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subordinated to the direction and description contained in these articles. If Clarence Channel, which lies immediately east of Prince of Wales Island is taken, there is an exact conformity to the description. You may ascend north from the southernmost point of Prince of Wales Island along Clarence Channel, but you cannot ascend north from the southernmost point of Prince of Wales Island along Portland Channel. You can ascend to a point on Clarence Channel as far as the point on the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of latitude. You cannot ascend Portland Channel to a point on the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude, because Portland Channel does not reach that far north. The difference between drawing the boundary from Portland Channel and from Clarence Channel is this-the boundary upon the mainland commences where the 56th degree of north latitude cuts the shore in the one instance, and in the other it commences at a point at the head of Portland Channel which falls short of the place designated as the place of beginning.
By Article IV, the line is to be drawn so as to leave the whole of Prince of Wales Island to Russia. If a due east line is to be drawn from the southernmost point of the island to the entrance at Portland Channel, these words "leaving the whole of Prince of Wales Island to Russia" are surplusage, because a due east line would not only leave the whole of the Prince of Wales Island to Russia, but would leave several other large islands, of which no mention is made, lying between this island and the mainland. If Clarence Channel is taken, there is an obvious reason for providing in the treaty, the words, that the whole of the Prince of Wales Island shall be left
the 56th degree of north latitude. This is a point, upon the shore, in which the boundary upon the mainland is to begin, and so the words are wholly inapplicable to Portland Channel, as it falls short, by several miles, of extending to that degree of latitude. The channel which lies immediately east of Prince of Wales Island, and through which the descriptive words of the treaty requires the boundary to be drawn does so extend, so that the geographical conditions fit in with the description in the one case, and do not in the other.
By the third article the line of demarcation is to follow the summit of the mountains, situated parallel to the coast as far as the intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude; and the fourth article provides that whenever the summit of the mountains, which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north latitude, shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the coast, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.
It is too clear to require argument that the limitary line was to follow the coast range and the summit of that coast range, whether high or low was to be the boundary, when it was not more than ten leagues from the coast. In many places inlets extend through canyons through the mountains, and so much of each of those inlets as would be cut off, by a line drawn from the summit of the mountain upon the one side, to the summit of the mountain upon the other, is Canadian territory. The line cannot be removed urther inland, because there may be a gap in the
By Article X every British or Russian vessel navigating the Pacific Ocean, which may be compelled by storms or by accident to take shelter in the ports of the respective parties shall be at liberty to refit therein, to provide itself with all necessary stores and to put to sea again without paying any other than port and lighthouse dues, which shall be the same as those paid by national vessels.
This is not a temporary arrangement but a permanent one which each party has within the ports of the other.
It has been contended by some of the United States press, that the waters belonging to Great Britain herein referred to, are those that lie south of the 54th degree 40 minutes of north latitude, but this is not so. Those territories were in dispute between Great Britain and the United States, and with reference to them no compact was entered into in the treaty between Russia and Great Britain. What is entered into is the establishment of a boundary north of 54 degrees 40 minutes, and it is with reference to this boundary, separating the territories of Russia from the territories of His Britannic Majesty, that all the provisions of the treaty referred,-Russia made no claim, in this treaty, to any territories further south. She set up no pretensions to any privileges further south; what was being settled was the dispute between Great Britain and Russia in respect to sovereign rights north of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude. The subjects of Great Britain were without any hindrance whatever to have liberty of navigating freely all the rivers and streams which in their course towards the Pacific Ocean may cross the boundary line, the line of demarcation, as set out in