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Looking at the whole country thus Woods, partly in Minnesota and partly in spread out, it may be broadly divided into Ontario. The logs cut here along the three great sections. From Lake Supe- Rainy River are towed across the Lake of rior to the eastern boundary of Manitoba the Woods and cut in the big mills at Rat there is a stretch of nearly four hundred Portage and Keewatin. The annual cut miles of mining and lumbering country,
in these mills is about 50,000,000 feet. with a great deal of arable land inter- The waters of the Lake of the Woods spersed. The most important metal is reach the sea at Hudson Bay after a course gold, which is being produced in steadily of something over a thousand miles, while increasing quantities. There are sub- the waters of the Mississippi and the St. sidiary metals, such as silver and copper; Lawrence, which take their rise in this while other useful but less noticed min- same region, only reach the sea after traverals, as limestone, brick and pottery elling more than twice this distance. The clays, emery, etc., are being found and
consequence is that the northern rivers, developed as the population increases and for part of their courses, are a series of railways and roads are extended. Iron waterfalls, thus producing almost unlimore is found on the shores of Lake Winni- ited water-power.
With the advance of peg, but mines have not yet been devel- electricity these powers will be made oped owing to impediments in the navi- much more valuable, and even now one gation of the Red River.
big power plant is ready, while some of
There is another product no less im- the largest saw and flour mills of Canada portant to the prairie section of the coun- are located at the point where the Canatry than minerals, — that of white-pine dian Pacific railway crosses the Winnilumber. The largest belt of white pine peg River.
. now left standing on the continent is in The fishing industry of the Lake of the the country south of the Lake of the Woods is a most valuable one, and, though
out of this immediate territory, Lakes Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Winnipegosis may be mentioned as promising still greater things in this regard. Whitefish, sold all over the continent, is the chief product, while of late years the preparation of caviare from sturgeon roe has been becoming a matter of importance. The fish exports from Manitoba are already over $200,000 in value per year.
The next four hundred miles from Winnipeg (roughly speaking, half-way to the Rockies) include the great hard-wheat fields of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining stretch of four hundred miles to the foot of the Rockies
300 miles long and 60 miles wide. There are, as has been said, these diversities, but the general characteristics are as pointed out, — the centre the great bread-basket of the world, and the west the great pas. ture-land.
To confine the view to a still limited area, take Manitoba as representing the central portion. Manitoba is the best developed of all this territory, and yet the Provincial Premier, the Hon. Thomas Greenway, himself a farmer and a master of agricultural statistics, says that not one tenth of the arable land of the Province has yet been taken up. The Hon. Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Inte
is the great ranching ground, where thousands of cattle browse suminer and winter, to be shipped, when fattened on the prairie grass, by hundreds of train loads to England, as well as to other parts of Canada, east and west.
In each of these sections there are great diversities. There is a great deal of grainraising in the western part of the Territories, particularly along the eastern slope of the Rockies, northward toward Edmonton. The Territories have their coal deposits along the Saskatchewan‘and toward the international boundary, while on the other hand Manitoba has her forests of spruce, tamarack, and jack-pine in the northern part around those three great lakes that have already been mentioned, the largest of which, Lake Winnipeg, is
rior, in a recent speech gave the figures more exactly, stating that Manitoba's great crops had been raised upon 4,500 square miles of land.
When it is seen that the total land area of the Province, excluding lakes and rivers, is placed at 73,000 square miles, it will be realized that Preinier Greenway was well within the mark in his statement. Yet this Province, with only the fringe of her lands cultivated, last year produced, as the result of the labor of 32,000 farmers, about 30,000,000 bushels of wheat. As an illustration of what these ures mean, take the great State of Minnesota, which is reported in the American press as being the greatest wheat-producing State in the Union. In the same year Minnesota produced 78,000,000 bushels. The population
devoted to other crops, but this will be many times more than offset by the great increase of wheat production in the Territories. Besides this, Manitoba produced among other farm products in 1898: 17,300,000 bushels of oats; 4, 300,000 bushels of barley; 2,400,000 bushels of roots; 3,250,000 bushels of potatoes; and dairy products to the value of $410,000.
There were 42,000 head of cattle and 23,000 hogs exported or packed in the Province, and farm buildings to the value of $1,469,000 were erected. These figures do not include the Territories, but are restricted to Manitoba alone, and they are for an average, not an exceptional year. In Canada, so far as the production of wheat is concerned, Manitoba stands first now, producing about fifty per cent more wheat than the Province of Ontario with ten times the population.
These facts are scarcely yet realized in eastern Canada, which has passed through three stages in regard to the great West. First there was a stage of undue expect
ancy in the period of the boom, followed Hox. THOMAS GREENWAY, PREMIER OF MANITOBA by a period of cynical doubt and unwar
ranted depreciation. The West came to of that State is over 1,500,000; that of be regarded as a costly appendage to the Manitoba is about 250,000, and there is other parts of the Dominion, when as a every reason to believe that with ten times matter of fact the West in her hardest her present population and area under years paid more than dollar for dollar for cultivation Manitoba will be producing all the benefits she received from the East. 200,000,000 bushels of wheat annually, This stage of neglect and lack of appreand thus be the greatest wheat-producing ciation continued until within recent State in the world. It is quite possible months, when certain indisputable facts that with the increase of mixed farming caused Canadians to revise their former a larger proportion of the land may be opinions. There is first the constantly
not more than 350,000 people, has risen to couver, and Winnipeg. Winnipeg is rapbe the third city in the Dominion in regard idly becoming an important railway cento bank clearings, customs returns, and tre, thirteen railways or branches radiatpostal business. The returns in these de- ing from it to all points of the compass. partments for the fiscal year 1897-98 are and these lines are constantly being exabout as follows: customs, $1,100,000; tended, opening up new districts west. inland revenue, $500,000; postal receipts north, and east of the city. In the last (city only), $110,000. The Winnipeg bank ten years more railway-building has been clearings in 1897 were $84,400,000 and in done in Manitoba than in all the other 1898 $90,600,000. And the point is that Provinces put together. Two roads—the these increases go on so rapidly that no Canadian Pacific and the Northern Pacific other city will overtake Winnipeg. Pop- railways— already connect it with Lake ulation is now pouring into this country at Superior, and the third is now under consuch a rate that persons well qualified to struction.
There is a more important considera- ing the holder of the balance of power in tion in reference to this rapid increase, Canada, and what this means can be foreand that is the political one. The mari- seen when it is remembered that the West time provinces are practically standing is almost wholly engaged in the extractive still in the matter of population; Ontario industries, while the East is largely a manand Quebec are increasing only at the ufacturing country. One is the complerate of one and two per cent per annum; ment of the other, and in the recognition while on the other hand the West is going and proper legislative appreciation of this ahead by leaps and bounds that almost lies the hope of Canada's rapid and perdefy measuring by percentages. The manent progress. once despised West is thus rapidly becom
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA. JAMES LAWLER.
NOWNS, like individuals, sometimes
have greatness thrust upon them.
Such has been the lot of Montpelier, Vermont, the birthplace of Admiral George Dewey. Until one day last summer Montpelier was notable only as a neat New England village, set amid some of the most beautiful scenery of the Green Mountain region. Not one in a thousand of the inhabitants of the United States had ever heard of it, and those who had knew it only as the capital of its State. In a night and a day all this was changed. The battle of Manila was fought and won. The name of Dewey became familiar to millions of people, and in the chorus of eager inquiries about him and his life attention has been drawn to Montpelier, the town in which he was born.
Montpelier was settled late in the last century. From that time until its selection as the capital of the State, in 1805, its history did not differ from that of hundreds of other New England towns. Since then the natural tendency of the most able professional life of a State, as well as of a nation, to centre at the capital city, has
given its society an intellectual and moral standard which has not been surpassed by that of any town or city in New England.
The location of the capital at Montpelier naturally was accomplished only after a good deal of strife with other rival towns. Among those who were most instrumental in securing the prize for Montpelier was its schoolmaster and town clerk, David Wing, Jr., of whom it is even now told that he named his eight children respectively Debby Daphne, Christopher Columbus, Algernon Sidney, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Maria Theresa, David Davis, Caroline Augusta, and Maximus Fabius. No wonder that Admiral Dewey, who grew up a child in the same town, rejoices that he has no middle initial and that his name is plain George Dewey.
The first State capitol, a wooden building, was erected in 1808. This lasted until 1832, when it was replaced by a granite building very similar in plan to the present structure. This building stood well back from the street and some distance above it. The broad walk from the State House to the street is laid out irregularly