A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930
This finely detailed statistical study of lynching in ten southern states shows that economic and status concerns were at the heart of that violent
practice. Stewart Tolnay and E. M. Beck empirically test competing explanations of the causes of lynching, using U.S. Census and historical voting data and a newly constructed inventory of southern lynch victims. Among their surprising findings: lynching responded to fluctuations in the price of cotton, decreasing in frequency when prices rose and increasing when they fell.
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A Legacy of Racial Violence
A Portrait of the Lynching Era 18801930
Social Threat Competition and Mob Violence
Lynching as Popular Justice
The Role of King Cotton
Southern Politics and Lynching 18801900
The Great Migration and the Demise of Lynching
activity African-American Alabama analysis areas association behavior black lynchings black population black victims caste century changes chapter competition conclusions considered cotton counties crime criminal decades decline Democratic disenfranchisement dominance early economic effect effort especially estimated evidence example executions expected farm farmers Figure findings forces formal frequency Georgia greater hand important incidents included increased interests justice killed labor land less Louisiana lynch mobs measures migration Mississippi mob violence motivated murder Negro North noted number of black observed occurred offenses out-migration party pattern percent period political Populist position possible potential production punishment race racial violence reasons reduced region relations relationship relatively reported represented Republican significant social society South Carolina southern blacks southern whites specific status suggest Table tenants threat threatened tion trends variables variation Victims of White voting white lynch white mobs