« AnkstesnisTęsti »
culture and the mechanic arts and in the public schools and other institutions of the country, with special reference to the utility of such instruction in promoting the arts and industries of the people."
In response thereto I transmit herewith a copy of the Special Report upon these topics which, at my direction and request, has been made to this office by I. Edwards Clarke, A. M.
This Report has been carefully prepared and contains an amount of comprehensive and accurate historical and detailed information in regard to all the public institutions and means now existing in the United States for extending practical instruction in all those branches which bear upon the application of art to industry, and which thus have an especial influence "in promoting the arts and industries of the people.”
In the preparation of this Report the facilities of this office have been fully availed of and in the case of the educational institutions, every information as to details of methods, etc., has been cheerfully furnished by those in charge, and the text and statistics thus compiled have been in turn submitted to those officers for revision, so that, if pains on the part of the author and compiler, combined with critical and minute revision of his work by those in each case most familiar with the institu. tion treated, can be depended on to secure exactness, this Report may lay claim to such value as accuracy both as to historical and contemporary data, may give it.
The growing importance which this subject of training in the industrial arts is assuming in the minds of the people has been forced upon my attention by the great increase in the number of applications made to this office for information as to the facilities existing for affording
The economic relations of this training are obvious. The great States of New York and Massachusetts, have already made the study of industrial drawing one of the required studies in all grades of the public schools, many of the leading cities in other States have followed their example. In this city of Washington, drawing has been taught in the public schools for several years, each year showing a great advance upon previous years as the pupils came to the higher grades after longer training in elementary work.
The value of this study for all school children and the practicability of its introduction in the schools has been more and more generally discussed; it is believed that much valuable information bearing directly upon this question is contained in the accompanying report.
The great awakening of the people to the value of taste as an element of manufaetures and to a knowledge of the many possible applications of art to industrial products, which came from a sight of the displays made of foreign wares and tissues at the Centennial Exposition, has led to general interest in all forms of art training which promise practical results in similar productions in our own country; while a knowledge of the variety and amount of the raw material fitted for artistic manufactures which exists in this country, and which was first made known to the general public by the display of clays, kaolin, marbles, pigments, and other products shown at Philadelphia; has already led to the development of new, and the increased excellence of established, industries.
The interest of the multitude in the works of pure art, wholly removed from atility, was evinced by the thronging thousands that, at the Centennial Exposition, crowded the galleries devoted to the fine arts; this popular interest was a surprise to many, who had fancied a love for beauty, and an appreciation of the works of the artists, to be a result of education alone and confined to a class. This general interest shown in the paintings and statues, and the consequent increase which may be anticipated in the demand for the works of the artists, may be regarded as one of the causes which have led to a great increase in the number of art students who desire to fit themselves by means of the best technical training to become artists. This wide spread interest and activity gives promise of an important development in the art productions of the United States.
The subject of drawing, including industrial drawing in the public schools, and in the mechanic's night classes; of technical training in special institutions as “The Worcester Free Institute” and other similar schools; in the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts; in the schools of applied design; in the schools of architecture, and in the schools of painting and sculpture; is treated at length and in detail in this Report.
Descriptions of the public art museums in this country, and of the various means used by the art clubs, decorative art societies, and other similar bodies, to instruct and to develop in the public a correct taste based upon a knowledge and appreciation of the manifold applications of art to industry-by means of loan exhibitions, classes of instruction, public lectures, etc., are given, as essential to a complete knowledge of the facilities existing for the development of art industries in the United States.
As a measure of comparison, and a matter of general interest, a statement is made of what is done by other countries to develop and foster this taste by founding art and industrial museums, also of the efforts made by these foreign Governments to afford to their citizens opportunities for the thorough technical training needed to educate skillful workers in art industries. I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Commissioner. The Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
WASHINGTON, D. C., September 2, 1884. SIB: In submitting herewith the manuscript completed to date of the “Special Report upon Industrial and High Art Education in the United States” which owed its inception, to your early realization of the importance to a people, that the elementary education of their children should bear some definite relation to their future occupatious and sur. roundings; and further, to your recognition of the fact that, within the last two decades, the conditions of life in the United States have greatly changed; it seems proper for me to express my sense of the obligation which is due to you, for the encouragement and assistance you have so freely given, in the preparation of this work; the publication of which,owing to causes beyond the control of yourself or of the author,-has been so long, so frequently, and as it at times has seemed, so disastrously delayed. In view of these several delays, with their resulting consequences as shown in the size of this constantly growing Report, of neces. sity most miscellaneous in its contents-and, moreover, considering the rapid changes in public opinion upon all matters relating to art, as well as the development of new artistic industries in this country subsequent to the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, all of which has gone on “pari passu” with its preparation-an introductory chapter, explanatory and descriptive of the contents of this Report and of its Appendices, has seemed requisite. I remain very truly your obedient servant,
I. EDWARDS CLARKE. Hon. JOHN EATON,
United States Commissioner of Education.
FIFTH PAPER.-INDUSTRIAL ART IN AMERICA ..
urers unable to supply this new demand.-Money paid for Art im-
ing:-Palace building begun.
Former policy of England towards her Colonies. ---Causes of the American
Revolution to be found in an industrial rebellion.- England's desire