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qualify them for the Service of Parochial Cures; as they shall become vacant. It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure, that not only these Seminaries, but all other Religious Communities, so long as the same shall continue, be subject to visitation by You Our Governor, or such other Person, or Persons, as you shall appoint for that purpose, and also subject to such Rules and Regulations, as you shall, with the Advice and Consent of Our Council, think fit to establish and appoint.

Twelthly, It is also Our Will and Pleasure, that all other Religious Seminaries and Communities (that of the Jesuits only excepted) do for the present and until We can be more fully informed of the true State of them, and how far they are, or are not, essential to the free exercise of the Religion of the Church of Rome, as allowed within Our said Province, remain upon their present Establishment; but you are not to allow the admission of any new Members into any of the said Societies or Communities, the Religious Communities of Women only excepted, without our express orders for that purpose. That the Society of Jesuits be suppressed and dissolved, and no longer continued, as a Body corporate and politic, and all their Rights, Possessions and Property shall be vested in Us for such purposes, as We may hereafter think fit to direct and appoint; but We think fit to declare Our Royal Intention to be, that the present Members of the said Society, as established in Quebec shall be allowed sufficient stipends and Provisions during their natural Lives;-That all Missionaries amongst the Indians, whether established under the Authority of, or appointed by the Jesuits, or by any other ecclesiastical Authority of the Romish Church, be withdrawn by degrees, and at such times and in such manner, as shall be satisfactory to the said Indians, and consistent with the Public Safety; and Protestant Missionaries appointed in their places; That all ecclesiastical Persons whatsoever, of the Church of Rome, be inhibited, upon the Pain of Deprivation, from influencing any Person in the making a Will, from inveigling Protestants to become Papists, or from tampering with them in matter of Religion, and that the Romish Priests be forbid to inveigh in their Sermons against the Religion of the Church of England, or to marry, baptize, or visit the sick, or bury any of Our Protestant Subjects, if a Protestant Minister be upon the Spot.

22. You are at all times and upon all occasions to give every Countenance and Protection in your Power to such Protestant Ministers, and School Masters, as are already established within Our said Province, or may hereafter be sent thither, to take care, that such Stipends and Allowances, as We may think fit to appoint for them, be duly paid; that the Churches already appropriated, or which may hereafter be appropriated to the use of Divine Worship according to the Rites of the Church of England, as by Law established, be well and orderly kept; and, as the Number of Protestants shall, by God's blessing, increase, to lay out new Parishes in convenient Situations, and set apart and appropriate proper Districts of Land therein for the Scite of Churches, and Parsonage Houses, and for Glebes for the Ministers and Schoolmasters.

30. The Extension of the Limits of the Province of Quebec necessarily calls forth your Attention to a Variety of new Matter and new Objects of Consideration; The protection and control of the various Settlements of Canadian Subjects, and the regulation of the Peltry Trade in the upper or interior Country on the one hand, and the protection of the Fisheries in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and on the Labrador Coast on the other hand, point to Regulations, that require deliberation and despatch.

31. The institution of inferior Judicatures with limited Jurisdiction in Criminal and Civil Matters for the Illinois, Poste St. Vincenne, the Detroit, Missilimakinac, and Gaspée has been already pointed out, and the Appointment of a Superintendant at each of these Posts is all, that is further necessary for their Civil concerns; But it will be highly proper that the Limits of each of those Posts, and of every other in the interior Country should be fixed and ascertained; and that no Settlement be al

lowed beyond those Limits; seeing that such Settlements must have the consequence to disgust the Savages; to excite their Enmity; and at length totally destroy the Peltry Trade, which ought to be cherished and encouraged by every means in your Power.

32. It is Our Royal Intention, that the Peltry Trade of the interior Country should be free and open to all Our Subjects, Inhabitants of any of Our Colonies, who shall, pursuant to what was directed by Our Royal Proclamation of 1763, obtain Licences from the Governors of any of Our said Colonies for that purpose, under Penalties to observe such Regulations, as shall be made by Our Legislature of Quebec for that purpose; Those Regulations therefore, when established, must be made public throughout all Our American possessions, and they must have for their object the giving every possible facility to that Trade, which the nature of it will admit, and as may consist with fair and just dealing towards the Savages, with whom it is carried on. The fixing stated times and places for carrying on the Trade, and adjusting Modes of settling Tariffs of the prices of Goods and Furs, and, above all, the restraining the Sale of Spirituous Liquors to the Indians will be the most probable and effectual means of answering the ends proposed. These and a variety of other regulations, incident to the nature and purpose of the Peltry Trade in the interior Country, are fully stated in a Plan proposed by Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations in 1764, a Copy of which is hereunto annexed', and which will serve as a Guide in a variety of cases, in which it may be necessary to make provision by Law for that important Branch of the American Commerce.

33. The Fisheries on the Coast of Labrador, and the Islands adjacent thereto are objects of the greatest Importance, not only on account of the Commodities they produce, but also as Nurseries of Seamen, upon whom the Strength and Security of Our Kingdoms depend.

34. Justice and Equity demand, that the real and actual property and possession of the Canadian Subjects on that Coast should be preserved intirely; and that they should not be molested or hindered in the exercise on any Sedentary Fisheries they may have established there.

35. Their Claims however extend to but a small District of the Coast, on the greatest part of which District a Cod Fishery is stated to be impracticable.

36. On all such parts of the Coast, where there are no Canadian Fossessions, and more especially where a valuable Cod Fishery may be carried on, it will be your Duty to make the Interests of Our British Subjects going out to fish there in Ships fitted out from Great Britain the first object of your care, and, as far as circumstances will admit, to establish on that Coast the Regulations in favour of British fishing Ships, which have been so wisely adopted by the Act of Parliament passed in the Reign of King William the Third, "for the Encouragement of the New Foundland Fishery," and you are on no account to allow any possession to be taken, or Sedentary Fisheries to be established upon any parts of the Coast, that are not already private Property, by any persons whatever, except only such as shall produce annually a Certificate of their having fitted out from some Port in Great Britain.

37. We have mentioned to you the Fisheries upon the Coast of Labrador, as the main object of your attention; but the Commerce carried on with the Savages of that Coast, and the state and condition of those Savages deserve some regard; the Society of Unitas Fratrum, urged by a laudable Zeal for promoting Christianity, has already, under Our Protection, and with Our Permission, formed Establishments in the Northern parts of that Coast for the purposes of civilizing the Natives, and converting them to the Christian Religion. Their success has been answerable to their Zeal; and it is Our express Will and Pleasure, that you do give them every countenance and Encouragement in your power 1 The plan is in Shortt and Doughty, p. 433.

and that you do not allow any Establishment to be made, but with their consent, within the limits of their possessions.

38. By Our Commission to you under Our Great Seal of Great Britain you are authorised and impowered, with the advice and consent of Our Council, to settle and agree with the Inhabitants of Our said Province of Quebec for such Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, as are now, or shall, hereafter be in Our Power to dispose of. It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure that all Lands, which now are, or hereafter may be subject to Our Disposal, be granted in Fief or Seigneurie, in like manner as was practised antecedent to the Conquest of the said Province; omitting however in any Grant, that shall be passed of such Lands, the Reservation of any Judicial Powers, or privileges whatever. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that all Grants in Fief or Seigneurie, so to be passed by you, as aforesaid, be made subject to Our Royal Ratification, or Disallowance, and to a due Registry thereof within a limited time, in like manner as was practised in regard to Grants and Concessions held in Fief and Seigneurie under the French Government.

XXX

AN ORDINANCE FOR ESTABLISHING COURTS OF CIVIL JUDICATURE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC'

[Trans. Shortt and Doughty.]

February 25, 1777.

Whereas it is necessary to establish Courts of Civil Judicature for the speedy Administration of Justice within this Province; It is therefore Ordained and Enacted by His Excellency the Captain General, and Governor in Chief of this Province, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Legislative Council of the same, That,

Art. 1. For the Ease and Convenience of His Majesty's subjects residing in different Parts of this Province, the same shall be and hereby is divided into Two Districts, to be called and known by the names of Quebec and Montreal, which said Districts shall be divided and bounder by the River Godfroy on the South, and by the River St. Maurice on the North side of the River St. Lawrence.

Art. 2. A Court of Civil Jurisdiction, to be called the Court of Common Pleas, shall be, and hereby is erected, constituted, and established for each of the said Districts, the one whereof shall sit at the City of Quebec, and the other at the City of Montreal, at least one Day in every week, for the decision of Causes in which the Value of the matter in Dispute shall exceed Ten Pounds Sterling; and another Day in every week for the Decision of Causes in which the matter in Dispute shall be of or under the Value of Ten Pounds Sterling, and shall so continue their Sittings throughout the whole Year, excepting Three Weeks at Seed Time, a Month at Harvest, and a Fortnight at Christmas and Easter, and except during such Vacations as shall be appointed by the Judges for making their Circuits twice every Year through their separate Districts. The said Courts shall have full Powers, Jurisdiction, and Authority, to hear and determine all matters of Controversy relative to Property and Civil Rights, according to the Rules prescribed by an Act of Parliament made and passed in the Fourteenth Year of the Reign of His Present Majesty, intituled, "An Act for making more effectual Pro"vision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, in North "America," and such Ordinances as may hereafter be passed by the Governor and Legislative Council of the said Province.

Art. 3. In matters above the Value of Ten Pounds Sterling, the Presence of Two Judges shall be necessary to constitute a Court of

1 This Ordinance and the two following are the outcome of sections 14 and 15 of Carleton's Instructions, 1775 (see No. XXIX).

Common Pleas; the Decision of which Court shall be final in all cases where the matter in Dispute shall not exceed the Value of Ten Pounds Sterling, except in matters which may relate to taking or demanding any Duty payable to His Majesty, or to any Fee of Office, or Annual Rents, or other such like matter or Thing, where the Rights in future may be bound, in which Cases, and also in all Matters that exceed the said Value of Ten Pounds Sterling, an Appeal shall lie to the Governor and Council; provided Security be duly given by the Appellant, that he will effectually prosecute the same, and answer the Condemnation; as also pay such Costs and Damages as shall be awarded, in case the Judgement or Sentence of the Court of Common Please shall be affirmed.

Art. 4. The Governor and Council are hereby erected and constituted a Superior Court of Civil Jurisdiction (whereof in the absence of the Governor and Lieutenant the Chief Justice shall be President) for hearing and determining all Appeals from the inferior Courts of Civil Jurisdiction within the Province, in all cases where the matter in Dispute shall exceed the Sum of Ten Pounds Sterling, or shall relate to the taking or demanding any Duty payable to His Majesty, or to any Fee of Office or Annual Rents, or other such like Matter or Thing, where the Rights in future may be bound, though the immediate Sum or Value appealed for be less then Ten Pounds Sterling. And any Five Members of the said Council (the Judges who shall have given the Judgment appealed from excepted) with the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, or Chief Justice, shall constitute a Court for that Purpose, which shall sit the first Monday in every Month throughout the year, and continue sitting each Month as long as the Business before it may require: And the said Court of Appeals shall have Power to revise and examine all the Proceedings in the Court below, and to correct all errors both in Fact and in Law, and to give such Judgment as the Court below ought to have given, and on Judgment to award and issue such Execution as the Law shall direct.

Art. 5. The Judgment of the said Court of Appeals shall be final in all cases where the matter in Dispute shall not exceed the Value of £500 Majesty in His Privy Council, provided security be first duly given by Sterling; but in all cases exceeding that Value, an Appeal shall lie to His the Appellant, that he will effectually prosecute his Appeal, and answer the Condemnation, as also pay such Costs and Damages as shall be awarded by His Majesty in His Privy Council, in case the Sentence of the said Court of Appeals shall be affirmed. An Appeal shall likewise lie to His Majesty in His Privy Council from the Judgment of the said Court of Appeals in all cases where the matter in Question shall relate to the taking or demanding any Duty payable to His Majesty, or to any Fee of Ofice, or Annual Rents, or any such like matter or Thing, where the Rights in future may be bound, though the immediate Sum or Value appealed for be less than £500 Sterling; and in all cases where Appeal shall be allowed to His Majesty in His Privy Council, Execution shall be suspended until the final determination of such Appeal, provided Security be given as aforesaid.

Art. 6. All Judgments, Sentences and Executions of the Courts of Civil Jurisdiction, which it has been found necessary to establish since the 1st May, 1775, are hereby ratified and confirmed, subject nevertheless to an Appeal to the said Court of Appeals, in matters exceeding the value of Ten Pounds Sterling, and in cases where Rights in future may be bound.

Art. 7. Any Party meaning to Appeal from any Judgment, either of the said last-mentioned Courts, or of the Courts of Civil Jurisdiction subsisting in the Province before the 1st of May. 1775, shall sue out the Writ of Appeal within Three Months after the Publication of this Ordinance, after which Period the same will not be allowed.

Art. 8. All Actions instituted in any of the Courts of Civil Jurisdiction subsisting in the province before the 1st of May, 1775, or in those established since the 1st of May, 1775, and remaining undetermined therein, shall be transmitted to the Courts of Common Pleas hereby established

for the respective Districts, to be proceeded upon to Judgment, as if the same had been commenced therein; and also all Matters remaining undetermined in any Court of Appeals heretofore subsisting in this Province shall be forthwith transmitted to the Court of Appeals hereby established, to be proceeded upon therein to Judgment and Execution.

February 25, 1777.

GUY CARLETON.

XXXI

AN ORDINANCE TO REGULATE THE PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURTS OF CIVIL JUDICATURE IN THE PROVINCE

OF QUEBEC.

[Trans. Shortt and Doughty.]

February 25, 1777.

Whereas it is necessary for the Ease and Convenience of His Majesty's subjects who may have Actions to prosecute in the Courts of Civil Judicature established in this Province, that the mode of Administering Justice in the said Courts should be clearly ascertained, and rendered as plain as possible: It is therefore Ordained and Enacted by his Excellency the Captain General and Governor in Chief of this Province, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Legislative Council of the same, That,

Art. 1. In all cases or Matters of Property, exceeding the Sum or Value of £10 Sterling, upon a Declaration presented to any one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, by any Person, setting forth the Grounds of his Complaint against a Defendant, and praying an Order to Compel him to appear and answer thereto, such Judge shall be, and hereby is empowered and required in his separate District to grant a Writ of Summons in the Language of the Defendant, issuing forth in His Majesty's Name, tested and signed by one of the Judges, and directed to the Sheriff of the District, to summon the Defendant to appear and answer the Plaintiffs Declaration on some certain future day, Regard being had to the Distance of the Defendant's Abode from the Place where the Court sits; but if the Judges, or any Two of them are satisfied, by the Affidavit of the Plaintiff, or otherwise, that the Defendant is indebted to him, and on the point of leaving the Province, whereby the Plaintiff might be deprived of his Remedy against him; it shall be lawful for the said Judges, or any Two of them, to grant an Attachment against the Body of such Defendant, and hold him to Bail, and for Want of Bail to commit him to Prison until the Determination of the Action against him: The Declaration shall in all cases accompany the Writ, and the Plaintiff shall not be permitted to amend it until the Defendant shall have answered the matter therein contained, nor afterwards, without paying such reasonable Costs as the Court may ascertain.

Art. 2. Copies both of the Writ of Summons, and the Declaration, shall be served on the Defendant personally, or left at his House with some grown Person there, otherwise the Service shall be deemed insufficint.

Art. 3. If on the Day of the Return of the Writ of Summons_the Defendant does not appear in Person, or by Attorney (Proof of such Service being produced or made in Court) the Plaintiff shall obtain a Default against the Defendant, and if on calling over the Action in the next Weekly Court Day the Defendant should still neglect to appear, without any good Reason for such his Neglect, the Court after hearing and receiv ing sufficient Proof of the Plaintiff's Demand, shall cause their final Judgment to be entered against the Defendant, and shall reward such Costs thereupon as they shall think reasonable, and issue such Execution as the Law, according to the nature of the case, may direct.

Art. 4. If Defendant appears at the Return of the Writ of Sum

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