose kin he was, and of course, a kindly feeling. He whom, as in duty bound, he was not merely an Elizabethan; brought back to the knowledge he was also a poet, and a Warof men. Like Campion, Bullein wickshire man. He knew the was a doctor, and, unlike Cam- country round about Stratford pion, he practised his craft, and as well as Bullen knew it, and wrote treatises about it. The he was filled with the patriotGovernment of Health' is ism which became his time and among his works, and far less place. None has celebrated commonplace, in title at any more eloquently than he the rate, is ‘Bulleyn's Bulwarke glory of England. For him of Defence against all Sick. St Crispin's Day is as gallant ness, Soreness, and Woundes an occasion as it is for Shakethat doe daily assault Man- speare. And Bullen, with his kinde.' But his masterpiece, sure judgment, picks out for set forth by Bullen with many his approval the familiar epistles quotations, is entitled 'A Dia which Drayton wrote to his logue both pleasaunte and pitie - friends, which recall the ease full, wherein is a goodly regi- of Horace and foreshadow the mente against the fever Pesti- elegance of Pope. How shall we lence with a consolacion and ever forget the tribute ho pays, comfort against death. Newly in his epistle to Henry Reynolds, corrected by William Bullein, to Christopher Marlowe the autour thereof' (1564). The
“ Marlowe, bathed in the Thespian book is a dialogue, or rather a
springs, series of dialogues, and it opens Had in him those brave translunary in a London citizen's house. things Its prose is as clear and sonor
That the first Poets had ; his raptures ous as its sense of drama is
All air and fire, which made his verses vivid. The north - country clear ; beggar, the citizen and his For that fine madness still he did
retain wife, the doctor, speak, one
Which rightly should possess a Poet's and all, their own authentic
brain?" language. And Bullen cites just enough of it to make us Drayton fell out of fashwish that the whole work were ion. Pope dismissed him scorneasily accessible in a fair reprint. fully and ungratefully, since
Campion and Bullein were he had surely read his epistles, for Bullen brilliant recoveries. as “a mediocre poet"; and He brought them back from Horace Walpole, when Mason the dead to a world which had offered him a portrait of DrayVOL. COXV.NO. MOCCIV.
ton for five guineas, said that Learning's praise will live as he did not think “all Drayton long as Learning is respected." ever wrote worth five guineas. But much as Bullen likes Daniel, Nor, as Bullen admits, is he to it is Dekker who is nearest to the taste of to-day. If he is his mind and heart. And this known at all, it is by his ballad preference is easily intelligible. of Agincourt and by his famous Dekker was a true Elizabethan, sonnet: "
'Since ther's no helpe, who could turn his hand to come let us kiss and part.' anything. Prose or poetry, “The reason may be,” says dramas or satires, were all Bullen, “that the world grows within his compass, and he older and life more sombre; fought for a living with his the gospel of Science is spread- pen as a soldier of fortune ing, the revels of Oberon have fights with his sword. If he long been broken up, and not were unfortunate, he could bear the Sicily of Theocritus is his sufferings like a man, and, more remoto from us than the as Bullen says, “by no poet London of Shakespeare." Yet and no divine has the worth Bullen was Drayton's faithful of patience been so touchingly follower to the end ; he at least described as in this thriceheld his memory dear, and has noble utterance of Dekker :amply repaid the debt he owes him by a delicate appreciation. "Patience, my lord: why, 'tis the soul
Bullen, indeed, had a deft of all the virtues 'tis nearest kin to hand at the lapidary style. heaven, He knew how to explain, in a It makes men look like gods. The best
of men few lines, the virtues of the That e'er wore earth about him was a poets whom he chose for his
sufferer, own and criticised. Admirable A soft, meek, patient, humble, tranis his summing up of the qual. The first true gentleman that ever
quil spirit, ities which make Samuel Daniel
breathed.'» memorable. “Few men,” said Bullen, “ever cultivated litera- Thus Bullen, with a well-balture with the frank whole- anced judgment, defines the hearted devotion of Samuel qualities and the limitations Daniel-literature for its own of Dekker. He is not blind sake, and not for what it may to his faults, and he would bring of advantage or reward. not have him other than he He was impressed by the dig was. With the sympathy which nity of his high calling; he
he comes of understanding, he knew that a perfect poem out- has composed the best porlives the downfall of dynasties, trait of him that we know. and he longed to be numbered But in portraiture, as in critiwith those who have spoken cism, Bullen never fails us, things worthy of Apollo. His and wherever you turn in his ‘Civil Wars' and his Senecan book you will find either a tragedies may be forgotten, luminous judgment or a piece but his eloquent poems in of genuine discovery.