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by the enemy's cavalry. The combat raged for nearly five hours within the entrenchment which had been cast up by Delegianni and Gennaos. The enemy made repeated fierce attacks upon it, but was as often repulsed and scattered over the plain. From time to time the assailants were reinforced from Tripolitza, while Colocotroni drew to the spot proportionate reinforcements from Scherpa. At length the enemy, in full force, under Ibrahim himself, made a general attack upon the Greek positions. His chief force was directed against the post occupied by Natara, who having lost his adjutant, could no longer maintain to gether the Corinthians whom he commanded; and their dispersion was followed by the retreat of the rest of the army. The Greeks suffered a severe loss in officers; the loss of the Egyptians, according to the Greek account, amounted to 600, including a great number of superior officers.
At no period since the commencement, had the appearance of affairs been so cheerless and disheartening to the Greeks as at present. Both their strength and their spirits were completely broken by repeated disasters; and, observing that their imagined superiority at sea did not in the least prevent the enemy receiving constant supplies-that he was master of the plains, and of most of their fortresses, they resigned themselves to utter despair. Their misfortunes and courageous endurance of the miseries of war had failed to procure for them much of the active sympathy of foreign powers, while the piracies committed by Greek ships had greatly exasperated them; and though they were deriving considerable succours from foreign nations, these could not enable them to make head against the for midable enemy whom they had now to contend with.
The sentiments of despair expressed
by the nation generally, were enter tained also by the members of govern ment, who came to a resolution which despair only could have suggested. On the 20th of July they held an extraordinary sitting at Nauplia, when Mavrocordato made a report on the state of the country, in which he represented it as desperate, and farther resistance as unavailing; and concluded by observing, that there remained no other means of safety but to place the country under the protection of some European power. That power he recommended should be Great Britain, on account of both its financial and maritime greatness. Mavrocordato's proposal and recommendation were unhesitatingly agreed to; and next morning, he and several of his colleagues repaired on board the British frigate, the Cambrian, then in the roads, and, in name of the nation, submitted to Commodore Hamilton, as representative of his sovereign, the resolution which they had come to the previous day. The manner in which the resolution was received by Commodore Hamilton has not been made public.
The same day on which the government at Nauplia had determined to claim the protection of Great Britain, a similar resolution was come to by the people of Spezzia. And three days after, the inhabitants of Hydra were convened by their primates, and harangued by Basil Buduri, who having represented to them the desperate crisis of their affairs, called upon them to adopt the measure which had been resolved upon by the national government; but his proposal provoked the indignation of the multitude, who tumultuously exclaimed that they knew he had long meditated selling them to the English.
In the meantime, the resolution of the Government, after it had obtained the signatures of upwards of 2000 of
the national representatives, clergy, and civil and military chiefs, was formally PROTESTED against by Messieurs Roche and Washington, the deputies of the French and American Philhellenes. They did not hesitate to represent the measure as the work of a faction, dictated by a spirit of anarchy, and injurious to the two nations whom they represented! And they threatened to abandon the cause of independence instantly, if the Government did not furnish them with a satisfactory explanation.
Of this proceeding of the two de puties there can be only one opinion. The services rendered to Greece by societies of private individuals in foreign countries, could never confer upon such societies or their agents an authority to control the proceedings of the national government. It was the welfare of the Greeks alone which the services of their deputies ought to have been devoted to; and to bring into collision the interests of the Greeks (which would infallibly have been promoted by the protection of Great Britain) with the interests, whether real or imaginary, of the countries which they affected to represent, was obviously running counter to the straight path of their duty. It was too much, too, to suppose that any foreign country, whose government had neither assisted nor countenanced the Greeks in their struggle, had a claim upon their gratitude, because a few of its people had assisted in supporting their cause. Besides, what other nation but Great Britain could the Greeks, with the slenderest hope of success, look up to for protection? The powers composing the Holy Alliance had anathematized all insurrections whatever, and, at the Congress of Verona, had specially put their seal of reprobation pon that of the Greeks. By their own declared principles, if not by their cars and jealousies, they were re
strained from favouring Greece, while Britain was rather differently situated. All that could be said against the measure was, that, as we before ob 'served, despair alone could have suggested it; for it was unreasonable to suppose that Great Britain would have' compromised her own interests, as she must have done, by acceding to it.
In the meantime, the hopes of the Greeks were partially revived by the news that a naval expedition, for their relief, was being fitted out in Great Britain, to be commanded by the celebrated Lord Cochrane, who had abandoned the Brazilian service. In truth, a considerable portion of the last Greek loan negotiated in England had been appropriated to the building and equip ping of steam-vessels and frigates, both in England and America; and Lord Cochrane had been engaged by the Greek Committee in London to command them. How the building of these vessels was delayed, and much of the Greeks' money was wasted, owing to the gross neglect of some, and the criminal cupidity of others of that Committee, remains to be explained in a future volume.
We must now direct our attention to Western Greece, where the siege of Missolonghi had hitherto proceeded but slowly. The garrison of that place amounted to upwards of 5000; while the besieging army was not less than 11,000, exclusive of considerable picquets which its commander had established at Carvanserail, and within the defiles of Macrynoras, to protect its
The besiegers had become much disheartened by the want of provisions, as well as by the bad success of the various assaults they had made, when, about the middle of July, the fleet of the Capitan Pacha brought them succours and assurances of more. On 2d August the Seraskier summoned the garrison to surrender; to which Boz
On the morning of the 3d, at three o'clock, the garrison was aroused by preparations which were being made by the enemy for an attack at seven different points. The Turks, preceded by a number of howling dervises, planted their standards to the north of the ditch; and the air was rent with the firing of their ordnance and musketry. The Greeks flew to their arms, and, falling upon their knees, prayed to Heaven for victory. Having received the benedictions of their priests, they hastened to the ramparts, where they discharged their deadly volleys upon the Turks, who, notwith standing, forced their way into the place, in which they established themselves at five o'clock; but at six they were completely repulsed; and the smoke dispersing, the banner of the Cross was seen displayed on every part of the walls. The defeat of the enemy was complete.
During the conflict on land, the Ottoman fleet attempted a variety of awkward manoeuvres at the entrance of the road-stead and within it, where some of its vessels cast anchor. At this time three Greek vessels, with two fireships, commanded by Sachtouris, made their appearance, on which the Turks cut their cables in great haste, to make for Lepanto; but Sachtouris having come up with them, he sunk one of their galliots, burnt a brig, and captured forty shallops. While the heavy ships of the Turks were endeavouring to recover from their confusion and rally, another division of Greek ships, twenty-three in number, and commanded by Miaoulis, hove in sight; on which the Capitan Pacha gave the
signal to avoid battle, and steered with his whole fleet to the Gulf of Cyllene.
On the 7th the garrison attempted several sorties, and succeeded in constructing a number of batteries in the rear of those which the Turks had destroyed. Redschid, on the other hand, commenced erecting a digue d'union, hoping by means of it to carry the Franklin battery; but though he carried that battery at length, it was not suffered to be long in his possession.
The situation of the Seraskier had become very critical. The Albanians, who composed the principal part of his army, became discontented, owing to the fatigues they had endured, and the want of their pay, and threatened to abandon him; while his rear was menaced by a corps under Tzavellas and other chiefs, who almost besieged him in his camp.
On the 21st, having received a reinforcement of 2500 Albanians, he ordered another general assault. The garrison, which had also been reinforced by sea from Etolia, sustained the assault with the most determined courage. The conflict was sanguinary. At length the enemy was driven back to his entrenchments, Redschid being the last to retire; his batteries were destroyed, his trenches filled up, and his digue d'union thrown down.
Towards the end of September very heavy rains set in, which compelled the enemy to suspend farther operations. On the 24th October, the garrison having thrown some bullets into the enemy's camp, the soldiers, who were watchful of every movement made by him, and discovering not the slightest stir, rushed out from the batteries, and approached the camp, which they found deserted. They instantly proceeded to destroy its various fortifications, and carry away the materials. In fact, the Seraskier had
retired to Vrachovi, to direct the operations of his columus in re-establishing his communications, which had mostly been cut off, with Arta, Janina, and Salona.
Livadia, which, during the early part of the campaign, had been suffered to enjoy tranquillity, was destined, towards the end of it, to be the theatre of most animated warfare. The Turks of Thessaly had been concentrated at Zeitouni, with the design of joining the Albanians, who were stationed on the coast of Salone. General Gourras, who had returned to Attica, where he was menaced by the Turks of Negropont,advanced across the mountains by a rapid movement to Livadia, where the militia of most of the districts hastened to his standard. Having surprised the advanced guard of the Turks, he overthrew it, and drove it beyond Thermopyla; then marched against Salone, having left a small corps of observation in the north of Livadia to watch the Thessalian Turks. After several other successful engagements, he effected a junction with Constantine Botzaris, and recovered Salone from the enemy. In the Morea, the war, after the affair at Mily, was one of small detachments. Ibrahim, who had concentrated his forces at Tripolitza, sent out parties in all directions, partly to forage, and partly to maintain his communications. The Greeks made repeated but unsuccessful attempts to surprise Tripolitza. Demetrius Ypsilanti beat a detachment of the enemy at Doliana; and near Vidonia Colocotroni checked the advance of another detachment, and caused it a loss of between 400 and 500 men, and most of its baggage. But that general's exertions were ill seconded by the Morea chiefs, the zeal of most of whom had evaporated, and they had retired with their families to the mountains.
The Government, about this time,
began to display some little vigour. It dispatched a force of from 4000 to 5000 Romeliots to the islands of Hydra and Spezzia, to secure them from any attempt which the Capitan Pacha might make; it proceeded steadily in organising the regular corps commanded by Colonel Fabvier, with the design of assimilating to it by degrees the whole other corps in its service; and, to put a stop to the spirit of emigration, which threatened wholly to depopulate the invaded provinces, it published an ordinance on 15th August, declaring all emigrants infamous, and deprived of their civil rights.
By an important law of 22d September, having in view the augmentation of the regular army, which, it was found, could not be adequately accomplished by the old plan of recruiting, it was decreed that there should be a conscription of one soldier for every hundred souls throughout the whole provinces; that, excepting the infirm and only sons, all between the ages of sixteen and thirty should be subject to it; and that at the end of every three years a third of the army should have leave to retire from it, their places to be supplied by new conscripts: and, to provide for the support of the army, it was decreed that part of the national domains should be sold, and the produce, as well as what was received of foreign loans, and the contributions of foreigners, should be appropriated to that object.
But the intended conscription it was found impossible to execute, owing to a total want of zeal on the part of all the military chiefs, with the exception of Gourras, who appears to have been, on all occasions, the most patriotic, as well as most able among them. The enlargement and organization of Fabvier's corps, however, was proceeded in with great activity at Athens,
whither it had been dispatched; and, at the end of the year, consisted of two battalions of infantry, a squadron of light cavalry, and a company of field artillery.
Among its other disquietudes, the Government was alarmed by the threat of the Austrian commodore, commanding on the Greek coast, that he would recapture the Austrian vessels which had been seized by the Greeks for having violated their blockade, and, in opposition to the laws of neutrality, been employed as transports in the Turkish service. The threat was worthy of a power which, from the days of Richard Cœur de Lion, has ever proved itself devoid of every exalted or generous feeling. The British commodore, Hamilton, however, having represented the injustice of the threat, and that while he himself was fully disposed to put down piracy, under whatever flag committed, he conceived it was the duty of all to respect a blockade by a belligerent, and to observe and submit to the laws of neutrality, the Austrian naval chief thought proper to recall his threat, and issue an order to the masters of vessels of his nation not to take any part in the war, and to conform themselves to the laws of neutrality in future.
By the humane interference of Commodore Hamilton, an exchange of prisoners was effected; of Turks 67, including the two pachas taken at Tripolitza, and of Greeks 77, including George Mavro Michalis and Captain Yatrucos, who, at the capitulation of Navarino, were made prisoners by Ibrahim, as reprisals for the detention of the two pachas.
There arrived at this time, in the harbour of Nauplia, an American squadron, commanded by Commodore Rogers, between whom and the Government some civilities were exchanged.
On the 5th November a new Egyp
tian expedition, consisting of no less than 183 sail, including transports, and having on board 1000 cavalry and 6000 infantry, arrived at Navarino from Alexandria. Ibrahim, who was prepared for this reinforcement, retained under his own immediate command the greater portion of it, by which his force was increased to 18,000 men. The remainder was dispatched by sea to Redschid Pacha, who had received the most peremptory orders to renew the siege of Missolonghi, to the capture of which the Porte attached the greatest importance.
With his augmented force Ibrahim resolved, in opposition to all Turkish precedent, to undertake a winter campaign, hoping to profit by the terror of the Greeks, and the circumstance of their irregular troops having returned to their homes. His first measure was to put the works of Tripolitza in a good state of defence; after which he overran the interior of the eastern provinces; and, intending to join Jussuf Pacha, who commanded at Patras, he next scoured the whole coast, appearing as if he meant to fall back upon Corinth; and then, after some affairs of posts within the defiles of Irene and the Isthmus, he established his head-quarters at the Little Dardanelles, where he commenced a new series of operations, his communication with Jussuf Pacha being now entirely open.
On the 19th November the Capitan Pacha arrived in front of Missolonghi, where he found Redschid Pacha engaged in reconstructing his works for the siege, and debarked the troops he had on board without opposition. The Turkish fleet had been followed by the Greek squadron under Miaoulis, who, owing to the bad weather, could not effect the design he had formed of attacking its rear. However, he brought with him to the garrison a reinforcement of 500 men and a store