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Even his character is of value chiefly will be theoretically aware that he in so far as it affects these qualities. ought not to beat his wife, though he Nobody would willingly employ be a Calvinist, a Roman Catholic, a drunken chauffeur, because drunken- Swedenborgian, a Socialist, or a Tariff ness would interfere with his steadi- Reformer. Whether he does or will ness of hand and quickness of judg- beat his wife I have not the slightest ment; but the man might be an athe- idea; nor would precise information ist, a free-lover, or a gambler, and upon his religious or political views still a reasonably good chauffeur. On help me to form an opinion. I should the other hand, he might be a saint or be better able to judge if you told me a philosopher, and a particularly bad that he was addicted to alcohol, or

Take the case of great military that he had been brought up by a and naval leaders. Collingwood, with maiden aunt. Most of our difficulties his lofty and intelligent devotional zeal in conduct are concerned with the was assuredly not a better sailor than choice between motives of nearly Nelson, who was dominated by equal force or with the subordination rather confused amalgam of senti- of one set of emotions to another. ment, caprice, sheer personal vanity, And here an instinctive grasp of realiand idealistic patriotism. Was he, all ties, rapidity of decision, the control things considered, a better man? of the lower appetites by the higher Wellington's narrow Anglicanism cer- impulses, tact, temper, and firmness tainly does not seem to have done are of more avail than any synthesis much for a character in many respects of thought. After all, the chariot of unpleasant-harsh, illiberal, grasping, life is driven, much as the motor car and coldly self-indulgent. But the is driven, by knowledge of the machinDuke had the temperament and the in- ery and adeptness in handling it. If tellect of the soldier, developed by you go into the bathroom and turn on much practice, and he became a very the hot-water tap instead of the cold good general: not, however, so good a douche you will scald yourself, though general as Napoleon, who believed in you are as wise as Solomon and as nothing except his own strength and virtuous as St. Francis. the weakness of others. If we carry What, then, is the true value of eththe survey from these special pursuits ics and religion? Can man go through to the general art of living, the result life without any synthesis at all? is really the same. A man may have Surely not. Faith is needed not to a very bad creed and be a very good make a man live better, but to make father, husband, friend, or citizen; he him feel better. And a theory of the may be lamentably defective in each universe is required not to direct bis of these capacities, in spite of a high conduct, but to sanctify him in the ethical and religious ideal. This is be- successes and fortify him in the failcause our social activities are very lit- ures of action. tle dependent on theory, but are, in That is what one feels in reading fact, controlled and conditioned by Mr. Rockefeller's confessions.

His recharacter and habit. The main prin- markably successful and entirely abciples of morality, though their appli- surd career has just missed being used cation varies infinitely according to as a text for sermons. If his mediocre custom and convention, are common talents and his exceptional luck had to most schools of thought. I am pre- happened to have been displayed on a pared to assert that the first man who less conspicuous stage, we should have passes me as I walk down the street been freely invited to admire him. We


should have him exhibited as a shining example of that old-fashioned Biblical Christianity which has made America and Great Britain what they are. We might have books written about him by excellent persons like Mr. Samuel Smiles, holding him up for the instruction of the young, to show what can be done by industry, perseverance, and intense application, fortified by sound religion and austere morality. It would have been explained that he would not have become so great unless he had been so good. We have heard too much about Mr. Rockefeller to be able to say that about him. The millionaire-manufacturing process has been laid open too plainly to the world in his case; the Mammoth Trust is too big; we know too well what it has cost to make the fortunes of its "magnates." I do not think that even one of Mr. Rockefeller's own professors, in one of his own universities, would care to lecture on his patron from this standpoint.

I suppose many thousands or millions of people envy "John D."; I do not imagine that even in the United States there are many who venture to admire him openly. With the best will in the world it is difficult to attribute his success to high abilities and hard work based on Christian ethics. We cannot say that, because he is clearly not very able, and he tells us himself that he was not particularly industrious or persevering. He went through the greater part of his active life comfortably and easily, taking plenty of holidays, enjoying himself blamelessly, and occupying himself in his business hours in scheming, financing, borrowing, intriguing, and organizing. He did very little work himself; he was clever and lucky enough to make other people work for him. He can seldom have put in as sound a day of steady labor as most of his own clerks. His

puritanical New England upbringing can neither be credited with his success in money-making nor with the means by which he made it. His real achievements as an organizer of distribution and economizer of production had no relation to the teaching he received in the chapel and the schoolroom; those other exploits which have made him famous stand equally apart from the religion in which he believes. The New Testament does not suggest that it is desirable to pile up riches by the methods and devices which the Oil Trust sometimes employed. There is no relation, so far as one can see, between Mr. Rockefeller's creed and his conduct in commercial life; and the fact that out of business hours he is affectionate, moral, and lavish in giving away his plunder makes the contradiction all the more striking.

It is clear that Mr. Rockefeller's practice of what he calls "the difficult art of getting," was not determined by his religion. He would have acted much the same as he did, and probably with much the same results, if he had not been a devoted member of his church. But he would not have felt nearly so comfortable; he would have lacked that inner glow which makes him a happy man in spite of his wealth, his weariness, his narrowness, his crudity. He would not have found consolation in the thought that the world which has made John D. Rockefeller its richest inhabitant, is divinely ordered. He would not have been so sure of his own righteousness, or so callous to the sufferings of his victims. He would not have been able to decree the massacre of his enemies in much the same spirit as that which inspired Godfrey of Bouillon, or a sergeant of Cromwell's Ironsides, or Gustavus Adolphus, or any other entirely devout destroyer. Like them he had faith, which not only casts out fear, but gives its possessor power to sus

tain all kinds of shocks and buffets, in kindly, tranquil in mind and soul, at cluding those of his own conscience. ease in his relation towards the UniThe Protestant religion (New England verse and the general scheme of version) did not make Mr. Rockefeller things. But his success as a man of a successful man, it did not make him, action does not

spring from this in any true sense of the word, a good source. It is due to his expertness in man; but it seems to have given him a difficult art—the art of financial ad, that peace which the world cannot venture-in which he would probably bring, and fortified him, not merely have failed if he had not kept it against the obloquy of his fellow-men, sternly apart from his religious ideas but also against dissatisfaction with and ideals. himself. He is calm, contented,

Sidney Low. The Nation.


To meet again with our friends after have a strange power of annihilating an interval of years may well be the time for others, and bringing them greatest of all joys, but to meet again back, as we say, "to their old selves." with our friendly acquaintance from They may or may not have very quick whom we have been long divided by sympathies; they have always very circumstances is by no means always a strong affections. Nevertheless it is great pleasure. The thought of the sometimes a qualified pleasure to see reunion is fraught, no doubt, with a them again. Some of us do not want certain sensation of excitement. We to be reminded of our old selves, and cannot bring ourselves to refuse the op- come away with an uncomfortable feel. portunity, yet how seldom we entirely ing that we have renewed acquaintance enjoy it. There are, of course, a few with one person more than we barmen and women in whose personality gained for. time makes no change. They alter in But such people are exceptional, and nothing but appearance. They have belong to a strongly marked type. The from youth to age the same manners, majority change with the years inthe same interests, the same sympa. wardly as well as outwardly, perhaps thies, the same friends. Their environ- inwardly even more than outwardly. ment may change to any extent. They We may have no difficulty in recognizmay go from Piccadilly to the desert, ing them at first sight, and yet after a or from Clapham to the backwoods; quarter of an hour's talk we may feel they come back “just the same." quite unable to realize their identity. They may begin behind a shop and end They may even give us a strange senin the front of the world. They may sation, as if we could doubt our own. marry, they may grow rich, they may They have developed in an opposite prosper or fail. The first thing to be direction to that which we expected; said of them by every fellow-creature or is it we who have changed ? The who sits in judgment upon them is that years between youth and middle age they are "just the same." They are as are the most eventful years of life, and they were born, and they take it for those in which long separations most granted that every one else is also. commonly occur. During the time that They are strong people never carried elapses between a parting and a meetaway by their experience, and they ing again we very often follow, as it were subconsciously, the career of our comes unbidden and comes of contrast, acquaintance. Every time we are re- followed most likely by a horrid sense minded of them we instinctively form of remorse. What brutes we are, we a mental picture of what they have be- say to ourselves, and how vulgarcome,-a picture by no means always minded! We wish we had not met and corrected by what we hear casually of indulged in such an unworthy sensathe actual facts. John Smith was a tion. It will bring us ill-luck; we feel conceited fellow, we say to ourselves. sure it will. Though we liked him, he has probably Between women the sudden resumpmade a good many enemies by now; tion of intimacy with a person who has his self-confidence must have stood in been long away is even more embarhis way. He was ambitious too; prob- rassing than among men. A familiarably he has become rather embittered. ity which has ceased to be habitual is Then chance throws us once more irksome, and the gradations of intiacross his path. He is a grave man, macy are more marked. Also a womself-confident, successful, and with an's career is— or she ways thinks it troops of friends. No doubt the boy is—more a matter of chance than that we knew is still there somewhere, but of a man, and she is still more the creawe cannot find him, and we feel con- ture of environment. She must be a fused. Then perhaps there was a man very good woman if she never rebels we lost sight of for a time on whom against fate when she suddenly sees we looked down a little. He also was again some one who has realized so one whom we liked; we had a pleasing many more than she has done of the little feeling that he looked up to us. hopes once common to both, and she It was natural, we felt; our chances must be very just minded if she never were better than his. No doubt he en- vents a disappointment, which should vied them. We perhaps often thought rightly be an abstract feeling, upon of him during the interval, always with some particular person. On the other feelings of kindness. Possibly hand, if the prosperous person is not beard vaguely that he had “got on" but sorry for her less prosperous friend, the news made no permanent differ- she is far more hard-hearted than the ence to the development of our mental average woman; but feelings of pity picture. We still looked downwards to and of envy, however soon dismissed, see him with our mind's eye. At last are bad omens for the renewal of chance throws us across his path again. frindship. We did not understand that he had But suppose all these petty factors to passed us on the world's stairs, and we

be out of the question, and that two are inwardly astonished to find him a people meet again who are by nature man of far more account than oun- really good and generous, or who still selves, and we realize with a smile that stand about equal so far as luck and is not altogether without bitterness the world are concerned, who have run that he must remember our old rela- the race apart, no doubt, but abreast. tions with something of amusement. It is still very difficult to knit up a Was it really we to whom he used to friendship severed by time.

For one defer? We cannot take up the old thing, the first meeting, which should rôle. Yet we cannot take up any other relay the foundation, often leaves a On the whole, we wish we had never gloomy impression upon the minds of seen him again. Or the positions are the people concerned. There is no disreversed. We realize our success with guising the fact that it is sad to look a sudden sharp thrill of pleasure which back. We are apt to come away from


such a meeting possessed by the recol- science, to take a fairly accurate view lection of

of what goes on around them. They

control their sentimentality, or their The eyes that shone now dimmed and

melancholy, or their excessive egoism gone, The cheerful hearts now broken.

and sense of their own importance

while it is called to-day. But once take Even merry memories sometimes as

them into the region of memory and sume a false air of pathos.

they give full rein to their inclinations. Again, we have to consider the fact

The past becomes a fancy world known that in no perception do people differ

to none but themselves. more completely than in the perception

Of course we do not mean any of the of time. Long and short sight forms above reflections to apply to love. Love but a poor analogy for long and short in all its many forms is not subject to memory. The

sense proportion

destruction by time. Indian parents where the past is concerned seems

and children after years of separation sometimes not to be the same in any

not seldom renew the tenderest relagiven pair of people. One man may be

tions. The tie of blood is independent hardly able to recall an incident which

of common recollections, and the spirit seems to his past friend to be the key of criticism engendered by absence to his character. Some

and may make for as well as against a good women live to be old, as it were, in

understanding. A long engagement possession of a perfect picture of their generally turns out better if the pair whole lives. For many others noth- are parted; but here again love has ing but the foreground is clear, and nothing to do with a common past. out of the haze stand certain events in

As to those few and true friendships wholly undue prominence. These upon which absence has no effect, they persons who cannot see behind them depend for the most part upon common seldom know their own defects. They interests, interests which

imtalk of what is there with misplaced personal, and very often abstract. But confidence, and confuse the interlocutor it may be said: You are limiting who sees a different scene. In real true friendship to persons

of in truth they have have no past in com- tellectual interests. To say that would mon, and that though they spent it to- be, no doubt, to make too sweeping a gether. Again, there are a few natu- statement. Absence-proof friendships rally uncandid persons who are not do exist which are founded on nothing otherwise bad. They have been forced but an indefinable affinity of soul, but by circumstances, or even by con- they are rare.

The Spectator.




Henry Eighth in his youth is scarcely baving root in his overruling selfishmore agreeable than in that doubtfully ness, desires that a certain English married era of his life most familiar heiress shall be brought from Germany to the reader of history made to sell, to England, and sends the hero to esand Mr. Joseph Hocking bestows no cort her thither, leaving the means to added gifts and graces upon him in his his discretion, giving him no credenlatest novel, “The Sword of the Lord.” tials, and forbidding him to mention Henry, from a mixture of motives all the royal name. Having little to lose,

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