Puslapio vaizdai

to the nectarless, repellant nettle, and a contemplated morsel open two shinthere lays the eggs that shall become ing eyes, even at the corners of its other caterpillars of its kind? And wings. One or two of the moths have how, if it happens to be of so slightly eyes also, but usually, like the eyed varied a coloring that none but a hawk, on the hind wings. Defenceless trained naturalist can formulate the caterpillardom may sometimes be difference, it takes its eggs not to the saved by the same device. Our fanettle but to the elm?

vorite of all these grubs is that of the These and other biological problems puss moth, and we think that nothing are too heavy for the hot summer days in its triple armory of terrifying apwhen the butterflies are gambolling. pearance is so powerful as the two In the wood the fritillaries tower up- spots above its red-bordered face, that ward, gyrating till three of them seem look just like very malignant eyes. to be certainly four, while four fill the Their threat of unknown, unlimited whole sky with revolving pearl and hurt is well given in the painting of amber. On he hillside, where blue- the species in Miss Janet Harvey Keland-purple viper's bugloss is beginning man's "Butterflies and Moths Shown to to blossom, still bluer and still more the Children," just issued by Messrs. purple butterflies open and tumble, then Jåck. We have seen very respectable close and become triangles of silver ex- rings of rustics and people of greater quisitely pencilled with tiny circles in book learning drawn around a puss many quiet colors. The meadow moth caterpillar that may have fallen browns display rosy cheeks on their in autumn from some poplar tree. The wings, with sparkling eyes set therein adventurous stranger who takes it up that we can never persuade ourselves drops its hurriedly when it turns those cannot see us as we creep up to them. sightless eyes towards him and shoots How many butterflies there are in our out from its twin tails long red threads short British list whose color has run that might hold all the poison of snaketo eyes. The peacock that has them in dom. the same brilliant design as the bird, But the butterfly is entirely delighthis namesake, is perhaps the most re- ful. It has no need of safety other markable, while his congeners, the tor- than its wings. The "eye" of toiseshells, the red admiral and others, meadow brown has no terrors, at any seem to have been interrupted when rate for the child, and causes no anxithey had no more than sketched out the ety but lest it should see the captor same adornment. Then the wood ar- approaching and convey the prize out gus, the wall, the large and small of reach. The chase of the butterfly heaths, the yellows, the whites, the is a rural pursuit that never palls, swallow-tail, some more and some less, though its excitements are far outdone are also marked with sham eyes. Per- when some forlorn cabbage white haps this is the one useful marking strays from Covent Garden market that natural selection has fixed upon into the dim courts of Drury Lane. in the case of the butterflies. Nothing Then is every small bonnet doffed, thin is more disconcerting to a bird, for ex- legs are agitated, feeble lungs raise the ample, than to see an eye suddenly view halloo, and the hunt goes streamglaring from an unexpected place. ing down the street headed by the flapThe boldest bird hesitates long before ping, bothering fly that, seeming it will go to its nest under the stare of to be quite unaware of its danger, yet a photographic lens. Possibly the manages to top some wall just before same bird would flee in dismay should the leading huntsman would grab it.

а mens

The white butterfly is usually one's first prize. Those that are colored imaginative youth calls “French." It is long before we discover that both white and colored are of several sorts. We have said that the pursuit of the butterfly never palls. As the school. boy grows up he learns other methods of bringing down the same quarry. A chip-box is as good as a butterfly net

a dull day. Chrysalids can be picked up that will yield perfect speci

The Nation.

of uncatchable insects. The breeding from caterpillars unravels, or rather reveals, some of the mysteries of butterfly life. But, last as well as first, the ideal way of coming by a rare and coveted specimen is to run it down in fair chase. We say it who have experienced it. But now we prefer to watch the towering fritillaries. and wonder whether they are really three or four.




History is repeating itself iv Ger- foundly affected by the circumstances: many. When Count Posadowsky was of his appointment. Never has Gerdismissed from the Ministry of the In- many known so paradoxical a political terior through the Conservative objec- situation. The Conservative Junkers. tion to his Liberal tendencies, it was are notoriously of absolutist views. Herr

Bethmann-Hollweg who They are true to the traditions of took his place; and now again Herr Frederick the Great; they detest the von Bethmann-Hollweg is chosen to new-fangled notions of parliamentasucceed a Chancellor for whose retire- rianism and democracy which the ment the Conservatives are primarily French Revolution brought into Gerresponsible. The German Constitu- many; they grumbled at the constitution expressly denies the responsibility tional position which Prince Bülow of Ministers to Parliament. A Chan- took up in the critical days of last cellor remains in office so long as he November; and now they find themretains the confidence of the Emperor. selves hailed by the less myopic organs It was because of the withdrawal of of German Liberalism as the pioneers the imperial confidence that Prince of constitutional progress! Times have Bismarck laid down his office, and the indeed changed since Bismarck was. same official explanation was given of dismissed not twenty years ago. the resignations of Count Caprivi and Rapid as this development has been, Prince Hohenlohe. But in the case it is in no way surprising. The Gerof Prince Bülow there is not the least man Constitution is not yet forty pretence of imperial dissatisfaction. years old, but for the first half of its On the contrary, it is common knowl- short life it was worked by its author edge that the Emperor was extremely and meant exactly what he chose it to loth to part with him, and that the mean. During these important years. present change has been brought about Germany was acquiring a political selfby the majority in the Reichstag. The consciousness which was bound to asnew Chancellor is a man whose past is sert itself when once the controlling sure evidence of his willingness to band was removed. Moreover, the serve a party. He is in fact a consti- new arrangement contained from the tutional Minister, and the whole course first elements of instability which are of his future conduct will be pro- now becoming apparent. In making

his Constitution Bismarck left out two of the political forces of the time. One was the Liberal party. The omission was deliberate. Bismarck had fought it at the crisis of his career. He had beaten it, and by beating it had made the Empire possible. He regarded it as a sham, broken for the moment and useless for the future. Nor was be mistaken. Eugen Richter's party was a sham; it consisted of a number of middle-class gentlemen who pretended to be democrats. Bismarck saw that the middle classes were too feeble to count, and overlooked the masses altogether. Modern Germany has both a middle class and a working class. The former has come into being with the industry which it has cre. ated. Numerically small, it is the richest party in Germany, and gold weighs heavily in the political scales. Politically that working class was created by the suffrage which Bismarck granted, but it was denied adequate expression. Deprived of any form of Ministerial control, the Reichstag found itself a fifth wheel to the political coach, and the democrats were driven to a policy of passive resistance. The tactics pursued by the Socialist Left have brought about the extraordinary situation

that a

party which is now supported by more than three million voters has never exercised the slightest influence on the course of legislation. A policy of pure negation stands self-condemned, but in justice to Herr Bebel and his col. leagues it must be admitted that their position was largely forced upon them by circumstances.

The financial scheme propounded by Prince Bülow was, in one aspect, a concession to the claims of the industrialists and the multitude. It was on the left wing on the Liberals and on the Socialists—that he had to rely, and in the critical division he was beaten by it. He had attempted to give the

Left that position in politics which it had a certain right to hold. He had aimed at a change in the balance of the Constitution, and he was defeated. And here the question arises: Why did Prince Bülow resign? Why not dissolve, and if necessary dissolve again and again until he had at last convinced the reactionaries that he had behind him a combination of money and votes which was stronger than any Constitution and for which any workable Constitution must find room? It is at this point that we come upon the second of Bismarck's omissions. He forgot the Chancellor. He forgot, that is, to provide for an office which was something in itself apart from the dominant personality of its first occupant. Even as it was, Bismarck had to clothe himself with powers belonging properly to the Emperor as head of the Executive, and it was by depriving him of these powers that William II. eventually forced his resignation. But not until the crisis of last November did the full weakness of the Chancellor's position become apparent. At first sight, indeed, there never was a moment when the Chancellor was

more powerful For the first time since Bismarck's dismissal be found himself in direct opposition to the Emperor, and it was the Emperor who surrendered. But the victory was won not by the Chancellor but by the forces behind him. He spoke as the representative of the Federal Council, he had at his back all the influence of the Federated Governments, thoroughly scared at the difficult position in which the Empire had been placed by an irresponsible inanager of foreign politics. Prince Bülow was far too astute a man to mistake his position. By himself he knew he was helpless. Behind him inust stand either the Emperor or the Federal Council. Circumstances forced bim to rely on the Council, and it was


with their support that he formulated position than was his predecessor durhis scheme of financial reform.

ing the last fortnight of his term of At the critical moment that support office. Prince Bülow held a deserved

withdrawn. He had prepared reputation as an expert in foreign pol. plans so generous to the States in the itics. He had been a most successful matter of their financial contributions ambassador, and as a diplomatist was to the Empire that the Liberals were probably unsurpassed in Europe. His up in arms from the first. Somewhat successor knows nothing of diplomatic to the surprise of the Federated Gov- work. The Emperor has chosen an ernments the majority in the Reich- expert in home affairs to deal with the stag proved to be even more particu- domestic crisis which now confronts larist than themselves. Prince Bülow Germany. There is no need to queswas supported by the entire Left, by tion the absolute disinterestedness of the very parties which regard the his motives, but he cannot be blind to States Governments as the pillars of the increase in his Own influence reaction and which are pledged to which the new appointment involves. diminish their authority. Only by a He has pledged his word to be a condissolution which would result in the stitutional Sovereign, but the Constireturn of these parties in greater tution expressly states that he is to strength could the reforms be carried. represent the Empire in foreign afIs it to be wondered that the Council fairs. His Chancellor is to accept rerefused to render a service to their bit- sponsibility for foreign policy as far terest enemies? The Prince found him- as the people at home are concerned, self helpless. The Emperor could not but that in no way permits a Chancelsupport him. He had promised to ef- lor to dictate a policy to his master. face himself seven months before, and Prince Bülow, indeed, could possibly an Emperor does not break his word. venture to do so, but that was because The Federal Council would not support of the experience of the man and not him; the Reichstag, apparently the on account of the importance of his ofdominant factor, was in reality only fice. Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg is able to force its will through the tacit a cipher in foreign affairs, and in the concurrence of the Council, and was constitutional conflict he is not the itself constitutionally inadequate to protagonist but the prize of victory. carry through a constructive policy. There are three forces contending for The Chancellorship suddenly emerged supremacy in Germany to-day-there in all its weakness as the mouthpiece is the Emperor with his military and of the strongest political force in the naval authority and his position as repState.

resentative of the Empire as regards There is then no need to trouble foreign States; there are the States, about Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg's whose organ is the Federal Council; programme, which will probably not and there is the people as represented, be disclosed until the new session is or misrepresented, by the Reichstag. opened in the autumn. But, whatever The Chancellor does not count, and it be, it will not be his own programme History, who is a divinity with a sense but that of the victorious particular- of humor, smiles ironically over Bisists. He is indeed in an ever weaker marck's work.

The Saturday Review.


At the inquest held last week on the victims of the disaster at Newport, where many men were killed by a fall of earth in a deep trench, one of the witnesses, a timberman named Thomas Baker, said that he had come out of the trench just before the accident owing to "a feeling of nervousness." "I felt myself shivering," he declared, “and I told the ganger I was going home." When he was asked to give a reason for his nervousness, he said that he could not give any except this: "God on high must have warned me." We wonder how many times we have read after serious accidents that somebody had a presentiment that an accident would happen. Such a statement seems to be an almost indispensable part of the narratives. Unless Thomas Baker when he reported his presentiment was under a delusion, which would be conceivable in the circumstances-his mates crushed and buried under the earth, and himself saved only by the space of a few moments from the same fate-he did come up from his work owing to his presentiment. By the delusion theory, of course, the presentiment is very easily explained: the man felt unwell-was giddy, or faint, perhaps was suffering only from indigestion-and afterwards when he was the prey of nervous shock, and possibly of superstition, he read a great deal of significance into what had been a fortunate accident. That explanation may very well be true; but it is, after all, just as likely that the man really did have a presentiment. Such things continually happen. When we have admitted that much we are unfortunately no nearer to the interesting point of proving whether presentiments are conveyed by some ultra-natural or supernatural process. Let us take it for granted

that Baker had his presentiment before the accident exactly as he believed afterwards that it had come to him. The sequel may still have been a coincidence. Coincidences are so common that the wonder is we should profess to be much surprised at them. If many presentiments are dignified by the success of coming true, there are many others which are not published to the world because they fail. We suppose that there are persons who, under stress of vivid presentiments, have refused to travel by trains or steamers which have arrived at their destinations in perfect safety. Such presentiments are not only expensive and humiliating; they seem to invest Providence-if so be that they are attributed to Providence with a certain flippancy. Moreover, as they are kept from the knowledge of those who would like to balance the useful presentiments against the unjustified ones, it is very difficult to arrive at any conclusion as to what part man has allowed presentiments to play in governing his comings and his goings. Perhaps the world is full of presentiments, and we hear only of those which come true.

The most sceptical mind may consider itself free, however, to admit the fascinations of an inquiry. It leads us at once into immense and puzzling regions. But we need not penetrate into those labyrinths where time is conceived as having no reality among the influences which govern human fate; where the future, past, and present are all one,-where, as Sir Thomas Browne has written of the eternal one, "for Him the Last Trump has already sounded"; and where destiny seems necessarily to conflict with man's great solace and weapon and instinctive possession of free-will. In a recent num

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