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profession. Richard Caur-de-Lion was a troubadour, and a good one too. The Provençals had a theory that you could not write love verses unless you were in love. That is no doubt an excellent principle, if not always exactly what we could call practical. But whether the troubadours lived up to their theory or not, their devout and highly reverential invocations to the objects of their passion will always remain examples of love verses for the world to admire. The ample and complex rhyming was considered by Dante himself worthy of imitation.

There came a time when the troubadours, who had spread the spirit of Provence throughout the whole civilized world of the West, were swept away. They melted like snow before the rigors of the Albigensian wars, which laid waste the South of France, destroyed the castles, and ruined the landowners. At least it has always been said that the troubadours scattered before the tide of war into Italy and Spain. Others may think that their art had hardened into an artificiality and monotony which were to a large extent their own undoing. However that may be, spontaneous and beautiful singing had once been heard in the land, and now was heard no more. For three hundred years the people cultivated

folk-songs or legends in poetry. Attempts made fitfully from the seventeenth century onwards to revive the poetical glories of Provence, but it would not be a harsh judgment to say that no attempt had any success worthy of the name till the rise of Frédéric Mistral.

Mistral grew up among the sights and sounds of a Provençal farm. He moved among the peasants, who were bis friends, and learned and cherished the tales and phrases of the people which hal persevered through generations but were bereft of the form of poetry. He conceived the ambition

to make the peasants, the scenery, and the history and legends of Provence live again in poetry written in the common language. He aimed at a revival. It was a perilous aspiration. How many have attempted to revive an admired period of the past and have produced only a monstrous insincerity! The "first, fine, careless rapture" can hardly ever be recaptured. But Mistral has succeeded, because he has conveyed from one age to another only things which were essential. He has transported the spirit, not the body. “Mirèio," his best, earliest, and most famous work, is an epic in dialect. The story is a very simple one of a rich girl who is kept apart from her poor lover, and dies in his presence when, too late, they are brought together. This simple incident is clothed with all the true epic qualities; descriptions of scenery and of popular customs, and a great array of simile are employed. The elementary facts of Nature and human life are interwoven with the very elements of human emotion. And in form the poem is cast after the great models of Homer and Virgil. If Homer had never written, we should not have “Mirèio” precisely as it is. Ronsard and his colleagues of the Pléi. ade turned away from classical forms to follow the dictates of Nature and truth, but Mistral has found both in a return to the oldest of classical models. Poetry is justified of all her children. Like the troubadours before him, Mistral has fallen into a certain monotony in some of his later poems; he has dragged in his Provençal lore in and out of season. But in "Mirèio" the set ting is all perfectly appropriate to the narrative, and indeed indispensable to it. Provence has been parcelled out in departments like the rest of France ever since the time of Mirabeau, and can no longer boast a political identity, but the Provençal ethos remains. The Filibrige who applied themselves half

no

were

a-century ago under Mistral's schoolmaster, Romanille, to a Provençal literary revival have triumphed. That is the meaning of the festivities at Arles. We Englishmen may join in them from

The Spectator.

a distance, for we know that we, and all the world, would be immeasurably poorer without the langue d'oc and the Provençal strain.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

The Macmillan Company publishes a ment and an inspiration. Such practiPocket Lexicon and Concordance to cal subjects as “Earning a Living," the Temple Shakespeare, which is a "Cocksureness," "You and Your Job," marvel of compact and convenient ar- "Saving Something," "Finding what rangement. Owners of the dainty You Want in Books," "Making HeavTemple Shakespeare will find it indis- ens and Hells upon Earth," "Do Not be pensable, but while the page referen- Afraid," "Higher Things," "The Choice ces especially adapt it to that edition, of an Occupation," and scores of othit has its uses with any.

ers are treated in these crisp little es

says with unfailing tact, force and inMr. J. T. Trowbridge's advancing sight. A. C. McClurg & Co. years appear to have made no impression upon his abounding vitality or his The seventh volume of “The Works sympathy with young people, and his of James Buchanan" collected and edname is still a good one to conjure ited by John Bassett Moore, and pubwith among young readers. His latest lished in a limited edition by the J. B. volume "A Pair of Madcaps" (Lothrop, Lippincott Company, covers the years Lee & Shepard Co.) is made up of one 1816-18. Mr. Buchanan was then seclong story, which gives the book its retary of State, and very important title, and six or eight shorter tales. public questions, such as the Oregon They have been published in maga- settlement and the Mexican war, were zines,-the first under the title “The engaging the public mind, and still Boy and the Beast"-but this is their more important questions which led up first appearance in a volume. They to the civil war were brewing. All of are lively and humorous without any the public affairs of the period were straining after effect-which is some- touched upon in Mr. Buchanan's state thing to be thankful for, for what is papers and private correspondence; and more laborious than labored humor? as Mr. Moore has gone upon the gen

eral principle that nothing which Mr. There is a pungency in Calvin Dill Buchanan wrote could wisely be omitWilson's second series of talks for ted, we have here, as in the other volyoung people on “Making the Most of umes, purely personal matters, such as Ourselves" which will commend them the arrangements made for Miss even to the less thoughtful; while to Lane's outing at the seashore, interyoung men or women who cherish a spersed with grave state papers. This real ambition to make themselves of iinparts unexpected flavor

of use in the world, there is in them a piquancy. heartiness, a good sense, a sincerity of sympathy and an elevated purpose

The title of Miss Dorothea Hollins's which will make them an encourage- “l'topian Papers" unjustly prejudices

an

him who does not read the book, for itial producer to the final consumer, the adjective is so often misused by the from the least important citizen to the careless that at first sight it suggests Chief Executive. Mr. McPherson is the silly, impracticable, impossible, al. Johns Hopkins lecturer on Transportamost anything rather than a land tion and has had experience in railway where life is love and light, as the service; he has travelled through the members of the Utopian Club, the United States seeking information from writers of the papers, strive to make shippers, from the representatives of their England. The club lives in commercial organizations, and railway Chelsea, the Chelsea of Thomas Car- officials in charge of traffic, and thus lyle and Sir Thomas More, and among he has learned as much of the history its members are the Headmaster of of the development of freight rate Harrow and Dr. Patrick Geddes, both structures, as can now be obtained, as of whom are represented in the vol. the records of the discussions by which ume. The "Papers” were written to that development was attained have be read before the club with intent to disappeared, along with the corresponclarify and broaden the view of the dence on the same subject, and therehearers and writers, and to aid in their fore this book is the last word on some endeavors to make the world brighter parts of its topic. On other parts, the and better. Their plan includes study, last word seems likely to be preceded innocent and refined amusement, and by many, and the better the history of ministry to others. “Chelsea Past and the matter is understood, the fewer Present"; "Utopias Past and Present"; they will be. The chapters on the “Utopian Imagination and Social Prog- preparation and distribution of foodress"; "St. Columba”; and “Comte's stuffs, and on the distribution of raw View of the Future of Socialism" are material and merchandise, if widely some of the titles. Miss Hollins pref- read, will serve to dispel the general aces the papers with some blank verse bewilderment with which both the entitled "Thomas More Redivivus,” small producer and the small consumer and accompanied by portraits of Sir contemplate the manner in which their Thomas and of Mr. W. B. Kingsford fate is determined both by railways who strikingly resembles the unlucky and legislators, but the work will be minister of Henry Eighth. Members chiefly valued by young men intending of Neighborhood Improvement clubs, to play a part in the large affairs of Social Settlements and similar enter- trade, and old men who find the world prises will find many useful thoughts outspreading their ability to keep pace and suggestions in some of the essays,

with its complex changes. As a manand will perceive that their English ual of reference it is necessary to all brethren think no thought or feeling law makers and economists. Henry too fine or good to be used in the serv- Holt & Co. ice of their fellow man. Masters & Co. Limited, London.

The trials of the horticulturist who

seeks to extract definite information Mr. Logan G. McPherson has now from the mountain of garden books are followed his “The Working of the Rail. many, and the sole reason why they are roads" by "Railroad Freight Rates in not tragic is that they are voluntary. Relation to the Industry and Commerce inasmuch as serious works on botof the United States," a composite sub- any neither scarce dear. ject including every factor entering Their number is now increased by Dr. into the railway question, from the in- George Lincoln Walton's "Practical

are

nor

his

Guide to Wild Flowers and Fruits." much as she does not neglect dates, In this work plants with yellow, white, writes clearly and attractively and so green, red, pink and rose-colored, lav- arranges her matter as to provide the ender to purple, blue, brownish and dullest and least systematic reader variegated flowers are so charted that with an outline conveniently arranged each may be traced by obvious charac- to be invested with whatsoever knowlteristics to a small group, and this is edge of the peninsula he may have or done for some four hundred species, may acquire. In the brief introducand for about one hundred sorts of tion, she notes the curious homogeneity fruit, at least as many as a fairly eager of the Spanish race and the likeness observer may expect to encounter in between Spanish art and that of Siam,

rambles. Eighty-six carefully Central America and certain islands of drawn illustrations in line, and two Oceanica and parts of Southern India, colored plates so presented as to be thus opening a pleasant field of conjecvery useful to the observer desirous of ture for the amateur of two or three sketching or painting flowers accom- of the sciences in which everybody pany the text, which, being limited to dabbles to-day, to the huge delight of the simplest definition occupies so lit- those really well read in their mystle space that the book has but little teries. The purely historical work beover 200 pages, and is easily portable. gins with four chapters successively The frontispiece is a portrait of Dios- devoted to the invasions of the Rocorides from Theuet's "Hommes Illus- mans, the Visigoths, the Arabs and tres," published in Paris in 1381, and Moors, and to the Moslem occupation. described, in the legend, as the picture

Five more

cover the history of the of “the successor of Hippocrates, prince kingdom to the present moment, and of physicians, an excellent botanist, complete the outline. The five great a distinguished personage and the in- cities, Toledo, Cordova, Seville, Gratimate and familiar friend of Mark nada and Madrid, occupy eight chapAntony and Cleopatra his wife." "His ters and in four more, Santiago, Leon, wife," be it observed, set down as a Burgos, Valladolid, Saragossa, Aramatter of course three centuries and a gon, Barcelona and Valencia are dequarter before Signore Ferrero ex- scribed in turn, the history of each so plained the serpent of old Nile! The mingled with the enumeration of its picture, a fine bit of wood engraving, present beauties and the sites of its adds to the value of the book, but was past glories that the history is unconnot needed to make it superior to the sciously reviewed. It will be seen that great mass of its kind. J. B. Lippin- this is an instructive work although it (ott Co.

is as remote from the entity suggested

by the phrase as the work of Motley The two beautiful volumes of Miss from that of Robertson. The illusClara Crawford Perkins's “The Build- trations are admirably chosen, includers of Spain,” although they do not ing ten of the wonderful series of royal exaggerate truth, seem hardly more portraits painted by Titian, Moro, Vereal in many of their passages than the lazquez and Goya, the inevitable Altales of Scheherezade, so uniformly hambra views and some fifty architecthas the author preferred the sumptu- ural views. This species of book has ous aspect of every city, the brilliant grown common since Miss Perkins first point of every reign, the superb view essayed it, but none has accomplished of every monarch and statesman. So it any better than she has performed much the better for her readers inas- it in this work. Henry Holt & Co.

SEVENTH SERIES
VOLUME XLIV.

No. 3393 July 17, 1909.

FROM BEGINNING
VOL. COLXII.

1.

II.

III.

CONTENTS
The Balance of Naval Power and the Triple Alliance. By Archi-
bald S. Hurd

NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 131
Leaves from the Diary of a Tramp. By J. A. H. .

CORNHILL MAGAZINE 143 Saleh: A Sequel. Chapters XIX and XX. By Hugh Clifford. (To be continued.)

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE 149 Swinburne Letters,

TIMES 164 An Experience. By Gertrude Bone.

ENGLISH REVIEW 165 The Lord of the Pigeons. By Howard Ashton. (To be continued.)

Chapters I, II and III. PALL MALL MAGAZINE 170 With My Salamanders.

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE 176 “ Words, Words, Words.' By Owen Seaman .

PUNCH 186 Sensational Journalism. By Edward H. Cooper SATURDAY REVIEW 187

IV.

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V. VI.

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VII. VIII.

.

IX.

A PAGE OF VERSE

X.

Ballade of Gracieuse and Percinet. By Rosamund Marriott Watson

PALL MALL MAGAZINE 130 Lines on a Bullfinch, Freed. By Pamela Tennant SPECTATOR 130 Starlight on the Hill. By W. K. Fleming

NATION 130 BOOKS AND AUTHORS

190

XI. XII.

.

.

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