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culture and the mechanic arts and in the public schools and other institutions of the country, with special reference to the utility of such instruction in promoting the arts and industries of the people."

In response thereto I transmit herewith a copy of the Special Report upon these topics which, at my direction and request, has been made to this office by I. Edwards Clarke, A. M.

This Report has been carefully prepared and contains an amount of comprehensive and accurate historical and detailed information in regard to all the public institutions and means now existing in the United States for extending practical instruction in all those branches which bear upon the application of art to industry, and which thus have an especial influence "in promoting the arts and industries of the people.”

In the preparation of this Report the facilities of this office have been fully availed of and in the case of the educational institutions, every information as to details of methods, etc., has been cheerfully furnished by those in charge, and the text and statistics thus compiled have been in turn submitted to those officers for revision, so that, if pains on the part of the author and compiler, combined with critical and minute revision of his work by those in each case most familiar with the institu. tion treated, can be depended on to secure exactness, this Report may lay claim to such value as accuracy both as to historical and contemporary data, may give it.

The growing importance which this subject of training in the industrial arts is assuming in the minds of the people has been forced upon my attention by the great increase in the number of applications made to this office for information as to the facilities existing for affording

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The economic relations of this training are obvious. The great States of New York and Massachusetts, have already made the study of industrial drawing one of the required studies in all grades of the public schools, many of the leading cities in other States have followed their example. In this city of Washington, drawing has been taught in the public schools for several years, each year showing a great advance upon previous years as the pupils came to the higher grades after longer training in elementary work.

The value of this study for all school children and the practicability of its introduction in the schools has been more and more generally discussed; it is believed that much valuable information bearing directly upon this question is contained in the accompanying report.

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The great awakening of the people to the value of taste as an element of manufaetures and to a knowledge of the many possible applications of art to industrial products, which came from a sight of the displays made of foreign wares and tissues at the Centennial Exposition, has led to general interest in all forms of art training which promise practical results in similar productions in our own country; while a knowledge of the variety and amount of the raw material fitted for artistic manufactures which exists in this country, and which was first made known to the general public by the display of clays, kaolin, marbles, pigments, and other products shown at Philadelphia; has already led to the development of new, and the increased excellence of established, industries.

The interest of the multitude in the works of pure art, wholly removed from atility, was evinced by the thronging thousands that, at the Centennial Exposition, crowded the galleries devoted to the fine arts; this popular interest was a surprise to many, who had fancied a love for beauty, and an appreciation of the works of the artists, to be a result of education alone and confined to a class. This general interest shown in the paintings and statues, and the consequent increase which may be anticipated in the demand for the works of the artists, may be regarded as one of the causes which have led to a great increase in the number of art students who desire to fit themselves by means of the best technical training to become artists. This wide spread interest and activity gives promise of an important development in the art productions of the United States.

The subject of drawing, including industrial drawing in the public schools, and in the mechanic's night classes; of technical training in special institutions as “The Worcester Free Institute” and other similar schools; in the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts; in the schools of applied design; in the schools of architecture, and in the schools of painting and sculpture; is treated at length and in detail in this Report.

Descriptions of the public art museums in this country, and of the various means used by the art clubs, decorative art societies, and other similar bodies, to instruct and to develop in the public a correct taste based upon a knowledge and appreciation of the manifold applications of art to industry-by means of loan exhibitions, classes of instruction, public lectures, etc., are given, as essential to a complete knowledge of the facilities existing for the development of art industries in the United States.

As a measure of comparison, and a matter of general interest, a statement is made of what is done by other countries to develop and foster this taste by founding art and industrial museums, also of the efforts made by these foreign Governments to afford to their citizens opportunities for the thorough technical training needed to educate skillful workers in art industries. I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN EATON,

Commissioner. The Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.

WASHINGTON, D. C., September 2, 1884. SIB: In submitting herewith the manuscript completed to date of the “Special Report upon Industrial and High Art Education in the United States” which owed its inception, to your early realization of the importance to a people, that the elementary education of their children should bear some definite relation to their future occupatious and sur. roundings; and further, to your recognition of the fact that, within the last two decades, the conditions of life in the United States have greatly changed; it seems proper for me to express my sense of the obligation which is due to you, for the encouragement and assistance you have so freely given, in the preparation of this work; the publication of which,owing to causes beyond the control of yourself or of the author,-has been so long, so frequently, and as it at times has seemed, so disastrously delayed. In view of these several delays, with their resulting consequences as shown in the size of this constantly growing Report, of neces. sity most miscellaneous in its contents-and, moreover, considering the rapid changes in public opinion upon all matters relating to art, as well as the development of new artistic industries in this country subsequent to the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, all of which has gone on “pari passu” with its preparation-an introductory chapter, explanatory and descriptive of the contents of this Report and of its Appendices, has seemed requisite. I remain very truly your obedient servant,

I. EDWARDS CLARKE. Hon. JOHN EATON,

United States Commissioner of Education.

CONTENTS.

Pago

INTRODUCTION.--PURPOSE AND CONTENTS

IX

The recent manual training movement due to success in teaching indus-

trial drawing in public schools.--Early rotognition by Congress of

the new scientific education.-Statement of the purpose, plan, and

classification of the Report.

"THE DEMOCRACY OF ART”.

XXXIII-CCLVIII

A SERIES OF ORIGINAL PRELIMINARY PAPERS, BY THE AUTHOR OF THIS

REPORT, SUGGESTING THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT RELATIONS OF ART

TO EDUCATION, TO INDUSTRY, AND TO NATIONAL PROSPERITY.

FIRST PAPER.—THE DEMOCRACY OF ART....

XXXIII

The titles of these papers considered.-The Puritans antagonized

Art.-This antagonism hereditary in America.---Canses of the antag.

onism obsolete.-Art in the Great Ages always Democratic.-Art in

the Republics of Greece and Italy.--"The Republic propitious to the

progress of Letters and the Arts;” Everett’s address of welcome to La

Fayette.-The Campanile of Giotto.—The Monument to Washing-

ton.—The Art of Florence had its origin in the Republic of the

People.

SECOND PAPER.—THE CHURCH AS PATRON.OF ART....

XLIX

Church building in the Middle Ages.—How church patronage tended to

popularize Art.-The development of Architecture in France.—Modern

State Art Galleries a result of changed relations between Church and

State. The interests of Art the concern of the People.

THIRD PAPER.—THE TERM “ART" CONSIDERED..

LXXI

The capacity for Art a distinctive characteristic of man.-A definition

of Art.-Imagination essential to High Art.-Technique in Art.-Art

that needs an interpreter a failure.-The goldsmith of the Middle

Age.-Art must keep close to Nature.- Modern Science reunites Art

and Industry.—Tribute to the late Sir Henry Cole.-Relations of

Education to the Arts and Industries of a People.

FOURTH PAPER.-THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION OF A PEOPLE

.LXXXVII

Russia and England at the Centennial Exposition.-Re-creation of a na-

tive Art in Russia.-Improvement of old and creation of new Art in-

dustries in England. --The Russian system of technical training in

Mechanic Arts.-Results of English and Russian methods of value

to American educators.

FIFTH PAPER.-INDUSTRIAL ART IN AMERICA ..

XCVII
The demand for Art objects created by the Centennised. --Native manufact-

urers unable to supply this new demand.-Money paid for Art im-
ports, a tribute tax to other nations.-Ilow to create Art industries in
America a matter of grave importance. The example of other nations
worthy of study.--Dangers from an idle or ignorant class of popula-
tion.-Causes oi present dissatisfaction with common schools.-Sen-
ator Blair's speech in Senate on Illiteracy.

Page.

SIXTH PAPER.DANGERS DISCLOSED BY THE CENSUS.....

CVII

Alarming statistics of illiteracy and non-attendance on schools.- Victor

Hugo illustrates danger of ignorance.-Compulsory education, com-

ments on.—Elementary industrial art training in public schools

needed.--Education should dovelop the productive faculties.— Those

in charge of the schools should comprehend and satisfy these new de-

mands.

SEVENTH PAPER.-EDUCATION IN RELATION TO SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC

CHANGES ....

CXVII

A knowledge of industrial drawing increases wages.-Such knowledge

can be readily given in public schools. -Reasons for existence of pub.

lic schools.-Facilities afforded by the system of public schools for

rapid development of new movements.-Labor the source of wealth.

Changed conditions affecting labor imperatively demand changes

in methods of public school education.

EighTH PAPER.—THE SITUATION IN EUROPE AND IN THE UNITED STATES.. CXXXI

The change in relations of labor general.-How European nations seek

to meet it.—The American people apparently apathetic.—The United

States must becoine, more and more, a manufacturing nation.- How

diffusion of industrial art training will be of use.--The economic re-

lations of this training.–The refining influence of this study.--The

silver vase given to the poet Bryant.

NINTH PAPER.—PUBLIC EDUCATION.-INCREASE OF WEALTH IN THE UNITED

STATES.

CXXXIX

Educational Institutions ever a legacy from the Past to the PRESENT.-

Public expenditure under the same laws of economy as private.-Due

proportion of expenditure to income equally requisite. Conditions

consequent upon increase of wealth in the United States. --Sources of

this increase of wealth.-Wonderful system of American railroads.-

Their function as factors of civilization.-An era of display approach-

ing:-Palace building begun.

TENTH PAPER.-EDUCATION IN ART ESSENTIAL IN AMERICA

CLV

Sudden development of Architecture and the Decorative Arts approach-

ing.–Elementary training in artistic industries demanded.—Pressing

need for artistic rather than for mechanical training.-This training

needed equally by all classes. The public schools the place to begin.--

Art knowledge not general in America.-Art knowledge more gen-

eral in Europe.

ADDENDA.—"FASHIONS IN ARCHITECTURE."-"THE BEST TEN BUILDINGS

IN THE UNITED STATES"

CLXVII

ELEVENTH PAPER.-ART AND POLITICAL ECONOMY

.CLXXV

Education in Art desirable in view of the needs of the immediate future.--

Resources existing in American communities for Art culture.—Tho

Public interested in private purchases of Art. -All large private col-

lections of books and of Art inevitably gravitate to Public Libraries

and Art Museums.

TWELFTH PAPER.-INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS or ENGLAND TO AMERICA IN

THE LIGHT OF HISTORY....

CXCI

Former policy of England towards her Colonies. ---Causes of the American

Revolution to be found in an industrial rebellion.- England's desire
to manufacture for the world.-Superior skill in arts and industries
a better safeguard for a nation than tariffs. ---Causos of persistence of

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